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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Infektionsmedicin) "

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Infektionsmedicin)

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  • Anesäter, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • The influence on wound contraction and fluid evacuation of a rigid disc inserted to protect exposed organs during negative pressure wound therapy.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Wound Journal. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1742-481X. ; 8, s. 393-399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of a rigid disc as a barrier between the wound bed and the wound filler during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been suggested to prevent damage to exposed organs. However, it is important to determine that the effects of NPWT, such as wound contraction and fluid removal, are maintained during treatment despite the use of a barrier. This study was performed to examine the effect of NPWT on wound contraction and fluid evacuation in the presence of a rigid disc. Peripheral wounds were created on the backs of eight pigs. The wounds were filled with foam, and rigid discs of different designs were inserted between the wound bed and the foam. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were measured after application of continuous NPWT at -80 mmHg. Wound contraction was similar in the presence and the absence of a rigid disc (84 ± 4% and 83 ± 3%, respectively, compared with baseline). Furthermore, the rigid disc did not affect wound fluid removal compared with ordinary NPWT (e.g. after 120 seconds, 71 ± 4 ml was removed in the presence and 73 ± 3 ml was removed in the absence of a disc). This study shows that a rigid barrier may be placed under the wound filler to protect exposed structures during NPWT without affecting wound contraction and fluid removal, which are two crucial features of NPWT.
  • Kahn, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • Population-based study of multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 found that 36% of children had persistent symptoms
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics. - : Wiley. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 111:2, s. 354-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Our aim was to describe the outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19. Methods: This national, population-based, longitudinal, multicentre study used Swedish data that were prospectively collected between 1 December 2020 and 31 May 2021. All patients met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. The outcomes 2 and 8 weeks after diagnosis are presented, and follow-up protocols are suggested. Results: We identified 152 cases, and 133 (87%) participated. When followed up 2 weeks after MIS-C was diagnosed, 43% of the 119 patients had abnormal results, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, albumin levels, electrocardiograms and echocardiograms. After 8 weeks, 36% of 89 had an abnormal patient history, but clinical findings were uncommon. Echocardiogram results were abnormal in 5% of 67, and the most common complaint was fatigue. Older children and those who received intensive care were more likely to report symptoms and have abnormal cardiac results. Conclusion: More than a third (36%) of the patients had persistent symptoms 8 weeks after MIS-C, and 5% had abnormal echocardiograms. Older age and higher levels of initial care appeared to be risk factors. Structured follow-up visits are important after MIS-C.
  • Peters, Lynn, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple antibiotic resistance as a risk factor for mortality and prolonged hospital stay: A cohort study among neonatal intensive care patients with hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 14:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an increasing burden for global health. The prevalence of ABR in Southeast Asia is among the highest worldwide, especially in relation to hospital acquired infections (HAI) in intensive care units (ICU). However, little is known about morbidity and mortality attributable to ABR in neonates. Aim This study aimed to assess mortality and the length of hospitalization attributable to ABR in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing HAI in a Vietnamese neonatal ICU (NICU). Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study (n = 296) in a NICU in Hanoi, Vietnam, from March 2016 to October 2017. Patients isolated with HAI caused by GNB were included. The exposure was resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, the two outcomes were mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS). Data were analysed using two regression models, controlling for confounders and effect modifiers such as co-morbidities, time at risk, severity of illness, sex, age, and birthweight. Results The overall case fatality rate was 44.3% and the 30 days mortality rate after infection was 31.8%. For every additional resistance to an antibiotic class, the odds of a fatal outcome increased by 27% and LOS increased by 2.1 days. These results were statistically significant (p amp;lt; 0.05). Conclusion ABR was identified as a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes in neonates with HAI. These findings are generally in line with previous research in children and adults. However, heterogeneous study designs, the neglect of important confounders and varying definitions of ABR impair the validity, reliability, and comparability of results.
  • Svensson, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoxia triggers a proangiogenic pathway involving cancer cell microvesicles and PAR-2-mediated heparin-binding EGF signaling in endothelial cells.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 108:32, s. 13147-13152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Highly malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas, are characterized by hypoxia, endothelial cell (EC) hyperplasia, and hypercoagulation. However, how these phenomena of the tumor microenvironment may be linked at the molecular level during tumor development remains ill-defined. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia up-regulates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), i.e., a G-protein-coupled receptor of coagulation-dependent signaling, in ECs. Hypoxic induction of PAR-2 was found to elicit an angiogenic EC phenotype and to specifically up-regulate heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Inhibition of HB-EGF by antibody neutralization or heparin treatment efficiently counteracted PAR-2-mediated activation of hypoxic ECs. We show that PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction was associated with increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation attenuated PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction as well as EC activation. Tissue factor (TF), i.e., the major initiator of coagulation-dependent PAR signaling, was substantially induced by hypoxia in several types of cancer cells, including glioblastoma; however, TF was undetectable in ECs even at prolonged hypoxia, which precludes cell-autonomous PAR-2 activation through TF. Interestingly, hypoxic cancer cells were shown to release substantial amounts of TF that was mainly associated with secreted microvesicles with exosome-like characteristics. Vesicles derived from glioblastoma cells were found to trigger TF/VIIa-dependent activation of hypoxic ECs in a paracrine manner. We provide evidence of a hypoxia-induced signaling axis that links coagulation activation in cancer cells to PAR-2-mediated activation of ECs. The identified pathway may constitute an interesting target for the development of additional strategies to treat aggressive brain tumors.
  • Jonsson, Jerker, et al. (författare)
  • A borderline range for Quantiferon Gold In-Tube results
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Interferon gamma release assays like Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QFT) are used to identify individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A dichotomous cut-off (0.35 IU/ml) defines a positive QFT without considering test variability. Our objective was to evaluate the introduction of a borderline range under routine conditions. Methods: Results of routine QFT samples from Sweden (2009–2014) were collected. A borderline range (0.20–0.99 IU/ml) was introduced in 2010 recommending a follow-up sample. The association between borderline results and incident active TB within 3 to 24 months was investigated through linkage with the national TB-register. Results: Using the recommended QFT cut-off, 75.1% tests were negative, 21.4% positive and 3.5% indeterminate. In total, 9% (3656/40773) were within the borderline range. In follow-up samples, individuals with initial results between 0.20–0.34 IU/ml and 0.35–0.99 IU/ml displayed negative results below the borderline range (<0.20 IU/ml) in 66.1% (230/348) and 42.5% (285/671) respectively, and none developed incident TB. Among 6712 individuals with a positive initial test >0.99 IU/ml, 65 (0.97%) developed incident TB within 3–24 months. Conclusions: We recommend retesting of subjects with QFT results in the range 0.20–0.99 IU/ml to enhance reliability and validity of the test. Half of the subjects in the borderline range will be negative at a level <0.20 IU/ml when retested and have a very low risk of developing incident active TB.
  • Midlöv, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Medication report reduces number of medication errors when elderly patients are discharged from hospital
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PHARMACY WORLD & SCIENCE. - : Springer. - 0928-1231 .- 1573-739X. ; 30:1, s. 92-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate whether a Medication Report can reduce the number of medication errors when elderly patients are discharged from hospital. Method We conducted a prospective intervention with retrospective controls on patients at three departments at Lund University Hospital, Sweden that where transferred to primary care. The intervention group, where patients received a Medication Report at discharge, was compared with a control group with patients of the same age, who were not given a Medication Report when discharged from the same ward one year earlier. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was the number of medication errors when elderly patients were discharged from hospital. Results Among 248 patients in the intervention group 79 (32%) had at least one medication error as compared with 118 (66%) among the 179 patients in the control group. In the intervention group 15% of the patients had errors that were considered to have moderate or high risk of clinical consequences compared with 32% in the control group. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion Medication errors are common when elderly patients are discharged from hospital. The Medication Report is a simple tool that reduces the number of medication errors.
  • Lundstig, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Neutralizing Ljungan virus antibodies in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of General Virology. - : Microbiology Society. - 0022-1317 .- 1465-2099. ; 102:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ljungan virus (LV), a Parechovirus of the Picornavirus family, first isolated from a bank vole at the Ljungan river in Sweden, has been implicated in the risk for autoimmune type 1 diabetes. An assay for neutralizing Ljungan virus antibodies (NLVA) was developed using the original 87-012 LV isolate. The goal was to determine NLVA titres in incident 0-18 years old newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients (n=67) and school children controls (n=292) from Jämtland county in Sweden. NLVA were found in 41 of 67 (61 %) patients compared to 127 of 292 (44 %) controls (P=0.009). In the type 1 diabetes patients, NLVA titres were associated with autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) (P=0.023), but not to autoantibodies against insulin (IAA) or islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The NLVA assay should prove useful for further investigations to determine levels of LV antibodies in patients and future studies to determine a possible role of LV in autoimmune type 1 diabetes.
  • Linge, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • The Antibacterial Chemokine MIG/CXCL9 Is Constitutively Expressed in Epithelial Cells of the Male Urogenital Tract and Is Present in Seminal Plasma.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. - : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1079-9907 .- 1557-7465. ; 28:3, s. 190-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT The integrity of the urogenital tract against potentially invasive pathogens is important for the health of the individual, fertilization, and continuance of species. Antibiotic peptides with broad antimicrobial activity, among them chemokines, are part of the innate immune system. We investigated the presence of the antibacterial interferon (IFN)-dependent CXC chemokines, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, and I-TAC/CXCL11, in the human male reproductive system. MIG/CXCL9 was detected at 25.0 nM (range 8.1-40.6 nM; n = 14), whereas IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 were detected at lower levels (mean 1.8 nM, range 0.3-5.8 nM and mean 0.6, 0.2-1.6 nM, respectively) in seminal plasma of fertile donors. The levels of MIG/CXCL9 are more than 300-fold higher than those previously reported in blood plasma. In vasectomized donors, significantly lower levels of MIG/CXCL9 (mean 14.7 nM, range 6.6-21.8) were found, suggesting that the testis and epididymis, in addition to the prostate, significantly contribute to the MIG/CXCL9 content of seminal plasma. Strong expression of MIG/CXCL9 was found in the epithelium of testis, epididymis, and prostate, as detected by immunohistochemistry. MIG/CXCL9 at concentrations in the order of those found in seminal plasma possessed antibacterial activity against the urogenital pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The relatively high levels of MIG/CXCL9 in seminal plasma point to roles for this chemokine in both host defense of the male urogenital tract and during fertilization.
  • Nordahl, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Domain 5 of high molecular weight kininogen is antibacterial.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 1083-351X. ; 280:41, s. 34832-34839
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of the innate immune system. These peptides belong to a multifunctional group of molecules that apart from their antibacterial activities also interact with mammalian cells and glycosaminoglycans and control chemotaxis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Here we demonstrate a novel antimicrobial activity of the heparin-binding and cell-binding domain 5 of high molecular weight kininogen. Antimicrobial epitopes of domain 5 were characterized by analysis of overlapping peptides. A peptide, HKH20 (His(479) - His(498)), efficiently killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy demonstrated that HKH20 binds to and induces breaks in bacterial membranes. Furthermore, no discernible hemolysis or membrane-permeabilizing effects on eukaryotic cells were noted. Proteolytic degradation of high molecular weight kininogen by neutrophil-derived proteases as well as the metalloproteinase elastase from P. aeruginosa yielded fragments comprising HKH20 epitopes, indicating that kininogen-derived antibacterial peptides are released during proteolysis.
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