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  • Björkman, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical course of patients with single large-scale mtDNA deletions and childhood onset anemia
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: 14th European Paediatric Neurology Society Congress, Glasgow, UK (ISBN 978-3-00-072065-9).
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Objective: To add to our knowledge of the clinical spectrum of patients with single large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion and childhood onset anemia. Methods: Retrospective collection of clinical data from medical records for patients, both living and deceased, with a single large-scale mtDNA deletion from seven mitochondrial disease centers in five countries. Statistical analysis with descriptive methods and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: Seventeen patients matching the genetic criterium and with anemia onset before six years of age. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was only seen in five patients in this group. Multiple organs were involved in all patients, with the most common non-hematologic ones being skeletal muscle, central nervous system, endocrine, eyes, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, hearing, liver and heart. Psychomotor retardation was seen in ten patients, hearing impairment in nine patients, failure to thrive in eight patients. Eight later developed Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Eleven patients were deceased, with a median age at death of 7.5 years. Conclusions: The classically described phenotype of patients with large-scale mtDNA deletions and early onset anemia is Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome, characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. Only a minority of our patients fulfill the original criteria of Pearson syndrome though. Involvement of other organs than the pancreas is more common. The clinical course vary, but multi-system impact is the rule and life-expectancy is low. Early onset anemia in patients with large-scale mtDNA deletions is most frequently not associated with exocrine pancreas dysfunction. Better knowledge of the phenotype is helpful for diagnosis and more accurate prognosis.
  • Teede, Helena J, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendations from the 2023 International Evidence-based Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Fertility and sterility. - 1556-5653. ; 120:4, s. 767-793
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What is the recommended assessment and management of those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise, and consumer preference?International evidence-based guidelines address prioritized questions and outcomes and include 254 recommendations and practice points, to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes in PCOS.The 2018 International PCOS Guideline was independently evaluated as high quality and integrated multidisciplinary and consumer perspectives from six continents; it is now used in 196 countries and is widely cited. It was based on best available, but generally very low to low quality, evidence. It applied robust methodological processes and addressed shared priorities. The guideline transitioned from consensus based to evidence-based diagnostic criteria and enhanced accuracy of diagnosis, whilst promoting consistency of care. However, diagnosis is still delayed, the needs of those with PCOS are not being adequately met, evidence quality was low and evidence-practice gaps persist.The 2023 International Evidence-based Guideline update reengaged the 2018 network across professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Extensive evidence synthesis was completed. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation-II (AGREEII)-compliant processes were followed. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength and diversity and inclusion were considered throughout.This summary should be read in conjunction with the full Guideline for detailed participants and methods. Governance included a six-continent international advisory and management committee, five guideline development groups, and paediatric, consumer, and translation committees. Extensive consumer engagement and guideline experts informed the update scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included paediatrics, endocrinology, gynaecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, obesity care, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis, statisticians and translation experts. Thirty-nine professional and consumer organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty meetings and five face-to-face forums over 12 months addressed 58 prioritized clinical questions involving 52 systematic and 3 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus across five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, independently reviewed for methodological rigour, and approved by the Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC).The evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS has generally improved in the past five years, but remains of low to moderate quality. The technical evidence report and analyses (∼6000 pages) underpins 77 evidence-based and 54 consensus recommendations, with 123 practice points. Key updates include: i) further refinement of individual diagnostic criteria, a simplified diagnostic algorithm and inclusion of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels as an alternative to ultrasound in adults only; ii) strengthening recognition of broader features of PCOS including metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, very high prevalence of psychological features, and high risk status for adverse outcomes during pregnancy; iii) emphasizing the poorly recognized, diverse burden of disease and the need for greater healthcare professional education, evidence-based patient information, improved models of care and shared decision making to improve patient experience, alongside greater research; iv) maintained emphasis on healthy lifestyle, emotional wellbeing and quality of life, with awareness and consideration of weight stigma; and v) emphasizing evidence-based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management.Overall, recommendations are strengthened and evidence is improved, but remain generally low to moderate quality. Significantly greater research is now needed in this neglected, yet common condition. Regional health system variation was considered and acknowledged, with a further process for guideline and translation resource adaptation provided.The 2023 International Guideline for the Assessment and Management of PCOS provides clinicians and patients with clear advice on best practice, based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation programme supports the Guideline with an integrated evaluation program.This effort was primarily funded by the Australian Government via the National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (APP1171592), supported by a partnership with American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Endocrine Society, European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology, and the Society for Endocrinology. The Commonwealth Government of Australia also supported Guideline translation through the Medical Research Future Fund (MRFCRI000266). HJT and AM are funded by NHMRC fellowships. JT is funded by a Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) fellowship. Guideline development group members were volunteers. Travel expenses were covered by the sponsoring organizations. Disclosures of interest were strictly managed according to NHMRC policy and are available with the full guideline, technical evidence report, peer review and responses (www.monash.edu/medicine/mchri/pcos). Of named authors HJT, CTT, AD, LM, LR, JBoyle, AM have no conflicts of interest to declare. JL declares grant from Ferring and Merck; consulting fees from Ferring and Titus Health Care; speaker's fees from Ferring; unpaid consultancy for Ferring, Roche Diagnostics and Ansh Labs; and sits on advisory boards for Ferring, Roche Diagnostics, Ansh Labs, and Gedeon Richter. TP declares a grant from Roche; consulting fees from Gedeon Richter and Organon; speaker's fees from Gedeon Richter and Exeltis; travel support from Gedeon Richter and Exeltis; unpaid consultancy for Roche Diagnostics; and sits on advisory boards for Roche Diagnostics. MC declares travels support from Merck; and sits on an advisory board for Merck. JBoivin declares grants from Merck Serono Ltd.; consulting fees from Ferring B.V; speaker's fees from Ferring Arzneimittell GmbH; travel support from Organon; and sits on an advisory board for the Office of Health Economics. RJN has received speaker's fees from Merck and sits on an advisory board for Ferring. AJoham has received speaker's fees from Novo Nordisk and Boehringer Ingelheim. The guideline was peer reviewed by special interest groups across our 39 partner and collaborating organizations, was independently methodologically assessed against AGREEII criteria and was approved by all members of the guideline development groups and by the NHMRC.
  • Böhmer, Jens, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Absolute Quantification of Donor-Derived Cell-Free DNA in Pediatric and Adult Patients After Heart Transplantation: A Prospective Study.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. - 0934-0874 .- 1432-2277. ; 36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this prospective study we investigated a cohort after heart transplantation with a novel PCR-based approach with focus on treated rejection. Blood samples were collected coincidentally to biopsies, and both absolute levels of dd-cfDNA and donor fraction were reported using digital PCR. 52 patients (11 children and 41 adults) were enrolled (NCT03477383, clinicaltrials.gov), and 557 plasma samples were analyzed. 13 treated rejection episodes >14days after transplantation were observed in 7 patients. Donor fraction showed a median of 0.08% in the cohort and was significantly elevated during rejection (median 0.19%, p < 0.0001), using a cut-off of 0.1%, the sensitivity/specificity were 92%/56% (AUC ROC-curve: 0.78). Absolute levels of dd-cfDNA showed a median of 8.8 copies/mL and were significantly elevated during rejection (median 23, p = 0.0001). Using a cut-off of 7.5 copies/mL, the sensitivity/specificity were 92%/43% for donor fraction (AUC ROC-curve: 0.75). The results support the feasibility of this approach in analyzing dd-cfDNA after heart transplantation. The obtained values are well aligned with results from other trials. The possibility to quantify absolute levels adds important value to the differentiation between ongoing graft damage and quiescent situations.
  • Lundin, Anna-Carin (författare)
  • Tendinosis in Trigger Finger
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Trigger finger is one of the most common hand conditions, with a prevalence of almost 3%. The aetiology remains unclear even though many causes have been suggested. The prevailing paradigm is that the pathogenesis of trigger finger is ascribed to primary changes in the first fibrous condensation of the tendon sheath (A1-pulley). Several studies have investigated pathology in the pulley, but few have investigated the tendon. The general aim of this thesis was to find out if there is pathology in the trigger finger tendon and to define it.We first looked at trigger finger tendon biopsies in a light microscope, and found that they were histologically different from healthy tendons. They showed signs of micro-ruptures, collagen degradation, increased amounts of ground substance, both hyper- and hypo-cellular areas, round active cell nuclei and absence of inflammatory cells, all similar to tendinosis. The histological picture was further assessed by using a scoring system for Achilles tendinosis. The trigger finger tendons scored high, suggesting a similar histopathology.Next, we performed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on trigger finger tendons. We assessed the mRNA expression of 10 genes, which have been described to be differently expressed in Achilles tendinosis (collagen 1 and 3, versican, decorin, biglycan, aggrecan, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, and TIMP-3). The overall expression pattern agreed with previous studies on Achilles tendinosis, suggesting that the cellular function in trigger finger tendons is disturbed in a similar way as in Achilles tendinosis.Recent experimental and observational research has suggested potential side effects of statin treatment on tendons, but firm evidence was lacking. We performed an epidemiological study on two large population-based cohorts. Statin use was found to increase the risk of both trigger finger and tendinosis in the shoulder and Achilles tendons, especially among men. This suggests a similar pathology in trigger finger and tendinosis.We have also studied the time to treatment effect after a single injection of glucocorticoid in trigger finger. Our results suggest that 60-80% of patients can expect resolution of the triggering within 14 days, and half of them within seven days. This result allows correct information to be given to the patient and proper planning of follow-ups.In conclusion, the pathology in trigger finger tendons is similar to tendinosis in other tendons.
  • Björkman, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with complex I deficiency due to mutations in NDUFS1 and NDUFV1
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Euromit 2014, 15-19 juni, Tampere, Finland.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Objectives: To study genotype-phenotype correlations in genes encoding complex I electron input module subunits. Materials and methods: We studied five patients with isolated complex I deficiency, three with NDUFS1 mutations and two with NDUFV1 mutations. A literature review of all reported cases of mutations in the affected genes was performed. Results: The literature review revealed pathological mutations in NDUFS1 for 18 patients in 17 families and correspondingly in NDUFV1 for 26 patients in 19 families. Unpublished clinical data for our five patients were added. Our study showed quite variable clinical courses; death before two years of age was seen in 41% of patients while 18% were alive at seven years. There was a significant difference between the NDUFS1 and NDUFV1 groups for clinical onset and life-span. Mutations in NDUFS1 were linked to a worse clinical course with earlier onset and earlier death. Conclusions: Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with mutations affecting the genes that encode the electron input module of complex I vary, but patients with NDUFS1 mutation tend to have a worse clinical course than patients with NDUFV1 mutation. Identifying the mutations is of importance for accurate prognostic information and genetic counseling.
  • Paterson, R W, et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
  • Schöll, Michael, 1980, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers for tau pathology.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular and cellular neurosciences. - : Elsevier BV. - 1095-9327 .- 1044-7431. ; 97, s. 18-33
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aggregation of fibrils of hyperphosphorylated and C-terminally truncated microtubule-associated tau protein characterizes 80% of all dementia disorders, the most common neurodegenerative disorders. These so-called tauopathies are hitherto not curable and their diagnosis, especially at early disease stages, has traditionally proven difficult. A keystone in the diagnosis of tauopathies was the development of methods to assess levels of tau protein in vivo in cerebrospinal fluid, which has significantly improved our knowledge about these conditions. Tau proteins have also been measured in blood, but the importance of tau-related changes in blood is still unclear. The recent addition of positron emission tomography ligands to visualize, map and quantify tau pathology has further contributed with information about the temporal and spatial characteristics of tau accumulation in the living brain. Together, the measurement of tau with fluid biomarkers and positron emission tomography constitutes the basis for a highly active field of research. This review describes the current state of biomarkers for tau biomarkers derived from neuroimaging and from the analysis of bodily fluids and their roles in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of tau-associated neurodegenerative disorders, as well as their associations with neuropathological findings, and aims to provide a perspective on how these biomarkers might be employed prospectively in research and clinical settings.
  • Wirestam, Lina, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Osteopontin is associated with disease severity and antiphospholipid syndrome in well characterised Swedish cases of SLE
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lupus Science and Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2053-8790. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The variety of disease phenotypes among patients with SLE challenges the identification of new biomarkers reflecting disease activity and/or organ damage. Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein with immunomodulating properties. Although raised levels have been reported, the pathogenic implications and clinical utility of OPN as a biomarker in SLE are far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise OPN in SLE.Methods Sera from 240 well-characterised adult SLE cases classified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria, and 240 population-based controls were immunoassayed for OPN. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) was used to evaluate disease activity and the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI) to detect damage accrual.Results Serum OPN levels were in average raised fourfold in SLE cases compared with the controls (p<0.0001). OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K, especially in patients with a disease duration of <12 months (r=0.666, p=0.028). OPN was highly associated with SDI (p<0.0001), especially in the renal (p<0.0001), cardiovascular (p<0.0001) and malignancy (p=0.012) domains. Finally, OPN associated with coherent antiphospholipid syndrome (APS; p=0.009), and both clinical and laboratory criteria of APS had significant positive impact on OPN levels.Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, circulating OPN correlates with disease activity in recent-onset SLE, reflects global organ damage and associates with APS. Longitudinal studies to dissect whether serum OPN also precedes and predicts future organ damage are most warranted.
  • Aljabery, Firas (författare)
  • Staging and tumor biological mechanisms of lymph node metastasis in invasive urinary bladder cancer
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Aim: To study the possibility of detecting lymph node metastasis in locally advanced urinary bladder cancer (UBC) treated with radical cystectomy (RC) by using preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peroperative sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique. We also investigate the clinical significance of macrophage traits expression by cancer cells, M2-macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and the immunohistochemical expression of biomarkers in cancer cells in relation to clinicopathologic data.Patients and Methods: We studied prospectively 122 patients with UBC, pathological stage pT1–pT4 treated with RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during 2005–2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. In the first study, we compared the results of preoperative PET/CT and conventional CT with the findings of postoperative histopathological evaluation of lymph nodes (LNs). In the second study we investigated the value of SNB technique for detecting pathological LNs during RC in patients with UBC. W also examined the significance of the primary tumor location in the bladder in predicting the site of LN metastases, and the prognostic significance of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis density (LNMD) on survival. In the third study, we investigate the clinical significance of macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and macrophage-traits expression by tumor cells. In the fourth study, we investigate the cell cycle suppression proteins p53, p21, pRb, p16, p14 ARF as well as tumors proliferative protein Ki67 and DNA repair protein ERCC1 expression in cancer cells. The results were compared with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome.Results: Prior to RC, PET/CT was used to detect LN metastasis in 54 patients. PET/CT had 41% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 58% PPV, and 76% NPV, whereas the corresponding figures for conventional CT were 41%, 89%, 64%, and 77%. SNB was performed during RC in 103 patients. A median number of 29 (range 7–68) nodes per patient were examined. SNs were detected in 83 out of 103 patients (81%). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SNB varied among LN stations, with average values of 67% -90%. LNMD or ≥8% and LVI were significantly related to shorter survival. In 103 patients, MI was high in 33% of cases, while moderate and low infiltration occurred in 42% and 25% of tumors respectively. Patients with tumors containing high and moderate compared to low MI had low rate of LN metastases (P=0.06) and improved survival (P=0.06), although not at significant level. The expression of different tumor suppression proteins was altered in 47-91% of the patients. There were no significant association between cancer specific survival (CSS) and any of the studied biomarkers. In case of altered p14ARF, ERCC1 or p21, CSS was low in case of low p53 immunostaining but increased in case of p53 accumulation, although not at a significant level, indicating a possible protective effect of p53 accumulation in these cases.Conclusion: PET/ CT provided no improvement over conventional CT in detection and localization of regional LN metastases in bladder cancer. It is possible to detect the SN but the technique is not a reliable for perioperative localization of LN metastases; however, LVI and LNMD at a cut-off level of 8% had significant prognostic values. MI in the tumor microenvironment but not CD163 expression in tumor cells seems to be synergistic with the immune response against urinary bladder cancer. Our results further indicate that altered p53 might have protective effect on survival in case of altered p14ARF, p21, or ERCC1 indicating an interaction between these biomarkers.
  • Loftås, Per, 1964- (författare)
  • Response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer surgery
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Rectal cancer is one of the three most common malignancies in Sweden with an annual incidence of about 2000 cases. Current treatment consists of surgical resection of the rectum including the loco-regional lymph nodes in the mesorectum. In advanced cases, neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) prior to the operative treatment reduces local recurrences and enables surgery. The neoadjuvant treatment can also eradicate the tumour completely, i.e. complete response. This research project was designed to investigate the effects of preoperative radiotherapy/ CRT and analyze methods to predict response to CRT.Study I investigated the expression of the FXYD-3 protein with immunohistochemistry in rectal cancer, with or without preoperative radiotherapy. The results from the total cohort showed that, strong FXYD-3 expression was correlated to infiltrative tumour growth (p = 0.02). In the radiotherapy group, strong FXYD-3 expression was related to an unfavourable prognosis (p = 0.02). Tumours with strong FXYD-3 expression had less tumour necrosis (p = 0.02) after radiotherapy. FXYD-3 expression in the primary tumour was increased compared to normal mucosa (p=0.008). We concluded that FXYD-3 expression was a prognostic factor in patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer.Study II investigated FXYD-3 expression in tumours that developed local recurrences following surgery and compared this with expression in tumours that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the group that developed local recurrences and the group that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in survival between those with strong or weak FXYD-3 expression. We concluded that this study could not confirm the findings from study 1 i.e. that FXYD-3 expression has prognostic significance in rectal cancer.Study III was a register-based study on the incidence and effects of complete response to neoadjuvant treatment. Eight per cent of the patients with adequate CRT to achieve complete response also had a complete histological response of the luminal tumor in the resected bowel. Sixteen per cent of that group had remaining lymph node metastases in the operative specimen. Chemotherapy together with radiotherapy doubled the chance of complete response in the luminal tumour. Patients with remaining lymph node metastases had a lower survival rate compared to those without. We concluded that residual nodal involvement after neoadjuvant treatment was an important factor for reduced survival after complete response in the luminal tumour.Study IV followed up the results from the previous study by re-evaluating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- images in patients with complete tumour response. Two experienced MRI radiologists performed blinded re-staging of post CRT MR- images from patients with complete response in the luminal tumour. One group with lymph node metastases and another one without were studied and the results compared with the pathology reports. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicted values for correct staging of positive lymph nodes was 37%, 84%, 70% and 57%. The size of the largest lymph node (4.5 mm, p=0.04) seemed to indicate presence of a tumour positive lymph node. We concluded that MRI couldn’t correctly stage patients for lymph node metastases in patients with complete response to CRT in the luminal tumour.
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