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  • Pan, E., et al. (författare)
  • Low rate of reoperations after acute type A aortic dissection repair from The Nordic Consortium Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. - : Elsevier BV. - 0022-5223 .- 1097-685X. ; 156:3, s. 939-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To describe the relationship between the extent of primary aortic repair and the incidence of reoperations after surgery for type A aortic dissection. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 1159 patients treated for type A aortic dissection at eight Nordic low-to medium-sized cardiothoracic centers from 2005 to 2014. Data were gathered from patient records and national registries. Patients were separately divided into 3 groups according to the distal anastomoses technique (ascending aorta [n = 791], hemiarch [n = 247], and total arch [n = 66]), and into 2 groups for proximal repair (aortic root replacement [n = 285] and supracoronary repair [n = 832]). Freedom from reoperation was estimated with cumulative incidence survival and Fine-Gray competing risk regression model was used to identify independent risk factors for reoperation. Results: The median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0-10 years). Altogether 51 out of 911 patients underwent reoperation. Freedom from distal reoperation at 5 years was 96.9%, with no significant difference between the groups (P = .22). Freedom from proximal reoperation at 5 years was 97.8%, with no difference between the groups (P = .84). Neither DeBakey classification nor the extent of proximal or distal repair predicted freedom from a later reoperation. The only independent risk factor associated with a later proximal reoperation was a history of connective tissue disease. Conclusions: Type A aortic dissection repair in low-to medium-volume centers was associated with a low reoperation rate and satisfactory midterm survival. The extent of the primary repair had no significant influence on reoperation rate or midterm survival.
  • Lindqvist, A, et al. (författare)
  • Artery blood pressure oscillation after active standing up: an indicator of sympathetic function in diabetic patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology. - : Wiley. - 1365-2281 .- 0144-5979. ; 17:2, s. 159-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dynamic artery blood pressure (Finapres) response to active standing up, normally consisting of initial rise, fall and recovery above the baseline (overshoot), was compared with the early steady-state artery blood pressure level to measure sympathetic vasomotor function in healthy subjects (n = 23, age 35 +/- 9 years; mean +/-SD) and in type I diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (AN) (group 1: n = 18, 38 +/- 13 years), with AN but no cardiovascular drugs (group 2a: n = 7, 44 +/- 11 years) and with both AN and cardiovascular drugs (group 2b: n = 10, 47 +/- 7 years). Systolic and diastolic overshoot were similar in the control (15 +/- 13/15 +/- 11 mmHg) and group 1 subjects. Systolic overshoot disappeared in 57% of patients in group 2a (-1 +/- 9 mmHg; P < 0.03), whereas artery blood pressure still overshot in diastole (8 +/- 7 mmHg; NS). Systolic overshoot disappeared in all patients in group 2b (-22 +/- 22 mmHg; P < 0.0006) and diastolic overshoot disappeared in 60% of these patients (-6 +/- 16 mmHg; P = 0.0006). Systolic early steady-state level was not lower in group 2a than in group 1 (NS), but it was impaired in group 2b (P < 0.006), in which six diabetic patients had a pathological response beyond the age-related reference values. There was a strong association between the overshoot and steady-state levels (P for chi 2 < 0.001, n = 58). Overshoot of the control subjects and patients in group 2b correlated to their respective steady-state blood pressure levels (r > or = 0.76; P < or = 0.001). In conclusion, baroreceptor reflex-dependent overshoot of the artery blood pressure after active standing up diminishes with the development of AN and it is associated with the early steady-state level of the artery blood pressure.
  • Torffvit, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • The association between diabetic nephropathy and autonomic nerve function in type 1 diabetic patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - 1502-7686. ; 57:2, s. 183-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of deterioration in renal function and is associated with increased mortality in patients with renal failure. Type 1 diabetic patients with long diabetes duration, matched for age (38 +/- 9 years) and diabetes duration (28 +/- 8 years) were studied regarding the association between cardiovascular autonomic nerve function and different degrees of diabetic nephropathy. Eighteen patients were normo- (< 30 mg/l), six micro- (30-300 mg/l), and 13 macroalbuminuric (> 300 mg/l) based on urinary albumin concentrations in three separate morning samples. They were compared with 33 control subjects with similar age. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated by measuring the response of heart rate to deep breathing and active standing. Beat-to-beat finger artery blood pressure (Finapres) was tested during active standing. During deep breathing both change in heart rate (17 +/- 11, 9 +/- 7 and 4 +/- 3 beats/min) and ratio between expiratory and inspiratory R-R intervals (1.32 +/- 0.24, 1.14 +/- 0.15 and 1.05 +/- 0.04) decreased from normo- over micro- to macroalbuminuria (p < 0.05 vs normoalbuminuric and control subjects [17 +/- 5 beats/min and 1.28 +/- 0.10, respectively]). Similar results were obtained during active standing with respect to change in systolic arterial blood pressure (3 +/- 8, 2 +/- 13 and -6 +/- 11 mmHg; p < 0.05 vs control subjects [8 +/- 11 mmHg]). However, the response of diastolic arterial blood pressure or mean heart rate to standing up did not differ between any of the groups. The ratio of maximum to minimum R-R interval during the dynamic response of heart rate to active standing decreased with the degree of nephropathy (1.27 +/- 0.17, 1.11 +/- 0.11 and 1.05 +/- 0.06) with significantly higher values in patients with normo- compared with patients with macroalbuminuria (p < 0.05). All patients groups had significantly lower values than control subjects (1.46 +/- 0.22, p < 0.05). The overshoot of the blood pressure after an initial fall during active standing decreased with the degree of diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, type 1 diabetic patients with long duration of diabetes have signs of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, the severity of which is related to the degree of nephropathy.
  • Hansmann, Georg, et al. (författare)
  • 2019 updated consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension: The European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN), endorsed by AEPC, ESPR and ISHLT
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. - : Elsevier BV. - 1053-2498. ; 38:9, s. 879-901
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network is a registered, non-profit organization that strives to define and develop effective, innovative diagnostic methods and treatment options in all forms of pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease, including pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, PH associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), persistent PH of the newborn, and related cardiac dysfunction. The executive writing group members conducted searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE bibliographic database (1990–2018) and held face-to-face and web-based meetings. Ten section task forces voted on the updated recommendations, based on the 2016 executive summary. Clinical trials, meta-analyses, guidelines, and other articles that include pediatric data were searched using the term “pulmonary hypertension” and other keywords. Class of recommendation (COR) and level of evidence (LOE) were assigned based on European Society of Cardiology/American Heart Association definitions and on pediatric data only, or on adult studies that included >10% children or studies that enrolled adults with CHD. New definitions by the World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension 2018 were included. We generated 10 tables with graded recommendations (COR/LOE). The topics include diagnosis/monitoring, genetics/biomarkers, cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance/chest computed tomography, associated forms of PH, intensive care unit/lung transplantation, and treatment of pediatric PH. For the first time, a set of specific recommendations on the management of PH in middle- and low-income regions was developed. Taken together, these executive, up-to-date guidelines provide a specific, comprehensive, detailed but practical framework for the optimal clinical care of children and young adults with PH.
  • Johansson, Inger, 1953, et al. (författare)
  • Lower incidence of CMV infection and acute rejections with valganciclovir
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2334. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following lung transplantation. CMV replication in the lung allograft is described as accelerating the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS).Finding a strategy to prevent CMV infection is an important issue. Methods We performed a retrospective, single-centre study of 114 lung transplant recipients (LTRs) who underwent lung transplantation from January 2001 to December 2006. In a smaller cohort of 88 CMV seropositive (R+) LTRs, three months of valganciclovir prophylaxis (2004-2006) was compared to three months of oral ganciclovir (2001-2003) with respect to the incidence of CMV infection/disease, the severity of CMV disease, acute rejection, BOS-free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. In the whole group of 114 LTRs the impact of CMV infection on long-term survival (BOS free 4 year survival and 6 year survival) was assessed. Results For the cohort of 88 CMV seropositive LTRs, the incidence of CMV infection/disease at one year was lower in the valganciclovir group compared to the ganciclovir group (24% vs. 54%, p = 0.003). There was a tendency towards reduced CMV disease, from 33% to 20% and a significant lower incidence of asymptomatic CMV infection (22% vs. 4%, p = 0.005). A lower incidence of acute rejection was observed in the valganciclovir group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BOS free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. For the entire group of 114 LTRs, BOS-free 4 year survival for recipients with CMV disease was (32%, p = 0.005) and among those with asymptomatic CMV infection (36%, p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). Conclusions A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and acute rejections was observed with valganciclovir (3 months) when compared to oral ganciclovir (3 months). The long-term impact of CMV infection/disease was significant for BOS-free survival and survival.
  • Fagevik Olsén, Monika, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of Pressure Generated by Resistors From Different Positive Expiratory Pressure Devices
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Care. - : Daedalus Enterprises. - 0020-1324 .- 1943-3654. ; 60:10, s. 1418-1423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to improve pulmonary function and airway clearance. Different PEP devices are available, but there have been no studies that describe the pressure generated by different resistors. The purpose of this study was to compare pressures generated from the proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial flow-dependent PEP valves with all other parameters kept constant. METHODS: Resistors from 4 flow-regulated PEP devices (Pep/Rmt system, Wellspect HealthCare; Pipe P breathing exerciser, Koo Medical Equipment; Mini-PEP, Philips Respironics [including resistors by Rusch]; and 15-mm endo-adapter, VBM Medizintechnik) were tested randomly by a blinded tester at constant flows of 10 and 18 L/min from an external gas system. All resistors were tested 3 times. RESULTS: Resistors with a similar diameter produced statistically significant different pressures at the same flow. The differences were smaller when the flow was 10 L/min compared with 18 L/min. The differences were also smaller when the diameter of the resistor was increased. The pressures produced by the 4 resistors of the same size were all significantly different when measuring 1.5- and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 10 L/min and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 18 L/min (P < .001). There were no significant differences between any of the resistors when testing sizes of 4.5 and 5.0 mm at either flow. The Mini-PEP and adapter resistors gave the highest pressures. CONCLUSIONS: Pressures generated by the different proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial PEP devices were not comparable, even though the diameter of the resistors is reported to be the same. The pressures generated were significantly different, particularly when using small-diameter resistors at a high flow. Therefore, the resistors may not be interchangeable. This is important information for clinicians, particularly when considering PEP for patients who do not tolerate higher pressures. (C) 2015 Daedalus Enterprises
  • Willadsen, E., et al. (författare)
  • Inter-rater reliability in classification of canonical babbling status based on canonical babbling ratio in infants with isolated cleft palate randomised to Timing of Primary Surgery for Cleft Palate (TOPS)
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0269-9206 .- 1464-5076. ; 37:1, s. 77-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canonical babbling (CB) is commonly defined as present when at least 15% of all syllables produced are canonical, in other words a canonical babbling ratio (CBR) >= 0.15. However, there is limited knowledge about inter-rater reliability in classification of CB status based on CBR and inter-rater differences in assessment of CBR. We investigated inter-rater reliability of experienced Speech Language Therapists (SLTs) on: classification of CB status based on CBR >= 0.15, CBRs and the total number of syllables per infant used to calculate CBR. Each infant (n = 484) was video-recorded at a clinical site in play interaction with their parent as part of the randomised controlled trial Timing of Primary Surgery for Cleft Palate. Each recording was subsequently assessed by three independent SLTs, from a pool of 29 SLTs. They assessed the recordings in real time. The three assessing SLTs agreed in classification of CB status in 423 (87.4%) infants, with higher complete agreement for canonical (91%; 326/358) than non-canonical (77%; 97/126). The average difference in CBR and total number of syllables identified between the SLT assessments of each infant was 0.12 and 95, respectively. This study provided new evidence that one trained SLT can reliably classify CB status (CBR >= 0.15) in real time when there is clear distinction between the observed CBR and the boundary (0.15); however, when the observed CBR approaches the boundary multiple SLT assessments are beneficial. Thus, we recommend to include assessment of inter-rater reliability, if the purpose is to compare CBR and total syllable count across infants or studies.
  • Gulyas, Miklos, et al. (författare)
  • COX-2 expression and effects of celecoxib in addition to standard chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 57:2, s. 244-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is proposed as a treatment option in several cancer types. However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), phase III trials have failed to demonstrate a benefit of adding COX-2 inhibitors to standard chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells as predictive biomarker for COX-2 inhibition.Methods: In a multicenter phase III trial, 316 patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive celecoxib (400 mg b.i.d.) or placebo up to one year in addition to a two-drug platinum-based chemotherapy combination. In a subset of 122 patients, archived tumor tissue was available for immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells. For each compartment, COX-2 expression was graded as high or low, based on a product score of extension and intensity of positively stained cells.Results: An updated analysis of all 316 patients included in the original trial, and of the 122 patients with available tumor tissue, showed no survival differences between the celecoxib and placebo arms (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.81–1.27 and HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.78–1.61, respectively). High COX-2 scores in tumor (n = 71) or stromal cells (n = 55) was not associated with a superior survival outcome with celecoxib vs. placebo (HR =0.96, 95% CI 0.60–1.54; and HR =1.51; 95% CI 0.86–2.66), and no significant interaction effect between COX-2 score in tumor or stromal cells and celecoxib effect on survival was detected (p = .48 and .25, respectively).Conclusions: In this subgroup analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC treated within the context of a randomized trial, we could not detect any interaction effect of COX-2 expression in tumor or stromal cells and the outcome of celecoxib treatment in addition to standard chemotherapy.
  • Forsberg, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection in COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter cohort study in Sweden
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0001-5172 .- 1399-6576. ; 68:2, s. 226-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI) increase morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Higher incidences of VA-LRTI have been reported among COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The primary objectives of this study were to describe clinical characteristics, incidence, and risk factors comparing patients who developed VA-LRTI to patients who did not, in a cohort of Swedish ICU patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Secondary objectives were to decipher changes over the three initial pandemic waves, common microbiology and the effect of VA-LTRI on morbidity and mortality.Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to 10 ICUs in southeast Sweden between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2021 because of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and were mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h. The primary outcome was culture verified VA-LRTI. Patient characteristics, ICU management, clinical course, treatments, microbiological findings, and mortality were registered. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine risk factors for first VA-LRTI.Results: Of a total of 536 included patients, 153 (28.5%) developed VA-LRTI. Incidence rate of first VA-LRTI was 20.8 per 1000 days of IMV. Comparing patients with VA-LRTI to those without, no differences in mortality, age, sex, or number of comorbidities were found. Patients with VA-LRTI had fewer ventilator-free days, longer ICU stay, were more frequently ventilated in prone position, received corticosteroids more often and were more frequently on antibiotics at intubation. Regression analysis revealed increased adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) for first VA-LRTI in patients treated with corticosteroids (aOR 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]] [1.31-5.74]), antibiotics at intubation (aOR 2.01 95% CI [1.14-3.66]), and days of IMV (aOR 1.05 per day of IMV, 95% CI [1.03-1.07]). Few multidrug-resistant pathogens were identified. Incidence of VA-LRTI increased from 14.5 per 1000 days of IMV during the first wave to 24.8 per 1000 days of IMV during the subsequent waves.Conclusion: We report a high incidence of culture-verified VA-LRTI in a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients from the first three pandemic waves. VA-LRTI was associated with increased morbidity but not 30-, 60-, or 90-day mortality. Corticosteroid treatment, antibiotics at intubation and time on IMV were associated with increased aOR of first VA-LRTI.
  • Hårdstedt, Maria, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Swimming-Induced Pulmonary Edema : Diagnostic Criteria Validated by Lung Ultrasound
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Chest. - : American College of Chest Physicians. - 0012-3692 .- 1931-3543. ; 158:4, s. 1586-1595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing popularity of open water swimming worldwide, swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) is a poorly recognized condition lacking established diagnostic criteria.RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to identify diagnostic criteria of SIPE during a large open water swimming event.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 17,904 individuals swam 1,000, 1,500, or 3,000 m in cold open water during Sweden's largest open water swimming event in 2018 and 2019. Of 166 swimmers seeking medical attention for acute respiratory symptoms, 160 were included in the study. Medical history, symptoms, and clinical findings were collected. On-site lung ultrasound (LUS) was performed to verify pulmonary edema.RESULTS: Pulmonary edema was confirmed by LUS in 102 patients (64%); findings were unilateral in 11 (7%). Peripheral oxygen saturation was identified as a strong independent diagnostic test for pulmonary edema, with ≤ 95% as the suggested cut off based on receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve, 0.893; P < .0001). Crackles on lung auscultation, predominantly over the anterior chest, identified 88% of patients with edema. Peripheral oxygen saturation ≤ 95% or auscultation findings of crackles identified pulmonary edema with a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 86%. A specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 99% for LUS-verified pulmonary edema were reached if patients presented with both oxygen saturation ≤ 95% and auscultation of crackles.INTERPRETATION: We suggest a clinical algorithm for diagnosis of SIPE for swimmers with acute respiratory symptoms during swimming in cold open water. Novel features of focally distributed edema in the anterior parts of the lungs, sometimes unilateral, add to this unique dataset of an underreported condition.
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