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  • Lindqvist, A, et al. (författare)
  • Artery blood pressure oscillation after active standing up: an indicator of sympathetic function in diabetic patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1365-2281 .- 0144-5979. ; 17:2, s. 159-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dynamic artery blood pressure (Finapres) response to active standing up, normally consisting of initial rise, fall and recovery above the baseline (overshoot), was compared with the early steady-state artery blood pressure level to measure sympathetic vasomotor function in healthy subjects (n = 23, age 35 +/- 9 years; mean +/-SD) and in type I diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (AN) (group 1: n = 18, 38 +/- 13 years), with AN but no cardiovascular drugs (group 2a: n = 7, 44 +/- 11 years) and with both AN and cardiovascular drugs (group 2b: n = 10, 47 +/- 7 years). Systolic and diastolic overshoot were similar in the control (15 +/- 13/15 +/- 11 mmHg) and group 1 subjects. Systolic overshoot disappeared in 57% of patients in group 2a (-1 +/- 9 mmHg; P < 0.03), whereas artery blood pressure still overshot in diastole (8 +/- 7 mmHg; NS). Systolic overshoot disappeared in all patients in group 2b (-22 +/- 22 mmHg; P < 0.0006) and diastolic overshoot disappeared in 60% of these patients (-6 +/- 16 mmHg; P = 0.0006). Systolic early steady-state level was not lower in group 2a than in group 1 (NS), but it was impaired in group 2b (P < 0.006), in which six diabetic patients had a pathological response beyond the age-related reference values. There was a strong association between the overshoot and steady-state levels (P for chi 2 < 0.001, n = 58). Overshoot of the control subjects and patients in group 2b correlated to their respective steady-state blood pressure levels (r > or = 0.76; P < or = 0.001). In conclusion, baroreceptor reflex-dependent overshoot of the artery blood pressure after active standing up diminishes with the development of AN and it is associated with the early steady-state level of the artery blood pressure.
  • Torffvit, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • The association between diabetic nephropathy and autonomic nerve function in type 1 diabetic patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 57:2, s. 183-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of deterioration in renal function and is associated with increased mortality in patients with renal failure. Type 1 diabetic patients with long diabetes duration, matched for age (38 +/- 9 years) and diabetes duration (28 +/- 8 years) were studied regarding the association between cardiovascular autonomic nerve function and different degrees of diabetic nephropathy. Eighteen patients were normo- (< 30 mg/l), six micro- (30-300 mg/l), and 13 macroalbuminuric (> 300 mg/l) based on urinary albumin concentrations in three separate morning samples. They were compared with 33 control subjects with similar age. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated by measuring the response of heart rate to deep breathing and active standing. Beat-to-beat finger artery blood pressure (Finapres) was tested during active standing. During deep breathing both change in heart rate (17 +/- 11, 9 +/- 7 and 4 +/- 3 beats/min) and ratio between expiratory and inspiratory R-R intervals (1.32 +/- 0.24, 1.14 +/- 0.15 and 1.05 +/- 0.04) decreased from normo- over micro- to macroalbuminuria (p < 0.05 vs normoalbuminuric and control subjects [17 +/- 5 beats/min and 1.28 +/- 0.10, respectively]). Similar results were obtained during active standing with respect to change in systolic arterial blood pressure (3 +/- 8, 2 +/- 13 and -6 +/- 11 mmHg; p < 0.05 vs control subjects [8 +/- 11 mmHg]). However, the response of diastolic arterial blood pressure or mean heart rate to standing up did not differ between any of the groups. The ratio of maximum to minimum R-R interval during the dynamic response of heart rate to active standing decreased with the degree of nephropathy (1.27 +/- 0.17, 1.11 +/- 0.11 and 1.05 +/- 0.06) with significantly higher values in patients with normo- compared with patients with macroalbuminuria (p < 0.05). All patients groups had significantly lower values than control subjects (1.46 +/- 0.22, p < 0.05). The overshoot of the blood pressure after an initial fall during active standing decreased with the degree of diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, type 1 diabetic patients with long duration of diabetes have signs of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, the severity of which is related to the degree of nephropathy.
  • Elmståhl, Sölve, et al. (författare)
  • No association between inhaled corticosteroids and whole body DXA in postmenopausal women
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. - : Wiley. - 1053-8569 .- 1099-1557. ; 15:7, s. 527-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Postmenopausal women treated with corticosteroids are regarded as a high-risk group due to the effect of both natural bone loss and possible adverse effects of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (IC). OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women exposed only to IC (IC group, n = 106) with that of BMD in women not exposed to corticosteroids (n = 124) and women exposed to oral and/or intra-articular injections in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (OC group, n = 31). The women were recruited from a population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique was used to measure BMD in whole body, spine, pelvis and lower extremities. A health questionnaire and an interview about past and present medication use were used. RESULTS: The mean duration and dose of IC were 9.5 +/- 4.5 years and 615 microg daily. Whole body BMD did not significantly differ between the IC group (1.103 g/cm(2)) and the unexposed group (1.087 g/cm(2)). Within the IC group, BMD stratified for cumulative dose of IC, duration or current dose above or below 800 microg did not differ. Z-score BMD for tertiles did not differ when comparing the IC and OC groups. CONCLUSION: No difference in BMD was noted between postmenopausal women exposed to inhaled corticosteroids and unexposed controls nor was there any dose response relationship between inhaled corticosteroid therapy and BMD.
  • Steen, Stig, et al. (författare)
  • Transplantation of lungs from a non-heart-beating donor
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 357:9259, s. 825-829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In animals, we have previously done successful lung transplantations using organs from non-heart-beating donors. We have also developed an ex-vivo system of assessing the function of such organs before transplantation. The next stage was to try the technique in human beings. Bearing in mind the sensitive ethical issues involved, our first aim was to find out what procedures would be acceptable, and to use the results to guide a clinical lung transplantation from a non-heart-beating donor. METHODS: The ethical acceptability of the study was gauged from the results of a broad information programme directed at the general public in Sweden, and from discussions with professionals including doctors, nurses, hospital chaplains, and judges. The donor was a patient dying of acute myocardial infarction in a cardiac intensive-care unit after failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The next of kin gave permission to cool the lungs within the intact body, and intrapleural cooling was started 65 min after death. Blood samples were sent for virological testing and cross matching. The next of kin then had time to be alone with the deceased. After 3 h, the body was transported to the operating theatre and the heart-lung block removed. The lungs were assessed ex vivo, and the body was transported to the pathology department for necropsy. RESULTS: No contraindications to transplantation were found, and the right lung was transplanted successfully into a 54-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The donor lung showed excellent function only 5 min after reperfusion and ventilation, and during the first 5 months of follow-up, the function of the transplanted lung has been good. INTERPRETATION: About half the deaths in Sweden are caused by cardiac and cerebrovascular disease. This group could be a potential source of lung donors. When all hospitals and ambulance personnel in Sweden have received training in non-heart-beating lung donation, we hope that there will be enough donor lungs of good quality for all patients needing a lung transplant.
  • Heikkilä, Katriina, et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and COPD exacerbations: an individual-participant meta-analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 44:1, s. 247-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To the Editor:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide (1). The clinical course of COPD is characterised by exacerbations, which can be minor and manageable at home or in primary care, or severe, leading to hospitalisation or even death. Known causes of exacerbations include tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts and fumes, and respiratory infections (1, 2). One less well understood risk factor is stress, which could plausibly lead to COPD exacerbations as it can trigger inflammation (3, 4) and is associated with increased smoking (5), which are both implicated in COPD pathology (2). Work is an important source of stress in the age groups in which COPD is typically diagnosed (1, 6). However, we are not aware of previous investigations of work-related stress and the risk of COPD exacerbations.In this study, we examined the associations between job strain (the most widely studied conceptualisation of work-related stress) and severe COPD exacerbations using individual-level data from 10 prospective cohort studies from the Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium (7). Job strain is defined as a combination of high demands (excessive amounts of work) and low control (having little influence on what tasks to.
  • Van Den Berge, Maarten, et al. (författare)
  • Success and continuous growth of the ERS clinical research collaborations
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 58:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This editorial describes the ERS CRC programme, which addresses research areas across all major respiratory disease domains. It explains how the ERS Research Agency supports the CRCs to obtain external funding and ensures links with other ERS activities.
  • Saetrum Opgaard, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Endocardial expression and functional characterization of endothelin-1
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. - : Springer. - 0300-8177. ; 224:1-2, s. 151-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21 amino acid peptide exerts a wide range of biological activities including vasoconstriction, mitogenesis and inotropic effects on the heart. In this study, we examined whether endocardial endothelial cells express ET-1 and evaluated its functional properties. Using immunofluorescence localization method, we demonstrated cytoplasmic staining of ET-1 in the human endocardial endothelial cells from the right atrium and left ventricle. Employing reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression of ET-1 mRNA and its receptors ET(A) and ET(B) mRNAs were found in human myocardial as well as in endocardial endothelial cells. Biological activity of endocardial endothelial cells derived ET-1 was established as the conditioned media obtained from cultured porcine endocardial endothelial cells induced a slowly developing, strong and long-lasting contraction of circular rat aortic segments, with similar characteristics to that obtained with exogenous ET-1. Furthermore, the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist, FR 139317, blocked the conditioned media induced contractions. Our results suggest that endocardial endothelial cells express and release biologically active ET-1 which could play a pivotal role in the regulation of myocardial contractility as well as a circulatory peptide may further act in other peripheral target organs.
  • Ekelund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonist PD145065 on arteries, arterioles, and veins in the cat hindlimb
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1533-4023. ; 26:Suppl. 3, s. 211-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to describe in quantitative terms the effects of ETA and ETB receptor blockade on vascular tone (resistance) in large-bore arterial resistance vessels (> 25 microns), small arterioles (< 25 microns), and veins in the cat gastrocnemius muscle in vivo. In the muscle vascular bed, the combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonist PD145065 (1 mg/kg/min, intra-arterially) abolished the biphasic vascular responses (dilatation followed by constriction) to both ET-1 (0.4 microgram/kg/min, intra-arterially) and to the selective ETB receptor agonist IRL1620 (3.2 micrograms/kg/min, intra-arterially). In the cat femoral artery and vein in vitro, PD145065 competitively inhibited the contractile responses to both ET-1 and IRL1620. The contractile response to the latter agonist could be evoked only after long-term incubation of the vessels (37 degrees C for 5 days). These results indicate that PD145065 is a potent antagonist at both ETA and ETB receptors in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, this antagonist may prove useful for elucidating the possible physiologic and/or pathophysiologic roles of the endothelins. For example, it was shown that PD145065 had no effect on vascular tone in the resting state, indicating no role for the endothelins in the regulation of basal vascular tone in cat skeletal muscle.
  • Bisgaard, H, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 101:7, s. 1477-1482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAsthma patients exhibit an increased rate of loss of lung function. Determinants to such decline are largely unknown and the modifying effect of steroid therapy is disputed. This cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate factors contributing to such decline and the possible modifying effect of steroid treatment.MethodsWe analyzed determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a Scandinavian study of 2390 subjects from 550 families. Families were selected for the presence of two or more asthmatic children as part of a genetic study, Scandinavian Asthma Genetic Study (SAGA).ResultsThe primary analysis studied the association between the lung function and delay of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) after asthma diagnosis among asthmatic children and young adults with a history of regular ICS treatment (N=919). FEV1 percent predicted (FEV1% pred) was 0.25% lower per year of delay from diagnosis until treatment (p=0.039). This association was significantly greater in allergy skin prick test negative children. There was no significant influence of gender, age at asthma onset, or smoking.In the secondary analysis of the whole population of 2390 asthmatics and non-asthmatics, FEV1% pred was inversely related to having asthmatic siblings (−7.9%; p<0.0001), asthma diagnosis (−2.7%; p=0.0007), smoking (−3.5%; p=0.0027), and positive allergy skin prick test (−0.47% per test; p=0.012), while positively related to being of female gender (1.8%; p=0.0029). Risk of AHR was higher by having asthmatic siblings (OR 2.7; p<0.0001), being of female gender (OR 2.0; p<0.0001), and having asthma (OR 2.0; p<0.0001).ConclusionsThese data suggest that lung function is lower in asthmatics with delayed introduction of ICS therapy, smoking, and positive allergy skin prick test. Lung function is lower and AHR higher in female asthmatics and subjects with asthmatic siblings or established asthma.
  • Brew, Bronwyn K., et al. (författare)
  • Paediatric asthma and non-allergic comorbidities : A review of current risk and proposed mechanisms
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - Stockholm : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 15:9, s. 1035-1047
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is increasingly recognized that children with asthma are at a higher risk of other non-allergic concurrent diseases than the non-asthma population. A plethora of recent research has reported on these comorbidities and progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms for comorbidity. The goal of this review was to assess the most recent evidence (2016-2021) on the extent of common comorbidities (obesity, depression and anxiety, neurodevelopmental disorders, sleep disorders and autoimmune diseases) and the latest mechanistic research, highlighting knowledge gaps requiring further investigation. We found that the majority of recent studies from around the world demonstrate that children with asthma are at an increased risk of having at least one of the studied comorbidities. A range of potential mechanisms were identified including common early life risk factors, common genetic factors, causal relationships, asthma medication and embryologic origins. Studies varied in their selection of population, asthma definition and outcome definitions. Next, steps in future studies should include using objective measures of asthma, such as lung function and immunological data, as well as investigating asthma phenotypes and endotypes. Larger complex genetic analyses are needed, including genome-wide association studies, gene expression-functional as well as pathway analyses or Mendelian randomization techniques; and identification of gene-environment interactions, such as epi-genetic studies or twin analyses, including omics and early life exposure data. Importantly, research should have relevance to clinical and public health translation including clinical practice, asthma management guidelines and intervention studies aimed at reducing comorbidities.
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