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1.
  • Wang, Rui, et al. (författare)
  • MRI load of cerebral microvascular lesions and neurodegeneration, cognitive decline, and dementia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 91:16, s. 1487-1497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To explore the differential associations of neurodegeneration and microvascular lesion load with cognitive decline and dementia in older people and the modifying effect of the APOE genotype on these associations. Methods A sample of 436 participants (age >= 60 years) was derived from the population-based Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, Stockholm, and clinically examined at baseline (2001-2003) and 3 occasions during the 9-year follow-up. At baseline, we assessed microvascular lesion load using a summary score for MRI markers of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and perivascular spaces and neurodegeneration load for markers of enlarged ventricles, smaller hippocampus, and smaller gray matter. We assessed cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test and diagnosed dementia following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria. We analyzed data using linear mixed-effects, mediation, and random-effects Cox models. Results During the follow-up, 46 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Per 1-point increase in microvascular lesion and neurodegeneration score (range 0-3) was associated with multiple adjusted beta-coefficients of -0.35 (95% confidence interval, -0.51 to -0.20) and -0.44 (-0.56 to -0.32), respectively, for the MMSE score and multiple adjusted hazard ratios of 1.68 (1.12-2.51) and 2.35 (1.58-3.52), respectively, for dementia; carrying APOE epsilon 4 reinforced the associations with MMSE decline. WMH volume changes during the follow-up mediated 66.9% and 12.7% of the total association of MMSE decline with the baseline microvascular score and neurodegeneration score, respectively. Conclusions Both cerebral microvascular lesion and neurodegeneration loads are strongly associated with cognitive decline and dementia. The cognitive decline due to microvascular lesions is exacerbated by APOE epsilon 4 and is largely attributed to progression and development of microvascular lesions.
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  • Lundberg, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Kvantifiering av leversteatos: diagnostisk utvärdering av protonmagnetresonansspektroskopi jämfört med histologiska metoder
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BakgrundLeversteatos är den vanligaste manifestationen av leversjukdom i västvärlden. Leverbiopsi med semikvantitativ histologisk gradering är referensmetod vid gradering av leversteatos. Med protonmagnetsresonansspektroskopi (1H-MRS), en metod som föreslagits ersätta leverbiopsi för värdering av steatos, kan leverns innehåll av triglycerider mätas icke-invasivt. Triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % används ofta som ett diagnostiskt kriterium för leversteatos vid undersökning med 1H-MRS. Syftet med studien var att jämföra 1H-MRS med semikvantitativ histologisk steatosgradering och kvantitativ histologisk steatosmätning.MetodPatienter remitterade för utredning av förhöjda leverenzymer in-kluderades i studien. Samtliga patienter genomgick klinisk undersökning, laboratorieprovtagning samt 1H-MRS direkt följd av leverbiopsi. För konventionell histologisk semikvantitativ gradering av steatos användes kriterierna utarbetade av Brunt och medarbetare. Kvantitativ mätning av fett i biopsierna utfördes genom att med hjälp av stereologisk punkträkning (SPC) mäta andelen av ytan som innehöll fettvakuoler.ResultatI studien inkluderades 94 patienter, varav 37 hade icke-alkoholor-sakad fettleversjukdom (NAFLD), 49 hade andra leversjukdomar och 8 hade normal leverbiopsi. En stark korrelation noterades mel-lan 1H-MRS och SPC (r=0,92, p<0,0001; к=0.82). Korrelationen mellan 1H-MRS och Brunts kriterier (к=0.26) samt mellan SPC och Brunts kriterier (к=0.38) var betydligt sämre. När patologens gradering (Brunts kriterier) användes som referensmetod för diag-nos av leversteatos så hade alla patienter med triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS steatos (specificitet 100 %). Emellertid hade 22 av 69 patienter med triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % också le-versteatos enligt Brunts kriterier (sensitivitet 53 %). Motsvarande siffror när man använde gränsvärdet 3,02 % var sensitivitet 79 % och specificitet 100 %. Vid ytterligare reduktion av gränsvärdet för triglyceridinnehåll till 2,00 % ökade sensitiviteten till 87 % med upprätthållande av hög specificitet (94 %).Slutsats1H-MRS och SPC uppvisade en mycket hög korrelation vid kvantifiering av leversteatos. SPC borde därför föredras framför Brunts kriterier när noggrann histologisk kvantifiering av leversteatos är önskvärd. Många patienter kan ha histologisk leversteatos trots triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS. Gränsvärdet för diagnostisering av leversteatos med 1H-MRS bör därför reduceras.
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  • Matson, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Nonattendance in mammographic screening: a study of intraurban differences in Malmo, Sweden, 1990-1994
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cancer Detection and Prevention. - : Elsevier. - 0361-090X. ; 25:2, s. 132-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mammographic screening may reduce breast cancer mortality. Not all women, however, come for examination. The objective in this study from Malmo has been to assess extent to which the rate of nonattendance varies between residential areas with different sociodemographic profiles. The study is based on 32,605 women, 45 to 68 years old and living in 17 areas, who between 1990 and 1994 were invited to screening. Between age groups, the age-specific nonattendance rate ranged from 31% to 35 % (P < .01). The nonattendance rate was highest for women 65 years or older. Between residential areas, age-adjusted nonattendance rates ranged from 23% to 43% (P < .01). A socioeconomic score was developed to express the socioeconomic circumstances in the residential areas and ranged from -7.18 in the most deprived area to 5.01 in the least. Nonattendance covaried in an inverse fashion with the socioeconomic score (r = -0.78; P < .01). One of three women in this urban population did not accept the invitation to mammographic screening. Our conclusion is that women in areas with less favorable circumstances seem to be less willing to participate.
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6.
  • Ramgren, B, et al. (författare)
  • Vertebrobasilar dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective study of 29 patients.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - : Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 47:2, s. 97-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have reviewed initial diagnostic features, treatment, and outcome in 29 patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage due to non-traumatic vertebrobasilar artery dissection diagnosed in our hospital between 1993 and 2003. The dissections occurred in the vertebral artery in 19 patients, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery ( PICA) in two patients, the basilar artery in four patients, and in the vertebral artery extending into the PICA in four patients. A pseudoaneurysm was found in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations typically included sudden onset of moderate to severe headache, nuchal rigidity, and drowsiness. Fourteen patients were treated conservatively. Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment with either parent artery occlusion ( 13 patients) or aneurysmal coil occlusion with preservation of the parent artery ( 2 patients). Re-bleeding occurred within 12 days and before treatment in nine patients. Eight of these had a pseudoaneurysm. No patient bled after endovascular treatment. Poor grade and early re-bleeding were associated with less favorable outcome. Outcome at 6 months did not differ significantly between endovascular and conservative treatment. Altogether, good recovery was achieved for 16 patients, moderate disability was seen in one, severe disability in four, and eight patients ( 27%) died. The absence of bleeding subsequent to endovascular treatment in this study suggests that endovascular treatment may be a rational approach in these patients at high risk of re-bleeding, especially those with a pseudoaneurysm.
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  • Khoshnood, Ardavan (författare)
  • Prehospital Diagnosis and Oxygen Treatment in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionPaper I: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was constructed to identify ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and predict the need for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Paper II, III and IV: Studies suggest that O2 therapy may be harmful in STEMI patients. We therefore conducted the SOCCER study to evaluate the effects of O2 therapy in STEMI patients.MethodsPaper I: 560 ambulance ECGs sent to the Cardiac Care Unit (CCU), was together with the CCU physicians interpretation and decision of conducting an acute PCI or not collected, and compared with the interpretation and PCI decision of the ANN. Paper II, III, IV: Normoxic (≥94%) STEMI patients accepted for acute PCI were in the ambulance randomized to standard care with 10 L/min O2 or room air. A subset of the patients underwent echocardiography for determination of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) and the Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI). All patients had a Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) to evaluate Myocardial area at Risk (MaR), Infarct Size (IS) and Myocardial Salvage Index (MSI).ResultsPaper I: The area under the ANN’s receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection as well as predicting the need of acute PCI were very good.Paper II, III, IV: No significant differences could be shown in discussing MaR, MSI or IS between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=49). Neither could any differences be shown for LVEF and WMSI at the index visit as well after six months between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=41)ConclusionsPaper I: The results indicate that the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could be reduced with 2/3 as the ANN would safely identify ECGs not being STEMI.Paper II, III, IV: The results suggest that it is safe to withhold O2 therapy in normoxic, stable STEMI patients.
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9.
  • Brandt, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Myelography in the late postoperative period in patients subjected to anterior cervical decompression and fusion
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - : Springer. - 0001-6268. ; 122:1-2, s. 97-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a 13 year period, 286 patients with cervical disc herniation and/or spondylotic spurs, were subjected to anterior decompression and vertebral interbody fusion with autologous bone. Twenty patients were re-admitted in the late postoperative period due to recurrent radicular symptoms and/or signs of myelopathy. In these patients myelography was performed again. In 14 patients spinal cord compression and/or nerve root involvement at a new level was visualized. At the operated level, however, the myelograms demonstrated a smooth anterior wall in the spinal canal. The series confirms the safety, effectiveness and reliability of the Cloward procedure in achieving long term spinal cord and nerve root decompression, and a solid vertebral interbody fusion.
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10.
  • Elmståhl, Sölve, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of dysphagia improves nutritional conditions in stroke patients
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Dysphagia. - : Springer. - 1432-0460. ; 14:2, s. 61-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dysphagia is a common symptom in stroke patients, and malnutrition is prevalent among these patients. Thus far, nutritional effects of dysphagic treatment have not been evaluated. The aim of the present report was to study the effects of swallowing techniques on nutritional and anthropometric variables. A survey with follow-up was performed at the Departments of Geriatric Medicine and Neurology, Malmo University Hospital, Sweden. Thirty-eight stroke patients, 53-89 years of age, with subjective complaints of dysphagia and oral/pharyngeal dysfunction according to videofluoroscopic barium swallowing examination (VSBE), were given swallowing treatment. The treatment included oral motor exercise, different swallowing techniques, positioning, and diet modification. Plasma protein levels, body composition, VSBE, and a viso-analogical scale for subjective complaints were repeated before and after treatment. At baseline, 94% of cases had signs of penetration and 50-72% had plasma protein levels below recommended levels. Treatment reduced the degree of oral dysfunction, (dissociation) and pharyngeal dysfunction (penetration and constrictor paresis). Sixty percent of cases showed an improved overall VSBE score, and improved levels of albumin and total iron-binding capacity were restricted to this group. In cases with unchanged or decreased VSBE score, body weight was reduced and a negative correlation to total iron-binding capacity was noted (r = -0.60, p < 0.05). Changes of subjective complaints did not correlate with swallowing function or nutritional improvements. Swallowing treatment improves swallowing function, and improved swallowing function is associated with improvements in nutritional parameters. Subjective complaints is not sufficient to evaluate the clinical course, and nutritional parameters should be monitored in patients with oral or pharyngeal dysfunction.
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