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  • Venetsanos, Dimitrios (författare)
  • Improving management of STEMI patients treated with primary PCI : Pharmacotherapy, renal function estimation and gender perspective
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focused on the acute management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in an effort to provide information that may improve outcome. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in STEMI patients during primary PCI. Furthermore, to provide pharmacodynamic data of novel ways of ticagrelor administration compared to standard tivcagrelor. Additionally, to identify subgroups of patients, such as women who may derive greater benefit from specific antithrombotic strategies due to their risk/benefit profile. Finally, to evaluate current formulas for estimation of renal function in the acute phase of STEMI.In Paper I, all STEMI patients in Sweden between 2008 and 2014, treated with primary PCI and UFH or bivalirudin were included in our analysis. Of the total population of 23 800 patients, 8 783 (36.9%) were included in the UFH group and 15 017 (63.1%) in the bivalirudin group. Concomitant GPI administration was 68.5% in the UFH arm compared to 3.5% in the bivalirudin arm (p<0.01).The adjusted incidence of 30-day mortality was not significant different between the two groups (UFH vs bivalirudin, adjusted HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.82 -1.07). The adjusted risk for 1-year mortality, 30-day and 1-year stent thrombosis and re-infarction did not differ significantly between the two groups. In contrast, patients treated with UFH had a significantly higher incidence of major in-hospital bleeding (adjusted OR 1.62; 95%CI 1.30 -2.03).In Paper II pharmacodynamic data of chewed or crushed ticagrelor compared to standard ticagrelor loading dose (LD) was assessed in 99 patients with stable angina. Platelet reactivity (PR) was assessed with VerifyNow before, 20 and 60 minutes after LD. High Residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) was defined as > 208 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU). Chewed ticagrelor tablets resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to crushed or integral tablets at 20 and 60 minutes. Crushed ticagrelor LD resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to integral tablets at 20 minutes whereas no difference was observed at 60 minutes. At 20 minutes, no patients had HRPR with chewed ticagrelor compared to 68% with integral and 30% with crushed ticagrelor LD (p<0.01).In Paper III we presented a pre-specified gender analysis of the ATLANTIC trial including 1 862 STEMI patients that were randomly assigned to pre-hospital versus in-hospital administration of 180mg ticagrelor. Women were older and had higher TIMI risk score. Women had a 3-fold higher risk for all-cause mortality compared to men (5.7% vs 1.9%, HR 3.13, 95% CI 1.78 – 5.51). However, after adjustment for baseline characteristics, the difference was lesser and no longer significant (HR 1.98, 95% CI 0.97 – 4.04). Female gender was not an independent predictor of risk for bleeding after multivariable adjustments (BARC type 3-5 HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.74-3.09). There was no interaction between gender and efficacy or safety of randomised treatment.In Paper IV, forty patients with PCI- treated STEMI were included between November 2011 and February 2013. We validated the performance of the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-IDMS), the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) and the Grubb relative cystatin C (rGCystC) equations for estimation of GFR against measured GFR (mGFR) during the index hospitalisation for STEMI.MDRD-IDMS and CKD-EPI demonstrated a good performance to estimate GFR with accuracy within 30% (P30) 82.5% vs 82.5%, respectively. CKD was best classified by CKD-EPI (Kappa 0.83). CG showed the worst performance with the lowest P30. The rG-CystC equation had a marked bias of -17.8% and significantly underestimated mGFR (p=0.03).Conclusions – In STEMI patients treated with primary PCI, bivalirudin should be preferred in patient at high risk for bleeding. With crushed or chewed ticagrelor tablets a more rapid platelet inhibition may be achieved, compared with standard integral tablets. In STEMI patients, fast and potent platelet inhibition with chewed ticagrelor may reduce the risk of early stent thrombosis and patients treated with a less aggressive antithrombotic strategy, such as UFH or bivalirudin monotherapy, may derive a greater benefit. Although gender differences in adverse outcomes could mainly be explained by older age and clustering of comorbidities in women, a bleedreduction strategy in women with high risk characteristics is warranted in order to improve their outcome. Regardless the choice of antithrombotic strategy, dose adjustment of drugs cleared by kidneys based on GFR estimation is of crucial importance. MDRD and CKD-EPI should be the formulas used for estimation of GFR in STEMI patients
  • Klaff, Rami, 1971- (författare)
  • Disease-Specific Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients : Results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5 and Regional Cancer Register Data
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in Sweden. The clinical course varies considerably, which makes it difficult to predict the prognosis in the individual case. In order to explore the early as well as the late course of the disease, large study groups and population-based cohorts are necessary.AimsTo explore factors that influence the long-term outcome of men with low-risk tumours in a population-based register, to predict the long-term course, and to assess the mortality rate for men with prostate cancer (Paper I)To analyse long-term outcome and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival in patients with metastases to the skeleton (Paper II)To analyse early androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) failure and to define clinical predictors associated with short survival due to early ADT failure in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases (Paper III)To analyse the prognostic significance of the extent of bone metastases in relation to other pretreatment variables in prostate cancer patients, and to explore the impact of bone metastases on quality-of-life (Paper IV)Material and methodsThe study groups were assembled from The South East Region Prostate Cancer Register (SERPCR), and The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5. In the first study, prognostic factors and long-term disease-specific mortality rates of low-risk prostate cancer patients from the early PSA era were analysed. In the second study, patient-related factors, quality-of-life (QoL) and long-term survival in 915 PCa patients with bone metastases (M1b) under ADT, were analysed. In Study III factors predicting primary failure to respond to ADT were identified. Study IV explored the impact of the extent of bone metastases on survival and QoL for these men.Result and conclusionsThe long-term disease-specific mortality of low-risk localised PCa is low, but the annual mortality rate gradually increases. This indicates that some tumours slowly develop into lethal cancer, particularly in men 70 years or older and with a PSA level ≥ 4 μg/L. From the SPCG Trial No. 5, a subgroup of patients with M1b disease and favourable set of predictive factors survived more than 10 years under ADT with an acceptable QoL. Independent predictors of long-term survival were identified as performance status (PS) < 2, limited extent of bone metastases, and a PSA level < 231 μg/L at the time of enrolment in the trial. However, four independent clinical predictors of early ADT failure could be defined. Men exhibiting these features should be considered for an alternative treatment. Patient grouping based on three categories of extent of bone metastases related to PS, haemoglobin, and QoL at presentation, as independent predictors of mortality, may provide improved accuracy of prognosis.
  • Slind Olsen, Renate (författare)
  • Circulating and genetic factors in colorectal cancer : Potential factors for establishing prognosis?
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is defined as a cancer appearing in the colon or in the rectum. In Sweden, ~ 6300 individuals were diagnosed with the disease in 2014 and ~ 2550 individuals diagnosed with CRC die each year due to their cancer. Surgery is the main treatment option of CRC and a survival rate of ~ 10 % is estimated if distant metastases have developed. It is therefore of importance to find factors that may be useful together with tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) stage to establish early CRC diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of CRC patients. The aim of this thesis was to study the possible association of CD93, PLA2G4C, PDGF-D and inflammatory cytokines with CRC disease progression.In a prospective study approach CD93 and PLA2G4C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were of potential importance in CRC prognosis.The T/T genotype of CD93 was associated with an increased CD93 expression in CRC tissue. Further, CRC patients carrying this genotype were associated with disseminated CRC at diagnosis and a lower recurrence-free survival after surgery. The A allele of a SNP of PLA2G4C was a stronger predictor for CRC-specific mortality than the conventional risk factors used in the clinic for selection of TNM stage II patients for adjuvant treatment. This indicates that the T/T genotype of CD93 and the A allele of PLA2G4C may be potential genetic factors related to disease severity and spread. Furthermore, they distinguish CRC patients that may benefit from a more comprehensive follow-up and adjuvant treatment.To study the putative involvement of PDGF-D in CRC the effects of PDGF-D signalling was studied in vitro. PDGF-D signalling altered the expression of genes of importance in CRC carcinogenesis and proliferation which was blocked by imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This indicates that PDGF-D signalling may be an important pathway in CRC progression and a potential target in CRC treatment.The analysis of various inflammatory cytokines in plasma at diagnosis showed an association between high levels and increased total- or CRC-specific mortality two years after surgery. High levels of CCL1 and CCL24 was the only cytokines strongly correlated with a worse CRC prognosis after statistical adjustments and may be of interest for further evaluation.In conclusion, this thesis presents circulating and genetic factors such as CD93, PLA2G4C, PDGF-D, CCL1 and CCL24 that may be of importance in CRC progression and may be of clinical value together with TNM stage in establishing prognosis.
  • Aljabery, Firas (författare)
  • Staging and tumor biological mechanisms of lymph node metastasis in invasive urinary bladder cancer
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: To study the possibility of detecting lymph node metastasis in locally advanced urinary bladder cancer (UBC) treated with radical cystectomy (RC) by using preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peroperative sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique. We also investigate the clinical significance of macrophage traits expression by cancer cells, M2-macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and the immunohistochemical expression of biomarkers in cancer cells in relation to clinicopathologic data.Patients and Methods: We studied prospectively 122 patients with UBC, pathological stage pT1–pT4 treated with RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during 2005–2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. In the first study, we compared the results of preoperative PET/CT and conventional CT with the findings of postoperative histopathological evaluation of lymph nodes (LNs). In the second study we investigated the value of SNB technique for detecting pathological LNs during RC in patients with UBC. W also examined the significance of the primary tumor location in the bladder in predicting the site of LN metastases, and the prognostic significance of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis density (LNMD) on survival. In the third study, we investigate the clinical significance of macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and macrophage-traits expression by tumor cells. In the fourth study, we investigate the cell cycle suppression proteins p53, p21, pRb, p16, p14 ARF as well as tumors proliferative protein Ki67 and DNA repair protein ERCC1 expression in cancer cells. The results were compared with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome.Results: Prior to RC, PET/CT was used to detect LN metastasis in 54 patients. PET/CT had 41% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 58% PPV, and 76% NPV, whereas the corresponding figures for conventional CT were 41%, 89%, 64%, and 77%. SNB was performed during RC in 103 patients. A median number of 29 (range 7–68) nodes per patient were examined. SNs were detected in 83 out of 103 patients (81%). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SNB varied among LN stations, with average values of 67% -90%. LNMD or ≥8% and LVI were significantly related to shorter survival. In 103 patients, MI was high in 33% of cases, while moderate and low infiltration occurred in 42% and 25% of tumors respectively. Patients with tumors containing high and moderate compared to low MI had low rate of LN metastases (P=0.06) and improved survival (P=0.06), although not at significant level. The expression of different tumor suppression proteins was altered in 47-91% of the patients. There were no significant association between cancer specific survival (CSS) and any of the studied biomarkers. In case of altered p14ARF, ERCC1 or p21, CSS was low in case of low p53 immunostaining but increased in case of p53 accumulation, although not at a significant level, indicating a possible protective effect of p53 accumulation in these cases.Conclusion: PET/ CT provided no improvement over conventional CT in detection and localization of regional LN metastases in bladder cancer. It is possible to detect the SN but the technique is not a reliable for perioperative localization of LN metastases; however, LVI and LNMD at a cut-off level of 8% had significant prognostic values. MI in the tumor microenvironment but not CD163 expression in tumor cells seems to be synergistic with the immune response against urinary bladder cancer. Our results further indicate that altered p53 might have protective effect on survival in case of altered p14ARF, p21, or ERCC1 indicating an interaction between these biomarkers.
  • Loftås, Per, 1964- (författare)
  • Response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer surgery
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rectal cancer is one of the three most common malignancies in Sweden with an annual incidence of about 2000 cases. Current treatment consists of surgical resection of the rectum including the loco-regional lymph nodes in the mesorectum. In advanced cases, neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) prior to the operative treatment reduces local recurrences and enables surgery. The neoadjuvant treatment can also eradicate the tumour completely, i.e. complete response. This research project was designed to investigate the effects of preoperative radiotherapy/ CRT and analyze methods to predict response to CRT.Study I investigated the expression of the FXYD-3 protein with immunohistochemistry in rectal cancer, with or without preoperative radiotherapy. The results from the total cohort showed that, strong FXYD-3 expression was correlated to infiltrative tumour growth (p = 0.02). In the radiotherapy group, strong FXYD-3 expression was related to an unfavourable prognosis (p = 0.02). Tumours with strong FXYD-3 expression had less tumour necrosis (p = 0.02) after radiotherapy. FXYD-3 expression in the primary tumour was increased compared to normal mucosa (p=0.008). We concluded that FXYD-3 expression was a prognostic factor in patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer.Study II investigated FXYD-3 expression in tumours that developed local recurrences following surgery and compared this with expression in tumours that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the group that developed local recurrences and the group that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in survival between those with strong or weak FXYD-3 expression. We concluded that this study could not confirm the findings from study 1 i.e. that FXYD-3 expression has prognostic significance in rectal cancer.Study III was a register-based study on the incidence and effects of complete response to neoadjuvant treatment. Eight per cent of the patients with adequate CRT to achieve complete response also had a complete histological response of the luminal tumor in the resected bowel. Sixteen per cent of that group had remaining lymph node metastases in the operative specimen. Chemotherapy together with radiotherapy doubled the chance of complete response in the luminal tumour. Patients with remaining lymph node metastases had a lower survival rate compared to those without. We concluded that residual nodal involvement after neoadjuvant treatment was an important factor for reduced survival after complete response in the luminal tumour.Study IV followed up the results from the previous study by re-evaluating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- images in patients with complete tumour response. Two experienced MRI radiologists performed blinded re-staging of post CRT MR- images from patients with complete response in the luminal tumour. One group with lymph node metastases and another one without were studied and the results compared with the pathology reports. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicted values for correct staging of positive lymph nodes was 37%, 84%, 70% and 57%. The size of the largest lymph node (4.5 mm, p=0.04) seemed to indicate presence of a tumour positive lymph node. We concluded that MRI couldn’t correctly stage patients for lymph node metastases in patients with complete response to CRT in the luminal tumour.
  • Nerpin, Elisabet, 1962- (författare)
  • The Kidney in Different Stages of the Cardiovascular Continuum
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Patients with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The complex, interaction between the kidney and the cardiovascular system is incompletely understood, particularly at the early stages of the cardiovascular continuum.The overall aim of this thesis was to clarify novel aspects of the interplay between the kidney and the cardiovascular system at different stages of the cardiovascular continuum; from risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress, via sub-clinical cardiovascular damage such as endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular dysfunction, to overt cardiovascular death.This thesis is based on two community-based cohorts of elderly, Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) and Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).The first study, show that higher insulin sensitivity, measured with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was associated to improve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in participants with normal fasting plasma glucose, normal glucose tolerance and normal eGFR. In longitudinal analyses, higher insulin sensitivity at baseline was associated with lower risk of impaired renal function during follow-up. In the second study, eGFR was inversely associated with different inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A) and positively associated with a marker of oxidative stress (urinary F2-isoprostanes). In line with this, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was positively associated with these inflammatory markers, and negatively associated with oxidative stress.In study three, higher eGFR was associated with better endothelial function as assessed by the invasive forearm model. Further, in study four, higher eGFR was significantly associated with higher left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction). The 5th study of the thesis shows that higher urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and lower eGFR was independently associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Analyses of global model fit, discrimination, calibration, and reclassification suggest that UAER and eGFR add relevant prognostic information beyond established cardiovascular risk factors in participants without prevalent cardiovascular disease.Conclusion: this thesis show that the interaction between the kidney and the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and that this interplay begins at an early asymptomatic stage of the disease process.
  • Glimelius, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Persistent prevention of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy using calmangafodipir (PledOx®) : a placebo-controlled randomised phase II study (PLIANT)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 57:3, s. 393-402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Oxaliplatin causes disabling acute and chronic peripheral neuropathy. We explored the preventive effects of calmangafodipir, mimicking the mitochondrial enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress, in a placebo-controlled, double-blinded randomised phase II study (ClinicalTrials.gov.NCT01619423) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).Patient and methods: mCRC patients treated with modified FOLFOX-6 (folinic acid 200 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil bolus 400 mg/m2, oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 and 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2 continuous infusion for 46 h) every fortnight for 8 cycles in first or second line were eligible. Calmangafodipir was given in a phase I dose-finding and in a phase II placebo-controlled study, as a 5-min infusion 10 min prior to oxaliplatin. Neurotoxicity was evaluated by the physician using the Oxaliplatin Sanofi Specific Scale and by the patient using the cold allodynia test and the Leonard scale.Results: Eleven patients were included in phase I without any detectable toxicity to calmangafodipir. In the phase II study, 173 patients were randomised to placebo (n = 60), calmangafodipir 2 µmol/kg (n = 57) and calmangafodipir 5 µmol/kg (n = 45, initially 10 µmol/kg, n = 11). Calmangafodipir-treated patients (all three doses pooled) had less physician graded neurotoxicity (odds ratio (90% confidence interval one-sided upper level) 0.62(1.15), p = .16), significantly less problems with cold allodynia (mean 1.6 versus 2.3, p < .05) and significantly fewer sensory symptoms in the Leonard scale (cycle 1–8 mean 1.9 versus 3.0, p < .05 and during follow-up after 3 and 6 months, mean 3.5 versus 7.3, p < .01). Response rate, progression-free and overall survival did not differ among groups.Conclusions: Calmangafodipir at a dose of 5 µmol/kg appears to prevent the development of oxaliplatin-induced acute and delayed CIPN without apparent influence on tumour outcomes.
  • Carlström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Peritoneal dialysis impairs nitric oxide homeostasis and may predispose infants with low systolic blood pressure to cerebral ischemia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry. - : Elsevier. - 1089-8603 .- 1089-8611. ; 58, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & purpose Infants on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) have an increased risk of developing neurological morbidities; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. In this clinical study, we investigated whether PD-mediated impairment of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and signaling, in patients with persistently low systolic blood pressure (SBP), can explain the occurrence of cerebral ischemia. Methods & results Repeated blood pressure measurements, serial neuroimaging studies, and investigations of systemic nitrate and nitrite levels, as well as NO signaling, were performed in ten pediatric patients on PD. We consistently observed the loss of both inorganic nitrate (-17 ± 3%, P < 0.05) and nitrite (-34 ± 4%, P < 0.05) during PD, which may result in impairment of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Indeed, PD was associated with significant reduction of cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels (-59.4 ± 15%, P < 0.05). This reduction in NO signaling was partly prevented by using a commercially available PD solution supplemented with l-arginine. Although PD compromised nitrate-nitrite-NO signaling in all cases, only infants with persistently low SBP developed ischemic cerebral complications. Conclusions Our data suggests that PD impairs NO homeostasis and predisposes infants with persistently low SBP to cerebral ischemia. These findings improve current understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile cerebral ischemia induced by PD and may lead to the new treatment strategies to reduce neurological morbidities.
  • Lindblom, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased levels of ionized calcium one year after hemithyroidectomy: importance of reduced thyroid hormones
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research. - : Karger. - 0301-0163. ; 55:2, s. 81-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previously we have found reduced levels of total serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3 despite an unaltered stimulated parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion 1 year after hemithyroidectomy. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible relationship between calcium homeostasis, thyroid hormones and bone resorption in a group of 45 consecutive patients subjected to hemithyroidectomy because of a solitary nodule. All patients had free T4 and T3 levels within normal range preoperatively. METHODS: Thyroid hormones, bone mineral and biochemical variables known to reflect calcium homeostasis were studied. Patients were divided into three separate groups depending on their pre- and postoperative thyroid hormone status. RESULTS: One year postoperatively, serum levels of free T4 were decreased and that of thyrotropin (TSH) increased in the entire group of patients. The concentration of ionized calcium was reduced from 1.25 +/- 0.05 to 1.22 +/- 0.04 (p < 0.001) despite an unaltered PTH value (2.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 3.1 +/- 1.5, p = 0.50). A significant reduction in C-terminal telopeptide type 1 collagen (1CTP) indicated decreased bone resorption 1 year after surgery (p < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that a reduction in ionized calcium was seen only among patients with a postoperative decrease in free T4. Patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism preoperatively presented the lowest postoperative levels of ionized calcium, significantly reduced levels of 1CTP and increased levels of phosphate and creatinine. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (p < 0.05) and postoperatively changed serum levels of TSH (p < 0.05), creatinine (p < 0.05), phosphate (p < 0.001) and FT4 (p < 0.01) were independently associated with altered levels of ionized calcium. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the reduction in ionized calcium 1 year after hemithyroidectomy was not due to PTH deficiency. Instead our results suggest that the reduced effects of thyroid hormones on bone and kidney function is essential.
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