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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinsk bioteknologi) hsv:(Medicinsk bioteknologi med inriktning mot cellbiologi inklusive stamcellsbiologi molekylärbiologi mikrobiologi biokemi eller biofarmaci)

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1.
  • Asif, Sana, et al. (författare)
  • Heparinization of cell surfaces with short peptide-conjugated PEG-lipid regulates thromboinflammation in transplantation of human MSCs and hepatocytes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Biomaterialia. - 1742-7061 .- 1878-7568. ; 35, s. 194-205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infusion of therapeutic cells into humans is associated with immune responses, including thromboinflammation, which result in a large loss of transplanted cells\ To address these problems, heparinization of the cell surfaces was achieved by a cell-surface modification technique using polyethylene glycol conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives. A short heparin-binding peptide was conjugated to the PEG-lipid for immobilization of heparin conjugates on the surface of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human hepatocytes. Here three kinds of heparin-binding peptides were used for immobilizing heparin conjugates and examined for the antithrombogenic effects on the cell surface. The heparinized cells were incubated in human whole blood to evaluate their hemocompatibility by measuring blood parameters such as platelet count, coagulation markers, complement markers, and Factor Xa activity. We found that one of the heparin-binding peptides did not show cytotoxicity after the immobilization with heparin conjugates. The degree of binding of the heparin conjugates on the cell surface (analyzed by flow cytometer) depended on the ratio of the active peptide to control peptide. For both human MSCs and hepatocytes in whole-blood experiments, no platelet aggregation was seen in the heparin conjugate-immobilized cell group vs. the controls (non-coated cells or control peptide). Also, the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), C3a, and sC5b-9 were significantly lower than those of the controls, indicating a lower activation of coagulation and complement. Factor Xa analysis indicated that the heparin conjugate was still active on the cell surface at 24 h post-coating. It is possible to immobilize heparin conjugates onto hMSC and human hepatocyte surfaces and thereby protect the cell surfaces from damaging thromboinflammation. Statement of Signigficance We present a promising approach to enhance the biocompatibility of therapeutic cells. Here we used short peptide-conjugated PEG-lipid for cell surface modification and heparin conjugates for the coating of human hepatocytes and MSCs. We screened the short peptides to find higher affinity for heparinization of cell surface and performed hemocompatibility assay of heparinized human hepatocytes and human MSCs in human whole blood. Using heparin-binding peptide with higher affinity, not only coagulation activation but also complement activation was significantly suppressed. Thus, it was possible to protect human hepatocytes and human MSCs from the attack of thromboinflammatory activation, which can contribute to the improvement graft survival. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Fürsatz, Marian, et al. (författare)
  • Functionalization of bacterial cellulose wound dressings with the antimicrobial peptide ε-poly-L-Lysine
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biomedical Materials. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 1748-6041 .- 1748-605X. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wound dressings based on bacterial cellulose (BC) can form a soft and conformable protective layer that can stimulate wound healing while preventing bacteria from entering the wound. Bacteria already present in the wound can, however, thrive in the moist environment created by the BC dressing which can aggravate the healing process. Possibilities to render the BC antimicrobial without affecting the beneficial structural and mechanical properties of the material would hence be highly attractive. Here we present methods for functionalization of BC with ε-Poly-L-Lysine (ε-PLL), a non-toxic biopolymer with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Low molecular weight ε-PLL was cross-linked in pristine BC membranes and to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) functionalized BC using carbodiimide chemistry. The functionalization of BC with ε-PLL inhibited growth of S. epidermidis on the membranes but did not affect the cytocompatibility to cultured human fibroblasts as compared to native BC. The functionalization had no significant effects on the nanofibrous structure and mechanical properties of the BC. The possibility to functionalize BC with ε-PLL is a promising, green and versatile approach to improve the performance of BC in wound care and other biomedical applications.
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3.
  • Georgiou, Melanie, et al. (författare)
  • Engineered neural tissue with aligned, differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration across a critical sized defect in rat sciatic nerve
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biomaterials. - 0142-9612 .- 1878-5905. ; 37, s. 242-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from rats and differentiated to a Schwann cell-like phenotype in vitro. The differentiated cells (dADSCs) underwent self-alignment in a tethered type-1 collagen gel, followed by stabilisation to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT-dADSC). The pro-regenerative phenotype of dADSCs was enhanced by this process, and the columns of aligned dADSCs in the aligned collagen matrix supported and guided neurite extension in vitro. EngNT-dADSC sheets were rolled to form peripheral nerve repair constructs that were implanted within NeuraWrap conduits to bridge a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve. After 8 weeks regeneration was assessed using immunofluorescence imaging and transmission electron microscopy and compared to empty conduit and nerve graft controls. The proportion of axons detected in the distal stump was 3.5 fold greater in constructs containing EngNT-dADSC than empty tube controls. Our novel combination of technologies that can organise autologous therapeutic cells-within an artificial tissue construct provides a promising new cellular biomaterial for peripheral nerve repair. 
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4.
  • Halling Linder, Cecilia, 1975- (författare)
  • Biochemical and functional properties of mammalian bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms during osteogenesis
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The human skeleton is a living and dynamic tissue that constantly is being renewed in a process called bone remodeling. Old bone is resorbed by osteoclasts and new bone is formed by osteoblasts. Bone is a composite material made up by mineral crystals in the form of hydroxyapatite (calcium and phosphate) that provides the hardness of bone, and collagen fibrils that provides elasticity and flexibility. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a family of enzymes that is present in most species and catalyzes the hydrolysis of various phosphomonoesters at alkaline pH. Despite the generalized use of ALP as a biochemical marker of bone formation, the precise function of bone ALP (BALP) is only now becoming clear. Three circulating human BALP isoforms (B1, B2, and B/I) can be distinguished in healthy individuals and a fourth isoform (B1x) has been discovered in patients with chronic kidney disease and in bone tissue.Paper I. Three endogenous phosphocompounds, (i.e., inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) and phosphoethanolamine (PEA)), have been suggested to serve as  physiological substrates for BALP. The BALP isoforms display different catalytic properties towards PPi and PLP, which is attributed to their distinct N-linked glycosylation patterns. The catalytic activity, using PEA as substrate, was barely detectable for all BALP isoforms indicating that PEA is not a physiological substrate for BALP.Paper II. Mouse serum ALP is frequently measured and interpreted in mammalian bone research. However, little is known about the circulating ALPs in mice and their relation to human ALP. We characterized the circulating and tissue-derived mouse ALP isozymes and isoforms from mixed strains of wild-type and knockout mice. All four BALP isoforms (B/I, B1x, B1, and B2) were identified in mouse serum and bone tissues, in good correspondence with those found in human bones. All mouse tissues, except liver, contained significant ALP activities. This is a notable difference as human liver contains vast amounts of ALP.Paper III. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human BALP, including the two BALP isoforms B1 and B2, together with ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis showed that BALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. The B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform, indicating that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein–protein interactions with collagen type I.Paper IV. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is highly expressed in osteoclasts and frequently used as a marker of bone resorption. Intriguingly, recent studies show that TRAP is also expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes. TRAP displays enzymatic activity towards the endogenous substrates for BALP, i.e., PPi and PLP. Both TRAP and BALP can alleviate the inhibitory effect of osteopontin on mineralization by dephosphorylation, which suggests a novel role for TRAP in skeletal mineralization.
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5.
  • Huang, Shan, et al. (författare)
  • Reciprocal relationship between contact and complement system activation on artificial polymers exposed to whole human blood.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Biomaterials. - : Elsevier. - 0142-9612 .- 1878-5905. ; 77, s. 111-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Inappropriate and uncontrolled activation of the cascade systems in the blood is a driving force in adverse inflammatory and thrombotic reactions elicited by biomaterials, but limited data are available on the activation of the contact system by polymers and the present study was undertaken to investigate these mechanisms in established models.METHODS: Polymer particles were incubated in (1) EDTA-plasma (10 mM) to monitor the adsorption of 20 selected proteins; (2) lepirudin-anticoagulated plasma to evaluate contact system activation, monitored by the formation of complexes between the generated proteases factor[F]XIIa, FXIa and kallikrein and the serpins C1-inhibitor [C1INH] and antithrombin [AT]; (3) lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood to determine cytokine release.RESULTS: Strong negative correlations were found between 10 cytokines and the ratio of deposited FXII/C1INH, generated FXIIa-C1INH complexes, and kallikrein-C1INH complexes. Formation of FXIIa-C1INH complexes correlated negatively with the amount of C3a and positively with deposited IgG.CONCLUSIONS: A reciprocal relationship was found between activation of the contact system and the complement system induced by the polymers studied here. The ratios of FXII/C1INH or C4/C4BP, adsorbed from EDTA-plasma are useful surrogate markers for cytokine release and inflammatory response to materials intended for blood contact.
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6.
  • Pulkkinen, Hertta, et al. (författare)
  • Recombinant human type II collagen as a material for cartilage tissue engineering.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Artificial Organs. - : Wichtig Editore Srl. - 0391-3988 .- 1724-6040. ; 31:11, s. 960-969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Collagen type II is the major component of cartilage and would be an optimal scaffold material for reconstruction of injured cartilage tissue. In this study, the feasibility of recombinant human type II collagen gel as a 3-dimensional culture system for bovine chondrocytes was evaluated in vitro.METHODS: Bovine chondrocytes (4x106 cells) were seeded within collagen gels and cultivated for up to 4 weeks. The gels were investigated with confocal microscopy, histology, and biochemical assays.RESULTS: Confocal microscopy revealed that the cells maintained their viability during the entire cultivation period. The chondrocytes were evenly distributed inside the gels, and the number of cells and the amount of the extracellular matrix increased during cultivation. The chondrocytes maintained their round phenotype during the 4-week cultivation period. The glycosaminoglycan levels of the tissue increased during the experiment. The relative levels of aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA measured with realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed an increase at 1 week.CONCLUSION: Our results imply that recombinant human type II collagen is a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering, allowing homogeneous distribution in the gel and biosynthesis of extracellular matrix components.
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7.
  • Rangasami, Vignesh K., et al. (författare)
  • Pluronic Micelle-Mediated Tissue Factor Silencing Enhances Hemocompatibility, Stemness, Differentiation Potential, and Paracrine Signaling of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Biomacromolecules. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1525-7797 .- 1526-4602. ; 22:5, s. 1980-1989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) evoke great excitement for treating different human diseases due to their ability to home inflamed tissues, suppress inflammation, and promote tissue regeneration. Despite great promises, clinical trial results are disappointing as allotransplantation of MSCs trigger thrombotic activity and are damaged by the complement system, compromising their survival and function. To overcome this, a new strategy is presented by the silencing of tissue factor (TF), a transmembrane protein that mediates procoagulant activity. Novel Pluronic-based micelles are designed with the pendant pyridyl disulfide group, which are used to conjugate TF-targeting siRNA by the thiol-exchange reaction. This nanocarrier design effectively delivered the payload to MSCs resulting in ∼72% TF knockdown (KD) without significant cytotoxicity. Hematological evaluation of MSCs and TF-KD MSCs in an ex vivo human whole blood model revealed a significant reduction in an instant-blood-mediated-inflammatory reaction as evidenced by reduced platelet aggregation (93% of free platelets in the TF-KD group, compared to 22% in untreated bone marrow-derived MSCs) and thrombin–antithrombin complex formation. Effective TF silencing induced higher MSC differentiation in osteogenic and adipogenic media and showed stronger paracrine suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages and higher stimulation in the presence of endotoxins. Thus, TF silencing can produce functional cells with higher fidelity, efficacy, and functions.
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8.
  • Arfvidsson, Berndt, et al. (författare)
  • S100B concentrations increase perioperatively in jugular vein blood despite limited metabolic and inflammatory response to clinically uneventful carotid endarterectomy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : Walter de Gruyter. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 53:1, s. 111-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that metabolic and inflammatory responses of the brain perioperatively during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) might affect blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity.Methods: Twenty patients with >70% stenosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) were prospectively included. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. Blood was sampled from ipsilateral internal jugular vein and radial artery: just before, during, and after ICA clamping S100B protein, glucose, lactate, 20 amino acids, and key cytokines were analysed.Results: Jugular vein S100B increased during clamping and reperfusion, while a marginal systemic increase was recorded, unrelated to stump pressure during clamping. Glucose increased during clamping in jugular vein blood and even more systemically, while jugular lactate values were higher than systemic values initially. Most amino acids did not differ significantly between jugular vein and systemic levels: glutamic acid and aspartic acid decreased during surgery while asparagine increased. Jugular vein interleukin (IL)-6 showed a transient non-significant increase during clamping and decreased systemically. IL-8 and IL-10 increased over time.Conclusions: Rising jugular vein S100B concentrations indicated reduced BBB integrity, and marginal secondary increase of S100B systemically. Limited ischaemic effects on the brain during cross-clamping, unrelated to S100B concentrations, were confirmed by lower brain glucose levels and higher lactate levels than in systemic blood. The lack of increased jugular vein glutamic acid disproves any major ischaemic brain injury following CEA. The inflammatory response was limited, did not differ greatly between jugular and systemic blood, and was unrelated to S100B.
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9.
  • Cholujová, Dana, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative study of four fluorescent probes for evaluation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity assays
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Immunobiology. - : Elsevier. - 0171-2985 .- 1878-3279. ; 213:8, s. 629-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytotoxicity is one of the major defence mechanisms against both virus-infected and tumor cells. Radioactive 51chromium (51Cr) release assay is a “gold standard” for assessment of natural killer (NK) cytolytic activity in vitro. Several disadvantages of this assay led us to design alternative tools based on flow cytometry analysis. Four different fluorescent dyes, calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CAM), carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), Vybrant DiO (DiO) and MitoTracker Green (MTG) were tested for labeling of NK target K-562 cells. Target staining stability, spontaneous release of fluorochromes and subsequent accumulation in bystander unstained cells were measured using fluorimetry and flow cytometry. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells and affinity column purified NK cells were used as effectors coincubated with target K-562 cells at different E:T ratios for 3h and 90min, respectively. Fluorescent probe 7-amino-actinomycin D was used for live and dead cell discrimination. Bland–Altman statistical method was applied to measure true agreement for all CAM–51Cr, CFSE–51Cr, DiO–51Cr and MTG–51Cr pairs analyzed. Based on the data, none of the four proposed methods can be stated equivalent to the standard 51Cr release assay. Considering linear relationships between data obtained with four fluorochromes and 51Cr release assay as well as linear regression analysis with R2=0.9393 value for CAM–51Cr pair, we found the CAM assay to be the most closely related to the 51Cr assay.
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10.
  • Christoffersson, Jonas, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • A Cardiac Cell Outgrowth Assay for Evaluating Drug Compounds Using a Cardiac Spheroid-on-a-Chip Device
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bioengineering. - 2306-5354. ; 5:2, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Three-dimensional (3D) models with cells arranged in clusters or spheroids have emerged as valuable tools to improve physiological relevance in drug screening. One of the challenges with cells cultured in 3D, especially for high-throughput applications, is to quickly and non-invasively assess the cellular state in vitro. In this article, we show that the number of cells growing out from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiac spheroids can be quantified to serve as an indicator of a drug’s effect on spheroids captured in a microfluidic device. Combining this spheroid-on-a-chip with confocal high content imaging reveals easily accessible, quantitative outgrowth data. We found that effects on outgrowing cell numbers correlate to the concentrations of relevant pharmacological compounds and could thus serve as a practical readout to monitor drug effects. Here, we demonstrate the potential of this semi-high-throughput “cardiac cell outgrowth assay” with six compounds at three concentrations applied to spheroids for 48 h. The image-based readout complements end-point assays or may be used as a non-invasive assay for quality control during long-term culture.
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