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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Immunologi inom det medicinska området) "

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1.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X .- 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
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2.
  • Bhandage, Amol K., 1988- (författare)
  • Glutamate and GABA signalling components in the human brain and in immune cells
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the principal excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). They both can activate their ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate activates ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGlu - AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors) and GABA activates GABA-A receptors which are modulated by many types of drugs and substances including alcohol. Using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, I have shown that iGlu and/or GABA-A receptor subunits were expressed in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (HDG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), central amygdala (CeA), caudate and putamen of the human brain and their expression was altered by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. It indicates that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission may have been altered in the brain of human alcoholics. It is possible that changes in one type of neurotransmitter system may drive changes in another. These brain regions also play a role in brain reward system. Any changes in them may lead to changes in the normal brain functions.Apart from the CNS, glutamate and GABA are also present in the blood and can be synthesised by pancreatic islet cells and immune cells. They may act as immunomodulators of circulating immune cells and can affect immune function through glutamate and GABA receptors. I found that T cells from human, rat and mouse lymph nodes expressed the mRNAs and proteins for specific GABA-A receptor subunits. GABA-evoked transient and tonic currents recorded using the patch clamp technique demonstrate the functional GABA-A channel in T cells. Furthermore, the mRNAs for specific iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptor subunits and chloride cotransporters were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men, non-pregnant women, healthy and depressed pregnant women. The results indicate that the expression of iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptors is related to gender, pregnancy and mental health and support the notion that glutamate and GABA receptors may modulate immune function. Intra- and interspecies variability exists in the expression and it is further influenced by physiological conditions.
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4.
  • Fritz, Michael, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Interferon-ɣ mediated signaling in the brain endothelium is critical for inflammation-induced aversion
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity. - Maryland Heights : Academic Press. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 67, s. 54-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic inflammation elicits malaise and a negative affective state. The mechanism underpinning the aversive component of inflammation include cerebral prostaglandin synthesis and modulation of dopaminergic reward circuits, but the messengers that mediate the signaling between the peripheral inflammation and the brain have not been sufficiently characterized. Here we investigated the role of interferon-ɣ (IFN-ɣ) in the aversive response to systemic inflammation induced by a low dose (10μg/kg) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. LPS induced IFN-ɣ expression in the blood and deletion of IFN-ɣ or its receptor prevented the development of conditioned place aversion to LPS. LPS induced expression of the chemokine Cxcl10 in the striatum of normal mice, but this induction was absent in mice lacking IFN-ɣ receptors or Myd88 in blood brain barrier endothelial cells. Furthermore, inflammation-induced aversion was blocked in mice lacking Cxcl10 or its receptor Cxcr3. Finally, mice with a selective deletion of the IFN-ɣ receptor in brain endothelial cells did not develop inflammation-induced aversion, demonstrating that the brain endothelium is the critical site of IFN-ɣ action. Collectively, these findings show that circulating IFN-ɣ that binds to receptors on brain endothelial cells and induces Cxcl10, is a central link in the signaling chain eliciting inflammation-induced aversion.
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5.
  • Greiff, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of topical platelet activating factor on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 160:4, s. 387-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been reported to produce a variety of airway effects including epithelial damage and increased airway-lung absorption of hydrophilic tracers. The present study examines effects of PAF on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo. Vehicle with and without PAF (4.0 and 8.0 nmol) was superfused onto the tracheobronchial mucosa. The levels of 125I-albumin, previously given intravenously, were determined in tracheobronchial lavage fluids as an index of mucosal exudation of plasma. The mucosa was also examined by scanning electron microscopy. In separate animals, 99mTc-DTPA (a low molecular weight, 492 Da, hydrophilic tracer) was superfused onto the mucosal surface through an oro-tracheal catheter, together with vehicle or PAF (8.0 nmol). A gamma camera determined the disappearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA from the airways as an index of mucosal absorption. PAF produced dose-dependent mucosal exudation of plasma up to 20-fold greater than control (P < 0.001). However, PAF did not damage the epithelium and the absorption ability of the airway mucosa was unaffected. The results, in contrast to previous reports, suggest that PAF may not readily damage the airway mucosa even at large exudative doses of the agent. The present finding support the view that the plasticity of the epithelial junctions allows the creation of valve-like paracellular pathways for unidirectional clearance of extravasated plasma into the airway lumen. We suggest that endogenous PAF may participate in first line respiratory defence reactions by causing lumenal entry of bulk plasma without harming the epithelium.
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6.
  • Klawonn, Anna, 1985- (författare)
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Reward and Aversion
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Various molecular pathways in the brain shape our understanding of good and bad, as well as our motivation to seek and avoid such stimuli. This work evolves around how systemic inflammation causes aversion; and why general unpleasant states such as sickness, stress, pain and nausea are encoded by our brain as undesirable; and contrary to these questions, how drugs of abuse can subjugate the motivational neurocircuitry of the brain. A common feature of these various disease states is involvement of the motivational neurocircuitry - from mesolimbic to striatonigral pathways. Having an intact motivational system is what helps us evade negative outcomes and approach natural positive reinforcers, which is essential for our survival. During disease-states the motivational neurocircuitry may be overthrown by the molecular mechanisms that originally were meant to aid us.In study I, to investigate how inflammation is perceived as aversive, we used a behavioral test based on Pavlovian place conditioning with the aversive inflammatory stimulus E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using a combination of cell-type specific gene deletions, pharmacology, and chemogenetics, we uncovered that systemic inflammation triggered aversion by MyD88-dependent activation of the brain endothelium followed by COX1-mediated cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Moreover, we showed that inflammation-induced PGE2 targeted EP1 receptors on striatal dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons and that this signaling sequence induced aversion through GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic cells. Finally, inflammation-induced aversion was not an indirect consequence of fever or anorexia but constituted an independent inflammatory symptom triggered by a unique molecular mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGE2-mediated modulation of the dopaminergic circuitry is a key mechanism underlying inflammation-induced aversion.In study II, we investigate the role of peripheral IFN-γ in LPS induced conditioned place aversion by employing a strategy based on global and cell-type specific gene deletions, combined with measures of gene-expression. LPS induced IFN-ɣ expression in the blood, and deletion of IFN-ɣ or its receptor prevented conditioned place aversion (CPA) to LPS. LPS increased the expression of chemokine Cxcl10 in the striatum of normal mice. This induction was absent in mice lacking IFN-ɣ receptors or Myd88 in blood brain barrier endothelial cells. Furthermore, inflammation-induced aversion was blocked in mice lacking Cxcl10 or its receptor Cxcr3. Finally, mice with a selective deletion of the IFN-ɣ receptor in brain endothelial cells did not develop inflammation-induced aversion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that circulating IFN-ɣ binding to receptors on brain endothelial cells which induces Cxcl10, is a central link in the signaling chain eliciting inflammation-induced aversion.In study III, we explored the role of melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) in aversive processing using genetically modified mice in CPA to various stimuli. In normal mice, robust aversions were induced by systemic inflammation, nausea, pain and kappa opioid receptor-induced dysphoria. In sharp contrast, mice lacking MC4Rs displayed preference towards most of the aversive stimuli, but were indifferent to pain. The unusual flip from aversion to reward in mice lacking MC4Rs was dopamine-dependent and associated with a change from decreased to increased activity of the dopamine system. The responses to aversive stimuli were normalized when MC4Rs were re-expressed on dopamine D1 receptor-expressing cells or in the striatum of mice otherwise lacking MC4Rs. Furthermore, activation of arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin neurons projecting to the ventral striatum increased the activity of striatal neurons in a MC4R-dependent manner and elicited aversion. Our findings demonstrate that melanocortin signaling through striatal MC4Rs is critical for assigning negative motivational valence to harmful stimuli.The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implied in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the role of cholinergic receptor subtypes in such processes remains elusive. In study IV we investigated the function of muscarinic M4Rs on dopamine D1R expressing neurons and acetylcholinergic neurons, using transgenic mice in various reward-enforced behaviors and in a “waiting”-impulsivity test. Mice lacking M4-receptors from D1-receptor expressing neurons exhibited an escalated reward seeking phenotype towards cocaine and natural reward, in Pavlovian conditioning and an operant self-administration task, respectively. In addition, the M4-D1RCre mice showed impaired waiting impulsivity in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task. On the contrary, mice without M4Rs in acetylcholinergic neurons were unable to learn positive reinforcement to natural reward and cocaine, in an operant runway paradigm and in Pavlovian conditioning.  Immediate early gene expression mirrored the behavioral findings arising from M4R-D1R knockout, as cocaine induced cFos and FosB was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChatCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality.
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7.
  • Korsgren, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Allergic eosinophil-rich inflammation develops in lungs and airways of B cell-deficient mice
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - : Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 185:5, s. 885-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunoglobulins (Ig), particularly IgE, are believed to be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and, equally, in allergic models of the disease. To validate this paradigm we examined homozygous mutant C57BL/6 mice, which are B cell deficient, lacking all Ig. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with 10 micrograms ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum, followed by daily (day 14-20) 30 min exposures to OVA aerosol (OVA/OVA group). Three control groups were run: OVA intraperitoneally plus saline (SAL) aerosol (OVA/SAL group); saline intraperitoneally plus saline aerosol; saline intraperitoneally plus OVA aerosol (n = 6-7). Lung and large airway tissues obtained 24 h after the last OVA or SAL exposure were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ig-deficient mice receiving OVA/ OVA treatment had swollen and discolored lungs and exhibited marked eosinophilia both in large airway subepithelial tissue (49.2 +/- 12.0 cells/mm basement membrane [BM] versus OVA/ SAL control 1.2 +/- 0.3 cells/mm BM; P < 0.001), and perivascularly and peribronchially in the lung (49.3 +/- 9.0 cells/unit area versus OVA/SAL control 2.6 +/- 0.6 cells/unit area; P < 0.001). The eosinophilia extended to the regional lymph nodes. TEM confirmed the subepithelial and perivascular localization of eosinophils. Mucus cells in large airway epithelium increased from 1.5 +/- 0.8 (OVA/SAL mice) to 39.5 +/- 5.7 cells/mm BM in OVA/OVA treated mice (P < 0.001). OVA/SAL mice never differed from the other control groups. Corresponding experiments in wild-type mice (n = 6-7 in each group) showed qualitatively similar but less pronounced eosinophil and mucus cell changes. Macrophages and CD4+ T cells increased in lungs of all OVA/OVA-treated mice. Mast cell number did not differ but degranulation was detected only in OVA/OVA-treated wild-type mice. Immunization to OVA followed by OVA challenges thus cause eosinophil-rich inflammation in airways and lungs of mice without involvement of B cells and Ig.
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8.
  • Persson, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • The mouse trap
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. - : Elsevier. - 0165-6147. ; 18:12, s. 465-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouse models of asthma are now being used extensively in drug research. However, the successful unravelling of combinatorial interplays of cells and molecules in the murine airways may not be matched by equally successful demonstrations of an asthma-like pathophysiology. Here, Carl Persson, Jonas Erjefalt, Magnus Korsgren and Frank Sundler discuss the fact that major features of asthma may still need to be demonstrated in the airways of allergic mice.
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9.
  • Persson, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Unbalanced research
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. - : Elsevier. - 0165-6147. ; 22:10, s. 538-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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10.
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