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  • Hagberg, Rasmus, et al. (författare)
  • Using Program Analysis to Identify the Use of Vulnerable Functions
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: 18th International Conference on Security and Cryptography, SECRYPT 2021. - : INSTICC Press. - 9789897585241 ; , s. 520-530
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Open-Source Software (OSS) is increasingly used by software applications. It allows for code reuse, but also comes with the problem of potentially being affected by the vulnerabilities that are found in the OSS libraries. With large numbers of OSS components and a large number of published vulnerabilities, it becomes challenging to identify and analyze which OSS components need to be patched and updated. In addition to matching vulnerable libraries to those used in software products, it is also necessary to analyze if the vulnerable functionality is actually used by the software. This process is both time-consuming and error-prone. Automating this process presents several challenges, but has the potential to significantly decrease vulnerability exposure time. In this paper, we propose a modular framework for analyzing if software code is using the vulnerable part of a library, by analyzing and matching the call graphs of the software with changes resulting from security patches. Further, we provide an implementation of the framework targeting Java and the Maven dependency management system. This allows us to identify 20% of the dependencies in our sample projects as false positives. We also identify and discuss challenges and limitations in our approach
  • Balkenius, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Almost Alive : Robots and Androids
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Human Dynamics. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 2673-2726. ; 4, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Life-likeness is a property that can be used both to deceive people that a robot is more intelligent than it is or to facilitate the natural communication with humans. Over the years, different criteria have guided the design of intelligent systems, ranging from attempts to produce human-like language to trying to make a robot look like an actual human. We outline some relevant historical developments that all rely on different forms of mimicry of human life or intelligence. Many such approaches have been to some extent successful. However, we want to argue that there are ways to exploit aspects of life-likeness without deception. A life-like robot has advantages in communicating with humans, not because we believe it to be alive, but rather because we react instinctively to certain aspects of life-like behavior as this can make a robot easier to understand and allows us to better predict its actions. Although there may be reasons for trying to design robots that look exactly like humans for specific research purposes, we argue that it is subtle behavioral cues that are important for understandable robots rather than life-likeness in itself. To this end, we are developing a humanoid robot that will be able to show human-like movements while still looking decidedly robotic, thus exploiting the our ability to understand the behaviors of other people based on their movements.
  • Gharaee, Zahra (författare)
  • Action in Mind : A Neural Network Approach to Action Recognition and Segmentation
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Recognizing and categorizing human actions is an important task with applications in various fields such as human-robot interaction, video analysis, surveillance, video retrieval, health care system and entertainment industry.This thesis presents a novel computational approach for human action recognition through different implementations of multi-layer architectures based on artificial neural networks. Each system level development is designed to solve different aspects of the action recognition problem including online real-time processing, action segmentation and the involvement of objects. The analysis of the experimentalresults are illustrated and described in six articles.The proposed action recognition architecture of this thesis is composed of several processing layers including a preprocessing layer, an ordered vector representation layer and three layers of neural networks.It utilizes self-organizing neural networks such as Kohonen feature maps and growing grids as the main neural network layers. Thus the architecture presents a biological plausible approach with certain features such as topographic organization of the neurons, lateral interactions, semi-supervised learning and the ability to represent high dimensional input space in lower dimensional maps.For each level of development the system is trained with the input data consisting of consecutive 3D body postures and tested with generalized input data that the system has never met before. The experimental results of different system level developments show that the system performs well with quite high accuracy for recognizing human actions.
  • Park, Soon Young, et al. (författare)
  • How to improve data quality in dog eye tracking
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Behavior Research Methods. - : Springer. - 1554-3528.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pupil-corneal reflection (P-CR) eye tracking has gained a prominent role in studying dog visual cognition, despite methodological challenges that often lead to lower-quality data than when recording from humans. In the current study, we investigated if and how the morphology of dogs might interfere with tracking of P-CR systems, and to what extent such interference, possibly in combination with dog-unique eye-movement characteristics, may undermine data quality and affect eye-movement classification when processed through algorithms. For this aim, we have conducted an eye-tracking experiment with dogs and humans, and investigated incidences of tracking interference, compared how they blinked, and examined how differential quality of dog and human data affected the detection and classification of eye-movement events. Our results show that the morphology of dogs' face and eye can interfere with tracking methods of the systems, and dogs blink less often but their blinks are longer. Importantly, the lower quality of dog data lead to larger differences in how two different event detection algorithms classified fixations, indicating that the results of key dependent variables are more susceptible to choice of algorithm in dog than human data. Further, two measures of the Nyström & Holmqvist (Behavior Research Methods, 42(4), 188-204, 2010) algorithm showed that dog fixations are less stable and dog data have more trials with extreme levels of noise. Our findings call for analyses better adjusted to the characteristics of dog eye-tracking data, and our recommendations help future dog eye-tracking studies acquire quality data to enable robust comparisons of visual cognition between dogs and humans.
  • Mealier, Anne Laure, et al. (författare)
  • Construals of meaning : The role of attention in robotic language production
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Interaction Studies. - : John Benjamins Publishing Company. - 1572-0373. ; 17:1, s. 48-76
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In robotics research with language-based interaction, simplifications are made, such that a given event can be described in a unique manner, where there is a direct mapping between event representations and sentences that can describe these events. However, common experience tells us that the same physical event can be described in multiple ways, depending on the perspective of the speaker. The current research develops methods for representing events from multiple perspectives, and for choosing the perspective that will be used for generating a linguistic construal, based on attentional processes in the system. The multiple perspectives are based on the principle that events can be considered in terms of the force driving the event, and the result obtained from the event, based on the theory of Godenfors. In addition, within these perspectives a further refinement can be made with respect to the agent, object, and recipient perspectives. We develop a system for generating appropriate construals of meaning, and demonstrate how this can be used in a realistic dialogic interaction between a behaving robot and a human interlocutor.
  • Smeets, Ben (författare)
  • Towards combining Shannon's theory on secrecy systems and the theory of authentication in the case of multiple channel use
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory. - : IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 0780308786 ; , s. 156-156
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we consider cipher systems that provide both secrecy and security for a given number of (subsequent) transmissions. We show that there exists a broad class of situations in which we can do better (less key requirement) than just concatenating a perfect secrecy cipher and an authentication code.
  • Bagge Carlson, Fredrik (författare)
  • MonteCarloMeasurements.jl : Propagation of distributions by Monte-Carlo sampling: Real number types with uncertainty represented by particle clouds.
  • 2019
  • swepub:Mat__t (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This package facilitates working with probability distributions by means of Monte-Carlo methods, in a way that allows for propagation of probability distributions through functions. This is useful for, e.g., nonlinear uncertainty propagation. A variable or parameter might be associated with uncertainty if it is measured or otherwise estimated from data. We provide two core types to represent probability distributions: Particles and StaticParticles, both <: Real. (The name "Particles" comes from the particle-filtering literature.) These types all form a Monte-Carlo approximation of the distribution of a floating point number, i.e., the distribution is represented by samples/particles. Correlated quantities are handled as well, see multivariate particles below. Although several interesting use cases for doing calculations with probability distributions have popped up (see Examples), the original goal of the package is similar to that of Measurements.jl, to propagate the uncertainty from input of a function to the output. The difference compared to a Measurement is that Particles represent the distribution using a vector of unweighted particles, and can thus represent arbitrary distributions and handle nonlinear uncertainty propagation well. Functions like f(x) = x², f(x) = sign(x) at x=0 and long-time integration, are examples that are not handled well using linear uncertainty propagation ala Measurements.jl. MonteCarloMeasurements also support correlations between quantities. A number of type Particles behaves just as any other Number while partaking in calculations. After a calculation, an approximation to the complete distribution of the output is captured and represented by the output particles. mean, std etc. can be extracted from the particles using the corresponding functions. Particles also interact with Distributions.jl, so that you can call, e.g., Normal(p) and get back a Normal type from distributions or fit(Gamma, p) to get a Gammadistribution. Particles can also be iterated, asked for maximum/minimum, quantile etc. If particles are plotted with plot(p), a histogram is displayed. This requires Plots.jl. A kernel-density estimate can be obtained by density(p) is StatsPlots.jl is loaded.
  • Borg, Markus (författare)
  • Do Preparatory Programming Lab Sessions Contribute to Even Work Distribution in Student Teams?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings - 2020 ACM/IEEE 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering : Companion Proceedings, ICSE-Companion 2020 - Companion Proceedings, ICSE-Companion 2020. - : IEEE Computer Society. - 0270-5257. - 9781450371223 ; , s. 254-255
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unfair work distribution is common in project-based learning with teams of students. One contributing factor is that students are differently skilled developers. To mitigate the differences in a course with group work, we introduced mandatory programming lab sessions. The intervention did not affect the work distribution, showing that more is needed to balance the workload. Contrary to our goal, the intervention was very well received among experienced students, but unpopular with students weak at programming.
  • Heintz, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Computing at School in Sweden - Experiences from Introducing Computer Science within Existing Subjects
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Informatics in Schools. Curricula, Competences, and Competitions /Lecture Notes in Computer Science and General Issues. - : Springer. - 1611-3349 .- 0302-9743. - 9783319253954 - 9783319253961 ; 9378, s. 118-130
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Computing is no longer considered a subject area only relevant for a narrow group of professionals, but rather as a vital part of general education that should be available to all children and youth. Since making changes to national curricula takes time, people are trying to find other ways of introducing children and youth to computing. In Sweden, several current initiatives by researchers and teachers aim at finding ways of working with computing within the current curriculum. In this paper we present case studies based on a selection of these initiatives from four major regions in Sweden and based on these case studies we present our ideas for how to move forward on introducing computational thinking on a larger scale in Swedish education.
  • Johnsson, Björn A, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating a Dynamic Keep-Alive Messaging Strategy for Mobile Pervasive Systems
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science. - : Elsevier. - 1877-0509. ; 109, s. 319-326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Timely loss-of-contact detection between devices in pervasive systems using mobile networks is an important aspect for both functionality and user experience. Traditional schemes where time-to-live is defined by the service provider are not adequate in mobile networks where communication failures are frequent. On the other hand, schemes using keep-alive messaging tend to increase the communication overhead, in particular if the time to detect a loss of contact needs to be short. We introduce a strategy where the time between keep-alive messages is adjusted dynamically according to the need in a particular application. Our solution was evaluated with usage data from a professional application built on the PalCom framework. The measurements show a 96 % decrease of the communication overhead while still maintaining the same system responsiveness.
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