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  • Baggioli, Matteo, et al. (författare)
  • Holographic plasmon relaxation with and without broken translations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). - : SPRINGER. - 1126-6708 .- 1029-8479. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the dynamics and the relaxation of bulk plasmons in strongly coupled and quantum critical systems using the holographic framework. We analyze the dispersion relation of the plasmonic modes in detail for an illustrative class of holographic bottom-up models. Comparing to a simple hydrodynamic formula, we entangle the complicated interplay between the three least damped modes and shed light on the underlying physical processes. Such as the dependence of the plasma frequency and the effective relaxation time in terms of the electromagnetic coupling, the charge and the temperature of the system. Introducing momentum dissipation, we then identify its additional contribution to the damping. Finally, we consider the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of translational invariance. Upon dialing the strength of the SSB, we observe an increase of the longitudinal sound speed controlled by the elastic moduli and a decrease in the plasma frequency of the gapped plasmon. We comment on the condensed matter interpretation of this mechanism.
  • Catena, Riccardo, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Dark matter-electron interactions in materials beyond the dark photon model
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - : IOP Publishing. - 1475-7516. ; 2023:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The search for sub-GeV dark matter (DM) particles via electronic transitions in underground detectors attracted much theoretical and experimental interest in the past few years. A still open question in this field is whether experimental results can in general be interpreted in a framework where the response of detector materials to an external DM probe is described by a single ionisation or crystal form factor, as expected for the so-called dark photon model. Here, ionisation and crystal form factors are examples of material response functions: interaction-specific integrals of the initial and final state electron wave functions. In this work, we address this question through a systematic classification of the material response functions induced by a wide range of models for spin-0, spin-1/2 and spin-1 DM. We find several examples for which an accurate description of the electronic transition rate at DM direct detection experiments requires material response functions that go beyond those expected for the dark photon model. This concretely illustrates the limitations of a framework that is entirely based on the standard ionisation and crystal form factors, and points towards the need for the general response-function-based formalism we pushed forward recently [1,2]. For the models that require non-standard atomic and crystal response functions, we use the response functions of [1,2] to calculate the DM-induced electronic transition rate in atomic and crystal detectors, and to present 90% confidence level exclusion limits on the strength of the DM-electron interaction from the null results reported by XENON10, XENON1T, EDELWEISS and SENSEI.
  • Lu, Hsuan Hao, et al. (författare)
  • Simulations of subatomic many-body physics on a quantum frequency processor
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physical Review A. - 2469-9934 .- 2469-9926. ; 100:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulating complex many-body quantum phenomena is a major scientific impetus behind the development of quantum computing, and a range of technologies are being explored to address such systems. We present the results of the largest photonics-based simulation to date, applied in the context of subatomic physics. Using an all-optical quantum frequency processor, the ground-state energies of light nuclei including the triton (H3), He3, and the alpha particle (He4) are computed. Complementing these calculations and utilizing a 68-dimensional Hilbert space, our photonic simulator is used to perform subnucleon calculations of the two- and three-body forces between heavy mesons in the Schwinger model. This work is a first step in simulating subatomic many-body physics on quantum frequency processors - augmenting classical computations that bridge scales from quarks to nuclei.
  • Manzetti, Sergio, et al. (författare)
  • A Korteweg-DeVries type model for helical soliton solutions for quantum and continuum phenomena
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Modern Physics C. - : World Scientific. - 0129-1831. ; 32:03
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantum mechanical states are normally described by the Schrödinger equation, which generates real eigenvalues and quantizable solutions which form a basis for the estimation of quantum mechanical observables, such as momentum and kinetic energy. Studying transition in the realm of quantum physics and continuum physics is however more difficult and requires different models. We present here a new equation which bears similarities to the Korteweg–DeVries (KdV) equation and we generate a description of transitions in physics. We describe here the two- and three-dimensional form of the KdV like model dependent on the Plank constant ℏ and generate soliton solutions. The results suggest that transitions are represented by soliton solutions which arrange in a spiral-fashion. By helicity, we propose a conserved pattern of transition at all levels of physics, from quantum physics to macroscopic continuum physics.
  • Vos, M., et al. (författare)
  • Determination of the energy-momentum densities of aluminium by electron momentum spectroscopy
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0953-8984 .- 1361-648X. ; 11:18, s. 3645-3661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The energy-resolved momentum densities of thin polycrystalline aluminium films have been measured using electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS), for both the valence band and the outer core levels. The spectrometer used for these measurements has energy and momentum resolutions of around 1.0 eV and 0.15 atomic units, respectively. These measurements should, in principle, describe the electronic structure of the film very quantitatively, i.e. the dispersion and the intensity can be compared directly with theoretical spectral momentum densities for both the valence band and the outer core levels. Multiple scattering is found to hamper the interpretation somewhat. The core-level intensity distribution was studied with the main purpose of setting upper bounds on these multiple-scattering effects. Using this information we wish to obtain a full understanding of the valence band spectra using different theoretical models of the spectral function. These theoretical models differ significantly and only the cumulant expansion calculation that takes the crystal lattice into account seems to describe the data reasonably well.
  • Lestinsky, M., et al. (författare)
  • Physics book: CRYRING@ESR
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal: Special Topics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1951-6401 .- 1951-6355. ; 225:5, s. 797-882
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exploration of the unique properties of stored and cooled beams of highly-charged ions as provided by heavy-ion storage rings has opened novel and fascinating research opportunities in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics research. Since the late 1980s, pioneering work has been performed at the CRYRING at Stockholm (Abrahamsson et al. 1993) and at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) at Heidelberg (Baumann et al. 1988). For the heaviest ions in the highest charge-states, a real quantum jump was achieved in the early 1990s by the commissioning of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt (Franzke 1987) where challenging experiments on the electron dynamics in the strong field regime as well as nuclear physics studies on exotic nuclei and at the borderline to atomic physics were performed. Meanwhile also at Lanzhou a heavy-ion storage ring has been taken in operation, exploiting the unique research opportunities in particular for medium-heavy ions and exotic nuclei (Xia et al. 2002).
  • Thiele, Illia, 1989, et al. (författare)
  • Electron Beam Driven Generation of Frequency-Tunable Isolated Relativistic Subcycle Pulses
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 American Physical Society. We propose a novel scheme for frequency-tunable subcycle electromagnetic pulse generation. To this end a pump electron beam is injected into an electromagnetic seed pulse as the latter is reflected by a mirror. The electron beam is shown to be able to amplify the field of the seed pulse while upshifting its central frequency and reducing its number of cycles. We demonstrate the amplification by means of 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations. In order to explain and optimize the process, a model based on fluid theory is proposed. We estimate that using currently available electron beams and terahertz pulse sources, our scheme is able to produce millijoule-strong midinfrared subcycle pulses.
  • Erhart, Paul, 1978 (författare)
  • A first-principles study of helium storage in oxides and at oxide-iron interfaces
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - : AIP Publishing. - 0021-8979 .- 1089-7550. ; 111:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Density-functional theory calculations based on conventional as well as hybrid exchange-correlation functionals have been carried out to study the properties of helium in various oxides (Al2O3, TiO2, Y2O3, YAP, YAG, YAM, MgO, CaO, BaO, SrO) as well as at oxide-iron interfaces. Helium interstitials in bulk oxides are shown to be energetically more favorable than substitutional helium, yet helium binds to existing vacancies. The solubility of He in oxides is systematically higher than in iron and scales with the free volume at the interstitial site nearly independently of the chemical composition of the oxide. In most oxides, He migration is significantly slower and He-He binding is much weaker than in iron. To quantify the solubility of helium at oxide-iron interfaces two prototypical systems are considered (Fe-MgO, Fe-FeO-MgO). In both cases, the He solubility is markedly enhanced in the interface compared to either of the bulk phases. The results of the calculations allow to construct a schematic energy landscape for He interstitials in iron. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of helium sequestration in oxide dispersion strengthened steels, including the effects of interfaces and lattice strain.
  • Gran, Ulf, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Holographic response of electron clouds
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : SPRINGER. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; 2019:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to make progress towards more realistic models of holographic fermion physics, we use gauge/gravity duality to compute the dispersion relations for quasinormal modes and collective modes for the electron cloud background, i.e. the non-zero temperature version of the electron star. The results are compared to the corresponding results for the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom black hole backgrounds, and the qualitative differences are highlighted and discussed.
  • Hooton, M.J., et al. (författare)
  • Spi-OPS: Spitzer and CHEOPS confirm the near-polar orbit of MASCARA-1 b and reveal a hint of dayside reflection
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The light curves of tidally locked hot Jupiters transiting fast-rotating, early-type stars are a rich source of information about both the planet and star, with full-phase coverage enabling a detailed atmospheric characterisation of the planet. Although it is possible to determine the true spin-orbit angle ψ-a notoriously difficult parameter to measure-from any transit asymmetry resulting from gravity darkening induced by the stellar rotation, the correlations that exist between the transit parameters have led to large disagreements in published values of ψ for some systems. Aims. We aimed to study these phenomena in the light curves of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-1 b, which is characteristically similar to well-studied contemporaries such as KELT-9 b and WASP-33 b. Methods. We obtained optical CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) transit and occultation light curves of MASCARA-1 b, and analysed them jointly with a Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm full-phase curve to model the asymmetric transits, occultations, and phase-dependent flux modulation. For the latter, we employed a novel physics-driven approach to jointly fit the phase modulation by generating a single 2D temperature map and integrating it over the two bandpasses as a function of phase to account for the differing planet-star flux contrasts. The reflected light component was modelled using the general ab initio solution for a semi-infinite atmosphere. Results. When fitting the CHEOPS and Spitzer transits together, the degeneracies are greatly diminished and return results consistent with previously published Doppler tomography. Placing priors informed by the tomography achieves even better precision, allowing a determination of ψ = 72.1-2.4+2.5 deg. From the occultations and phase variations, we derived dayside and nightside temperatures of 3062-68+66 K and 1720 ± 330 K, respectively.Our retrieval suggests that the dayside emission spectrum closely follows that of a blackbody. As the CHEOPS occultation is too deep to be attributed to blackbody flux alone, we could separately derive geometric albedo Ag = 0.171-0.068+0.066 and spherical albedo As = 0.266-0.100+0.097 from the CHEOPS data, and Bond albedoAB = 0.057-0.101+0.083 from the Spitzer phase curve.Although small, the Ag and As indicate that MASCARA-1 b is more reflective than most other ultra-hot Jupiters, where H- absorption is expected to dominate. Conclusions. Where possible, priors informed by Doppler tomography should be used when fitting transits of fast-rotating stars, though multi-colour photometry may also unlock an accurate measurement of ψ. Our approach to modelling the phase variations at different wavelengths provides a template for how to separate thermal emission from reflected light in spectrally resolved James Webb Space Telescope phase curve data.
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