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  • Bernhardson, Martin (författare)
  • Aeolian dunes of central Sweden
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the Swedish inland there are aeolian deposits present, ranging from scattered single dunes to dune fields of more than 10 km2. These dune fields often pass unnoticed since they presently are covered by vegetation. However, they contain a rich palaeoenvironmental archive. Only a few research papers have been published regarding these aeolian deposits during the last 90 years. The primary scope of this thesis has been to determine why these dunes formed, when they formed, and what they can tell us about the environment during their formation. The results from these investigations are presented in four research papers.The shape and orientation of a dune is determined by the local environment during its formation, such as the abundance of sediment available for entrainment by the wind, groundwater table fluctuations, changes to precipitation and temperature, presence/absence of vegetation, mode of the wind et cetera. By determining the type of dunes it is possible to determine the local environment during their formation. If one also can determine when these dunes formed and stabilised one can determine the palaeoenvironment, and in extension the palaeoclimate, during a specific time period.In this thesis, new findings are presented regarding the geomorphology, geochronology and palaeoenvironment of a number of dunes and dune fields in south and central Sweden, based on state-of-the-art methods, such as LiDAR (light detection and ranging) based remote sensing and optically stimulated luminescence dating. The previous hypotheses concerning the formation of these dunes have also been evaluated.The findings show that the dunes of central Sweden are primarily of a transverse type, i.e. their dune ridges are transverse to the dune forming winds and they were formed in a setting devoid of vegetation and with an abundance of sediment. The primary dune forming winds for these transverse dunes appear to have been north-westerly and westerly winds. The investigated dunes further to the south show signs of having been reworked after their initial formation and are often of a parabolic type, i.e. curved/crescentic in shape with their arms facing upwind. These dunes have been described as strongly linked to the presence of vegetation, and can often be considered secondary dune forms. These more southern dunes appear to also mainly have been formed by north-westerly and westerly winds, although they display a bigger scatter in wind directions than the more northern dunes.The luminescence ages suggest that most of the dunes formed during the early Holocene, and later events of sand drift have been uncommon with only minor impact on the dune morphology. There seems to have been a primary dune stabilisation phase ~10-9 ka, irrespective of the latitude of the dune fields. This means that some dune fields formed close after local deglaciation, while others formed millennia later. This suggests that dune formation and dune stabilisation of central Sweden have been controlled by regional environmental conditions. Extremely low lake levels in southern and south-central Sweden 10.5-9.5 ka BP in conjunction with an unstable climate during early Holocene probably delayed dune stabilisation by vegetation. After the vegetation had stabilised the dunes, they became much more resilient to further fluctuations in the climate.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society). - London : Royal Entomological Society of London. - 0140-1890. ; 38:1, s. 21-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Kirchner, N., et al. (författare)
  • Capabilities and limitations of numerical ice sheet models : a discussion for Earth-scientists and modelers
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0277-3791 .- 1873-457X. ; 30:25-26, s. 3691-3704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The simulation of dynamically coupled ice sheet, ice stream, and ice shelf-systems poses a challenge to most numerical ice sheet models. Here we review present ice sheet model limitations targeting a broader audience within Earth Sciences, also those with no specific background in numerical modeling, in order to facilitate cross-disciplinary communication between especially paleoglaciologists, marine and terrestrial geologists, and numerical modelers. The ‘zero order’(Shallow Ice Approximation, SIA)-,‘higher order’-, and‘full Stokes’ice sheet models are described conceptually and complemented by an outline of their derivations. We demonstrate that higher order models are required to simulate coupled ice sheetice shelf and ice sheet-ice stream systems, in particular if the results are aimed to complement spatial ice flow reconstructions based on higher resolution geological and geophysical data. The zero order SIA model limitations in capturing ice stream behavior are here illustrated by conceptual simulations of a glaciation on Svalbard. The limitations are obvious from the equations comprising a zero order model. However, under certain circumstances, simulation results may falsely give the impression that ice streams indeed are simulated with a zero order SIA model.
  • Margold, Martin, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Glacial Lake Vitim, a 3000 km³ outburst flood from Siberia to the Arctic Ocean
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Research. - 0033-5894 .- 1096-0287. ; 76:3, s. 393-396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prominent lake formed when glaciers descending from the Kodar Range blocked the River Vitim in central Transbaikalia, Siberia. Glacial Lake Vitim, evidenced by palaeoshorelines and deltas, covered 23,500 km2 and held a volume of ~3000 km3. We infer that a large canyon in the area of the postulated ice dam served as a spillway during an outburst flood that drained through the rivers Vitim and Lena into the Arctic Ocean. The inferred outburst flood, of a magnitude comparable to the largest known floods on Earth, possibly explains a freshwater spike at ~13 cal ka BP inferred from Arctic Ocean sediments.
  • Margold, Martin, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Late-glacial ice dynamics of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon Territory : retreat pattern of the Liard Lobe reconstructed from the glacial landform record
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Liard Lobe formed a part of the northeastern sector of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and drained ice from accumulation areas in the Selwyn, Pelly, Cassiar and Skeena mountains. This study reconstructs the ice retreat pattern of the Liard Lobe during the last deglaciation from the glacial landform record that is comprised of glacial lineations and landforms of the meltwater system such as eskers, meltwater channels, perched deltas and outwash fans. The spatial distribution of these landforms defines the successive configurations of the ice sheet during the deglaciation. The Liard Lobe retreated to the west and southwest across the Hyland Highland from its local Last Glacial Maximum position in the southeastern Mackenzie Mountains where it coalesced with the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The retreat across the Liard Lowland and a subsequent splitting of the thus far uniform ice surface into several ice lobes is evidenced by large esker complexes that stretch across the Liard Lowland cutting across the contemporary drainage network. Ice margin positions from the late stage of deglaciation are reconstructed locally at the foot of the Cassiar Mountains and farther up-valley in an eastern facing valley of the Cassiar Mountains. The presented landform record indicates that the deglaciation of the Liard Lobe was accomplished mainly by active ice retreat and that ice stagnation did not play a significant role in the deglaciation of this region.
  • Margold, Martin, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Late-glacial retreat pattern of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet in central British Columbia reconstructed from glacial meltwater landforms
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) covered much of the mountainous northwestern part of North America during Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast to other ephemeral Pleistocene ice sheets, the pattern and timing of growth and decay of the CIS are poorly understood. Here, we present a reconstruction of the pattern of late-glacial ice sheet retreat in central British Columbia based on a palaeoglaciological interpretation of ice-marginal meltwater channels, eskers, and deltas mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models. A consistent spatial pattern of high-elevation ice-marginal meltwater channels (1600-2400 m a.s.l.) occurs across central British Columbia. They indicate the presence of ice domes over the Skeena Mountains and the central Coast Mountains early during deglaciation. Ice sourced in the Coast Mountains remained dominant over the southern and east-central parts of the Interior Plateau during late-glacial time. Our reconstruction shows a successive westward retreat of the ice margin away from the western foot of the Rocky Mountains, accompanied by the formation and rapid evolution of a glacial lake in the upper Fraser River basin. Final stages of deglaciation were characterized by the frontal retreat of ice lobes through the valleys of the Skeena and Omineca mountains and by the formation of large esker systems in the most prominent topographic lows of the Interior Plateau. We conclude that the CIS underwent a large-scale reconfiguration early during deglaciation and subsequently diminished by thinning and complex frontal retreat towards the Coast Mountains.
  • Roldin, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • The role of highly oxygenated organic molecules in the Boreal aerosol-cloud-climate system
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over Boreal regions, monoterpenes emitted from the forest are the main precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and the primary driver of the growth of new aerosol particles to climatically important cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Autoxidation of monoterpenes leads to rapid formation of Highly Oxygenated organic Molecules (HOM). We have developed the first model with near-explicit representation of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and HOM formation. The model can reproduce the observed NPF, HOM gas-phase composition and SOA formation over the Boreal forest. During the spring, HOM SOA formation increases the CCN concentration by ~10 % and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of −0.10 W/m2. In contrast, NPF reduces the number of CCN at updraft velocities < 0.2 m/s, and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of +0.15 W/m2. Hence, while HOM SOA contributes to climate cooling, NPF can result in climate warming over the Boreal forest.
  • Baresel, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Uncertainty-Accounting Environmental Policy and Management of Water Systems
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology. - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 41:10, s. 3653–3659-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystemmanagement do not commonly require explicit stochasticaccounts of uncertainty and risk associated with thequantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loadsand abatement effects. In this study, we formulate andinvestigate a possible environmental policy that does requirean explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compareboth the environmental and economic resource allocationperformance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmentalpolicy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and riskaverseenvironmental policies under a range of differenthypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparisonindicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accountingpolicy may perform better than deterministic policies overa range of different scenarios. Even in the absence ofreliable site-specific data, reported literature values appearto be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.
  • Podgrajsek, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of floating chamber and eddy covariance measurements of lake greenhouse gas fluxes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences Discussions. - : European Geosciences Union (EGU) / Copernicus Publications. - 1810-6277 .- 1810-6285. ; 11:15, s. 4225-4233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from lakes may have a large impact on the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. Traditionally lake fluxes have been measured using the floating chamber (FC) technique; however, several recent studies use the eddy covariance (EC) method. We present simultaneous flux measurements using both methods at lake Tämnaren in Sweden during field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. Only very few similar studies exist. For CO2 flux, the two methods agree relatively well during some periods, but deviate substantially at other times. The large discrepancies might be caused by heterogeneity of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2w) in the EC flux footprint. The methods agree better for CH4 fluxes. It is, however, clear that short-term discontinuous FC measurements are likely to miss important high flux events.
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