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  • Brinkmann, Inda, et al. (författare)
  • Drought recorded by Ba/Ca in coastal benthic foraminifera
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus GmbH. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 19:9, s. 2523-2535
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing occurrences of extreme weather events, such as the 2018 drought over northern Europe, are a concerning issue under global climate change. High-resolution archives of natural hydroclimate proxies, such as rapidly accumulating sediments containing biogenic carbonates, offer the potential to investigate the frequency and mechanisms of such events in the past. Droughts alter the barium (Ba) concentration of near-continent seawater through the reduction in Ba input from terrestrial runoff, which in turn may be recorded as changes in the chemical composition (Ba/Ca) of foraminiferal calcium carbonates accumulating in sediments. However, so far the use of Ba/Ca as a discharge indicator has been restricted to planktonic foraminifera, despite the high relative abundance of benthic species in coastal, shallow-water sites. Moreover, benthic foraminiferal Ba/Ca has mainly been used in open-ocean records as a proxy for paleo-productivity. Here we report on a new geochemical data set measured from living (CTG-labeled) benthic foraminiferal species to investigate the capability of benthic Ba/Ca to record changes in river runoff over a gradient of contrasting hydroclimatic conditions. Individual foraminifera (Bulimina marginata, Nonionellina labradorica) were analyzed by laser-ablation ICP-MS over a seasonal and spatial gradient within Gullmar Fjord, Swedish west coast, during 2018-2019. The results are compared to an extensive meteorological and hydrological data set, as well as sediment and pore-water geochemistry. Benthic foraminiferal Ba/Ca correlates significantly to riverine runoff; however, the signals contain both spatial trends with distance to Ba source and species-specific influences such as micro-habitat preferences. We deduce that shallow-infaunal foraminifera are especially suitable as proxy for terrestrial Ba input and discuss the potential influence of water-column and pore-water Ba cycling. While distance to Ba source, water depth, pore-water geochemistry, and species-specific effects need to be considered in interpreting the data, our results demonstrate confidence in the use of Ba/Ca of benthic foraminifera from near-continent records as a proxy for past riverine discharge and to identify periods of drought.
  • Earon, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain : A Multivariate Approach
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ground Water. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0017-467X .- 1745-6584.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.
  • Baresel, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Uncertainty-Accounting Environmental Policy and Management of Water Systems
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 41:10, s. 3653–3659-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystemmanagement do not commonly require explicit stochasticaccounts of uncertainty and risk associated with thequantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loadsand abatement effects. In this study, we formulate andinvestigate a possible environmental policy that does requirean explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compareboth the environmental and economic resource allocationperformance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmentalpolicy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and riskaverseenvironmental policies under a range of differenthypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparisonindicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accountingpolicy may perform better than deterministic policies overa range of different scenarios. Even in the absence ofreliable site-specific data, reported literature values appearto be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.
  • Choquel, Constance, et al. (författare)
  • 3D morphological variability in foraminifera unravel environmental changes in the Baltic Sea entrance over the last 200 years
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Earth Science. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 2296-6463. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human activities in coastal areas have intensified over the last 200 years, impacting also high-latitude regions such as the Baltic Sea. Benthic foraminifera, protists often with calcite shells (tests), are typically well preserved in marine sediments and known to record past bottom-water conditions. Morphological analyses of marine shells acquired by microcomputed tomography (µCT) have made significant progress toward a better understanding of recent environmental changes. However, limited access to data processing and a lack of guidelines persist when using open-source software adaptable to different microfossil shapes. This study provides a post-data routine to analyze the entire test parameters: average thickness, calcite volume, calcite surface area, number of pores, pore density, and calcite surface area/volume ratio. A case study was used to illustrate this method: 3D time series (i.e., 4D) of Elphidium clavatum specimens recording environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea entrance from the period early industrial (the 1800s) to present-day (the 2010 s). Long-term morphological trends in the foraminiferal record revealed that modern specimens have ∼28% thinner tests and ∼91% more pores than their historic counterparts. However, morphological variability between specimens and the BFAR (specimens cm−2 yr−1) in E. clavatum were not always synchronous. While the BFAR remained unchanged, morphological variability was linked to natural environmental fluctuations in the early industrial period and the consequences of anthropogenic climate change in the 21st century. During the period 1940–2000 s, the variations in BFAR were synchronous with morphological variability, revealing both the effects of the increase in human activities and major hydrographic changes. Finally, our interpretations, based on E. clavatum morphological variations, highlight environmental changes in the Baltic Sea area, supporting those documented by the foraminiferal assemblages.
  • Divine, D. V., et al. (författare)
  • Modelling the regional climate and isotopic composition of Svalbard precipitation using REMOiso : a comparison with available GNIP and ice core data
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - : Wiley. - 0885-6087 .- 1099-1085. ; 25:24, s. 3748-3759
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulations of a regional (approx. 50 km resolution) circulation model REMOiso with embedded stable water isotope module covering the period 1958-2001 are compared with the two instrumental climate and four isotope series (d18O) from western Svalbard. We examine the data from ice cores drilled on Svalbard ice caps in 1997 (Lomonosovfonna, 1250 m asl) and 2005 (Holtedahlfonna, 1150 m asl) and the GNIP series from Ny-angstrom lesund and Isfjord Radio. The surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation data from Longyearbyen and Ny-angstrom lesund are used to assess the skill of the model in reproducing the local climate. The model successfully captures the climate variations on the daily to multidecadal times scales although it tends to systematically underestimate the winter SAT. Analysis suggests that REMOiso performs better at simulating isotope compositions of precipitation in the winter than summer. The simulated and measured Holtedahlfonna d18O series agree reasonably well, whereas no significant correlation has been observed between the modelled and measured Lomonosovfonna ice core isotopic series. It is shown that sporadic nature as well as variability in the amount inherent in precipitation process potentially limits the accuracy of the past SAT reconstruction from the ice core data. This effect in the study area is, however, diminished by the role of other factors controlling d18O in precipitation, most likely sea ice extent, which is directly related with the SAT anomalies.
  • Bonaglia, Stefano, et al. (författare)
  • The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading : an in situ study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus GmbH. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 14:2, s. 285-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the last decades, the impact of human activities on the global nitrogen (N) cycle has drastically increased. Consequently, benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while in oligotrophic systems its understanding is still scarce. Here we report on benthic solute fluxes and on rates of denitrification, anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) studied by in situ incubations with benthic chamber landers during two cruises to the Gulf of Bothnia (GOB), a cold, oligotrophic basin located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Rates of N burial were also inferred to investigate the fate of fixed N in these sediments. Most of the total dissolved fixed nitrogen (TDN) diffusing to the water column was composed of organic N. Average rates of dinitrogen (N-2) production by denitrification and anammox (range: 53-360 mu mol Nm(-2) day(-1)) were comparable to those from Arctic and subarctic sediments worldwide (range: 34-344 mu mol Nm(-2) day(-1)). Anammox accounted for 18-26% of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore water suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one-third to the TDN efflux and accounted, on average, for 45% of total nitrate reduction. At the offshore stations, the proportion of DNRA in relation to denitrification was lower (0-16% of total nitrate reduction). Median value and range of benthic DNRA rates from the GOB were comparable to those from the southern and central eutrophic Baltic Sea and other temperate estuaries and coasts in Europe. Therefore, our results contrast with the view that DNRA is negligible in cold and well-oxygenated sediments with low organic carbon loading. However, the mechanisms behind the variability in DNRA rates between our sites were not resolved. The GOB sediments were a major source (237 kt yr(-1), which corresponds to 184% of the external N load) of fixed N to the water column through recycling mechanisms. To our knowledge, our study is the first to document the simultaneous contribution of denitrification, DNRA, anammox, and TDN recycling combined with in situ measurements.
  • Conley, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Biosilicification drives a decline of dissolved si in the oceans through geologic time
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 2296-7745. ; 4:DEC
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biosilicification has driven variation in the global Si cycle over geologic time. The evolution of different eukaryotic lineages that convert dissolved Si (DSi) into mineralized structures (higher plants, siliceous sponges, radiolarians, and diatoms) has driven a secular decrease in DSi in the global ocean leading to the low DSi concentrations seen today. Recent studies, however, have questioned the timing previously proposed for the DSi decreases and the concentration changes through deep time, which would have major implications for the cycling of carbon and other key nutrients in the ocean. Here, we combine relevant genomic data with geological data and present new hypotheses regarding the impact of the evolution of biosilicifying organisms on the DSi inventory of the oceans throughout deep time. Although there is no fossil evidence for true silica biomineralization until the late Precambrian, the timing of the evolution of silica transporter genes suggests that bacterial silicon-related metabolism has been present in the oceans since the Archean with eukaryotic silicon metabolism already occurring in the Neoproterozoic. We hypothesize that biological processes have influenced oceanic DSi concentrations since the beginning of oxygenic photosynthesis.
  • Dehkordi, Seyed Emad, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of groundwater flow in vertical and horizontal fractures on borehole heat exchanger temperatures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment. - : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1435-9529 .- 1435-9537. ; 74:2, s. 479-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vertical closed loop systems, also known as borehole heat exchangers (BHEs), are a popular way of extracting the ground source heat energy. Primary factors affecting the performance of BHEs are the thermal and hydrogeological properties of the subsurface. Groundwater flow is known to potentially influence heat transport and system performance. The effect of groundwater movement is more commonly studied under homogeneous conditions. However, in heterogeneous fractured rocks, BHEs are more common than horizontal or open loops due to lack of sufficient soil layers and productive aquifers. The finite-element modelling shows that fractures can play an important role in BHE functioning. Especially, vertical open fractures (≥1 mm) near the borehole (≤10 m) can have a considerable impact. Although increase in fracture aperture continuously affects the subsurface and BHE temperatures, the increase in its effect progressively lessens. Depending on the distance and aperture, one major fracture influencing the BHE operation performance can be identified; yet a larger number of fractures may govern heat transport (thermal plume outline) and thermal recovery. Individually, horizontal fractures may have less influence than vertical fractures. However, as the density of horizontal fractures increases, their impact can be major, exceeding that of fracture aperture. In particular, we propose that measurements of rock thermal properties be combined with fracture mapping, to better analyse the thermal response testing results and integrate the configuration of fractures in design and layout of the BHE(s). This is particularly valid for (vertical) fractures not intersecting with the borehole.
  • Dehkordi, Seyed Emad, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ground Water. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0017-467X .- 1745-6584.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10−7 m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.
  • Fontorbe, Guillaume, et al. (författare)
  • Enrichment of dissolved silica in the deep equatorial Pacific during the Eocene-Oligocene
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Paleoceanography. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0883-8305 .- 1944-9186. ; 32, s. 848-863
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Silicon isotope ratios (expressed as δ30Si) in marine microfossils can provide insights into silica cycling over geologic time. Here we used δ30Si of sponge spicules and radiolarian tests from the Paleogene Equatorial Transect (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 199) spanning the Eocene and Oligocene (~50–23 Ma) to reconstruct dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations in deep waters and to examine upper ocean δ30Si. The δ30Si values range from 3.16 to +0.18‰ and from 0.07 to +1.42‰ for the sponge and radiolarian records, respectively. Both records show a transition toward lower δ30Si values around 37 Ma. The shift in radiolarian δ30Si is interpreted as a consequence of changes in the δ30Si of source DSi to the region. The decrease in sponge δ30Si is interpreted as a transition from low DSi concentrations to higher DSi concentrations, most likely related to the shift toward a solely Southern Ocean source of deep water in the Pacific during the Paleogene that has been suggested by results from paleoceanographic tracers such as neodymium and carbon isotopes. Sponge δ30Si provides relatively direct information about the nutrient content of deep water and is a useful complement to other tracers of deep water circulation in the oceans of the past. 
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