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2.
  • Maurina Morais, Eduardo, 1989, et al. (författare)
  • Solvent-free synthesis of protic ionic liquids. Synthesis, characterization and computational studies of triazolium based ionic liquids
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Liquids. - : Elsevier BV. - 0167-7322. ; 360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A series of triazolium and imidazolium based protic ionic liquids were synthesized using a solvent-free method designed to address several limitations encountered with other commonly used methods. Using this method, pure (98–99% m/m) and dry (128–553 ppm of water) protic ionic liquids were synthesized (in a laboratory scale) without the need for purification methods that require heating the ionic liquid, hence avoiding the common issue of thermal decomposition. This method was also designed to allow for the accurate measurement of acid and base, and for the controlled mixing of both compounds, which is essential to avoid producing impure protic ionic liquids with excess of either acid or base. The system is constructed of only glass and chemically resistant polymer (PTFE and PVDF) parts, which avoid other contaminants that can result from unwanted reactions involving the reagents with common laboratory tools (metallic objects, paper, plastic, etc.). This process is described in detail in the paper as well as in a video. The resulting ionic liquids were carefully analyzed by spectroscopic and thermal methods designed to avoid water absorption, which is known to affect their properties. To complement this experimental characterization, computational chemistry tools were used to assess the ionic liquids’ properties, as well as to assign vibrational modes.
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3.
  • Maurina Morais, Eduardo, 1989 (författare)
  • Synthesis of protic ionic liquids. Challenges and solutions for the synthesis of pure compounds.
  • 2022
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • The urgent need to diversify our energy matrix is responsible for a renewed interest in fuel cell technology, which can use hydrogen gas, a renewable green fuel, as an energy source. This technology is currently a commercially available option, however, it still requires technological improvements before it can be widely used for different applications. One way this technology could potentially be improved is by increasing its temperature range of operation by developing new, anhydrous proton conducting materials. Protic ionic liquids, which are organic salts with low melting temperatures, are interesting candidates for this application, since they can conduct protons in the operational conditions of fuel cells and without the need of water. These compounds can be synthesized by a simple acid-base neutralization reaction, but certain considerations must be taken in order to obtain high quality (dry and pure) protic ionic liquids. In this thesis, a series of triazolium and imidazolium based protic ionic liquids were synthesized using a solvent-free method designed to address several limitations encountered with other commonly used methods. Using this method, pure (98-99% m/m) and dry (128-553 ppm of water) protic ionic liquids were synthesized (in a laboratory scale) without the need for purification methods that require heating the ionic liquid, hence avoiding the common issue of thermal decomposition. This method was also designed to allow for the accurate measurement of acid and base, and for the controlled mixing of both compounds, which is essential to avoid producing impure protic ionic liquids with excess of either acid or base. The system is consists of only glass and chemically resistant polymer(PTFE and PVDF) parts, which avoids other contaminants that can result from unwanted reactions involving the reagents with common laboratory tools (metallic objects, paper, plastic, etc.). The resulting ionic liquids were carefully analyzed by spectroscopic and thermal analysis methods designed to avoid water absorption, which is known to affect their properties. To complement this experimental characterization, computational chemistry tools were used to assess the ionic liquids’ properties, as well as to assign vibrational modes.
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4.
  • Sauer, Christopher, 1993 (författare)
  • Green Aromatics: Catalytic Valorisation of bio-derived 2,5-dimethylfuran over Zeolites and Zeotypes
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis discusses the use of biomass as a potentially green feedstock for the chemical industry in the urgent shift away from fossil resources. I elaborate on reasons why we cannot afford to burn virgin biomass for energy production, among them a variety of ecosystem services that forests and other lands provide. In addition, the utilisation of biomass should be focused on products that sequester and lock away carbon for more extended periods, e.g. timber, materials and chemicals. In particular, biomass can be used as an alternative "carbon neutral" feedstock for the chemical industry, where we can preserve the already existing chemical complexity in the bio-based molecules. One example is the upgrading of furans to benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) aromatics with the help of zeolite catalysis. These aromatics are important commodity chemicals, where the shift to a bio-based resource could make use of already existing knowledge, catalyst and production infrastructure. However, research is necessary to understand these new feedstock molecules and their interaction with the catalysts and to enable the design of applicable catalysts. In order to study the interaction of the furans, in particular 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-dmf), I describe and discuss the development of an analytical methodology that utilises infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for the on-line identification and quantification of product molecules during catalytic reactions. This on-line analysis method is then applied to the catalytic conversion of 2,5-dmf to aromatics over a range of zeolite and zeotype catalysts. In-depth studies with ammonia as a probe molecule of the catalytic active acid sites, as well as temperature programmed experiments with ammonia and 2,5-dmf give insights into product distribution, selectivity changes and deactivation of the catalyst. For example, olefins and aromatics are initially preferred products, while with increasing time on stream, the isomerisation of 2,5-dmf becomes dominant. The incorporation of Ga into the zeotype framework, resulting in a Ga-Silicate, shows how targeted catalyst design can increase overall aromatics production. This catalyst is also suitable for selective isomerisation of 2,5-dmf to 2,4-dimethylfuran, which has a rare substitution pattern. Finally, itwas found that the most valuable of BTX,  p -xylene, can be produced more selectively when 2,5-dmf is pre-adsorbed onto zeolite ZSM-5 and then released during a temperature programmed product desorption.
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5.
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6.
  • Bannan, T. J., et al. (författare)
  • A method for extracting calibrated volatility information from the FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS and its experimental application
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - : Copernicus GmbH. - 1867-1381 .- 1867-8548. ; 12:3, s. 1429-1439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) is an inlet specifically designed to be coupled with the Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS). The FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS provides simultaneous molecular information relating to both the gas- and particle-phase samples and has been used to extract vapour pressures (VPs) of the compounds desorbing from the filter whilst giving quantitative concentrations in the particle phase. However, such extraction of vapour pressures of the measured particle-phase components requires use of appropriate, well-defined, reference compounds. Vapour pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols (PEG) ((H-(O-CH 2 CH 2 ) n -OH) for n = 3 to n = 8), covering a range of vapour pressures (VP) (10 -1 to 10 -7 Pa) that are atmospherically relevant, have been shown to be reproduced well by a range of different techniques, including Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). This is the first homologous series of compounds for which a number of vapour pressure measurement techniques have been found to be in agreement, indicating the utility as a calibration standard, providing an ideal set of benchmark compounds for accurate characterization of the FIGAERO for extracting vapour pressure of measured compounds in chambers and the real atmosphere. To demonstrate this, single-component and mixture vapour pressure measurements are made using two FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS instruments based on a new calibration determined from the PEG series. VP values extracted from both instruments agree well with those measured by KEMS and reported values from literature, validating this approach for extracting VP data from the FIGAERO. This method is then applied to chamber measurements, and the vapour pressures of known products are estimated. © 2019 Author(s).
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8.
  • Guo, Y. D., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of highly oxygenated organic molecules and their role in aerosol formation in the reaction of limonene with nitrate radical
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus GmbH. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 22:17, s. 11323-11346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nighttime NO3-initiated oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as monoterpenes is important for the atmospheric formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which has significant impact on climate, air quality, and human health. In such SOA formation and growth, highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) may be crucial, but their formation pathways and role in aerosol formation have yet to be clarified. Among monoterpenes, limonene is of particular interest for its high emission globally and high SOA yield. In this work, HOM formation in the reaction of limonene with nitrate radical (NO3) was investigated in the SAPHIR chamber (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction chamber). About 280 HOM products were identified, grouped into 19 monomer families, 11 dimer families, and 3 trimer families. Both closed-shell products and open-shell peroxy radicals (RO2 center dot) 2 were observed, and many of them have not been reported previously. Monomers and dimers accounted for 47% and 47% of HOM concentrations, respectively, with trimers making up the remaining 6 %. In the most abundant monomer families, C10H15-17NO6-14, carbonyl products outnumbered hydroxyl products, indicating the importance of RO2 center dot termination by unimolecular dissociation. Both RO2 center dot autoxidation and alkoxy-peroxy pathways were found to be important processes leading to HOM. Time-dependent concentration profiles of monomer products containing nitrogen showed mainly second-generation formation patterns. Dimers were likely formed via the accretion reaction of two monomer RO2 center dot , and HOM-trimers via the accretion reaction between monomer RO2 center dot and dimer RO2 center dot. Trimers are suggested to play an important role in new particle formation (NPF) observed in our experiment. A HOM yield of 1.5%(+1.7%)(-0.7%) was estimated considering only first-generation products. SOA mass growth could be reasonably explained by HOM condensation on particles assuming irreversible uptake of ultra-low volatility organic compounds (ULVOCs), extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs), and low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs). This work provides evidence for the important role of HOM formed via the limonene +NO3 reaction in NPF and growth of SOA particles.
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9.
  • Guo, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Reversible Structural Isomerization of Nature's Water Oxidation Catalyst Prior to O-O Bond Formation
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0002-7863 .- 1520-5126. ; 144:26, s. 11736-11747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Photosynthetic water oxidation is catalyzed by a manganese-calcium oxide cluster, which experiences five "S-states" during a light-driven reaction cycle. The unique "distorted chair"-like geometry of the Mn4CaO5(6)cluster shows structural flexibility that has been frequently proposed to involve "open" and "closed"-cubane forms from the S1 to S3states. The isomers are interconvertible in the S1 and S2states, while in the S3state, the open-cubane structure is observed to dominate inThermosynechococcus elongatus (cyanobacteria) samples. In this work, using density functional theory calculations, we go beyond the S3+Yzstate to the S3nYz•→ S4+Yzstep, and report for the first time that the reversible isomerism, which is suppressed in the S3+Yzstate, is fully recovered in the ensuing S3nYz•state due to the proton release from a manganese-bound water ligand. The altered coordination strength of the manganese-ligand facilitates formation of the closed-cubane form, in a dynamic equilibrium with the open-cubane form. This tautomerism immediately preceding dioxygen formation may constitute the rate limiting step for O2formation, and exert a significant influence on the water oxidation mechanism in photosystem II. 
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