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  • Lilja, Josefine L., et al. (författare)
  • Observing as an Essential Facet of Mindfulness : A Comparison of FFMQ Patterns in Meditating and Non-Meditating Individuals
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Mindfulness. - : Springer. - 1868-8527 .- 1868-8535. ; 4:3, s. 203-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the most comprehensive measures of mindfulness is the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) with five factors-Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness, Non-judging, and Non-reactivity. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses, however, have suggested that only four of the FFMQ factors (i.e. all except Observing) were components of "an overall mindfulness construct"-which is puzzling because Observing represents a core aspect of all definitions of mindfulness. The purpose of the present study was to approach this problem by a person-oriented approach, focusing on patterns on the FFMQ scales, rather than linear associations between them. Data on the FFMQ were collected on 817 individuals. Cluster analysis according to the LICUR procedure was used to group these participants in 13 clusters, according to their profiles of scores on the five FFMQ scales. Of the participants, 325 were categorized as meditators and 317 as non-meditators. To test hypotheses about the relation between Observing and mindfulness (which we assumed should be higher among meditators), the meditators/non-meditators categorization was cross-tabulated with the FFMQ clusters. The results showed that all clusters in which meditators were over-represented had high scores on Observing, and all clusters in which meditators were under-represented had low scores on Observing-which supports the hypothesis that mindfulness is related to high levels of Observing. The relationship between Observing and Non-judging, however, was found to be more complex than expected. The results are discussed in terms of mindfulness seen as a multidimensional skill, which may develop differently in various subgroups of individuals.
  • Petersson Troije, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Outdoor Office Work : An Interactive Research Project Showing the Way Out
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-1078. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The physical boundaries of office work have become increasingly flexible. Work is conducted at multiple locations outside the office, such as at clients' premises, at home, in cafés, or when traveling. However, the boundary between indoor and outdoor environment seems to be strong and normative regarding how office work is performed. The aim of this study was to explore how office work may be conducted outdoors, understanding how it is being experienced by office employees and identifying its contextual preconditions. Based on a two-year interactive research project, the study was conducted together with a Swedish municipality. Fifty-eight participants engaged in the collaborative learning process, including 40 half-day workshops and reflective group discussions, co-interviews, and participants' independent experimentation of bringing work activities outdoors. Data was collected via interviews, group discussions and a custom-made mobile application. The results showed that a wide range of work activities could be done outdoors, both individually and in collaboration with others. Outdoor work activities were associated with many positive experiences by contributing to a sense of well-being, recovery, autonomy, enhanced cognition, better communication, and social relations, but also with feelings of guilt and illegitimacy. Conditions of importance for outdoor office work to happen and function well were found in the physical environment, where proximity to urban greenspaces stood out as important, but also in the sociocultural and organizational domains. Of crucial importance was managers' attitudes, as well as the overall organizational culture on this idea of bringing office work outdoors. To conclude, if working life is to benefit from outdoor office work, leaders, urban planners and policymakers need to collaborate and show the way out.
  • Allodi Westling, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • Goals and values in school : A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Social Psychology of Education. - : Springer. - 1381-2890 .- 1573-1928. ; 13:2, s. 207-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.
  • Gallagher, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • National Human Research Ethics : A Preliminary Comparative Case Study of Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Ethics & Behavior. - 1050-8422 .- 1532-7019. ; 26:7, s. 586-606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although international research is increasing in volume and importance, there remains a dearth of knowledge on similarities and differences in “national human research ethics” (NHREs), that is, national ethical guidelines (NEGs), Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), and research stakeholder’ ethical attitudes and behaviors (EABs). We begin to address this situation by reporting upon our experiences in conducting a multinational study into the mental health of children who had a parent/carer in prison. The study was conducted in 4 countries: Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden. Data on NHREs were gathered via a questionnaire survey, two ethics-related seminars, and ongoing contact between members of the research consortium. There was correspondence but even more so divergence between countries in the availability of NEGs and IRBs and in researcher’ EABs. Differences in NHREs have implications particularly in terms of harmonization but also for ethical philosophy and practice and for research integrity.
  • Westling Allodi, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • Undervisningsmiljö och socialt klimat
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: <em>Etik i specialpedagogisk verksamhet</em>. - Lund : Studentlitteratur. - 9789144057255 ; , s. 49-71
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Boalt Boëthius, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • Om grupphandledning och vägen från klinisk erfarenhet till systematisk forskning.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Mellanrummet: Tidskrift om barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi. - 1404-5559. ; 19, s. 45-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I denna artikel beskrivs vad som väckte vårt intresse för att på ett mer systematiskt sätt utforska grupphandledning som en specifik form för lärande. Som kliniker får man sällan en bild av vad som ligger bakom de forskningsfrågor som ställs. I allmänhet redovisas teoretisk bakgrund, frågeställningar, metoder och resultat som mer eller mindre givna. I verkligheten är det dock sällan så, särskilt inte när det gäller kliniknära forskning, som drivs av en önskan om en fördjupad förståelse, ofta personligt förankrad, av problemområden som gett upphov till specifika frågor.
  • Johansson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Urban space for children on the move
  • 2019. - 1
  • Ingår i: Transport and Children’s Wellbeing. - : Elsevier. - 9780128146958 - 9780128146941 ; 1, s. 217-235
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urban landscapes, structures and design features are associated with travel mode choice and have implications for sustainable living environments. The particular role of the built environment for children’s independent active mobility has received increasing attention in research and practice. However, the complexity of the transactions between person and environment needs to be understood with special focus on children’s use and experiences of the outdoor spaces in a neighborhood. This chapter discusses children’s independent active mobility as an ongoing transaction with the surrounding environment, continuously shifting between transport and play. The chapter synthesizes research on children’s outdoor play and active travel from the fields of environmental psychology, urban planning and landscape architecture. Four theoretical concepts compatible with a comprehensive understanding of children’s mobility in urban open spaces are presented: place attachment, affordances, wayfinding and prospect-refuge. The concepts are elaborated from a child perspective to highlight dimensions in the planning, design and management of outdoor spaces that can support children’s independent active mobility.
  • Jägerbrand, Annika, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - : Elsevier. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 86, s. 229-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal–vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration.
  • Selander, Helena, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - : Elsevier. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 43, s. 1348-1354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eighty-five volunteer drivers, 65–85 years old, without cognitive impairments impacting on their driving were examined, in order to investigate driving errors characteristic for older drivers. In addition, any relationships between cognitive off-road and on-road tests results, the latter being the gold standard, were identified. Performance measurements included Trail Making Test (TMT), Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA), Useful Field of View (UFOV), self-rating driving performance and the two on-road protocols P-Drive and ROA. Some of the older drivers displayed questionable driving behaviour. In total, 21% of the participants failed the on-road assessment. Some of the specific errors were more serious than others. The most common driving errors embraced speed; exceeding the speed limit or not controlling the speed. Correlations with the P-Drive protocol were established for NorSDSA total score (weak), UFOV subtest 2 (weak), and UFOV subtest 3 (moderate). Correlations with the ROA protocol were established for UFOV subtest 2 (weak) and UFOV subtest 3 (weak). P-Drive and self ratings correlated weakly, whereas no correlation between self ratings and the ROA protocol was found. The results suggest that specific problems or errors seen in an older person's driving can actually be “normal driving behaviours”.
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