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1.
  • Cheng, Hei Victor (författare)
  • Aspects of Power Allocation in Massive MIMO
  • 2016
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The past decades have seen a rapid growth of mobile data trac, both in terms of connected devices and data rate. To satisfy the ever growing data trac demand in wireless communication systems, the current cellular systems have to be redesigned to increase both spectral eciency and energy eciency. Massive MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) is one solution that satisfy both requirements. In massive MIMO systems, hundreds of antennas are employed at the base station to provide service to many users at the same time and frequency. This enables the system to serve the users with uniformly good quality of service simultaneously, with low-cost hardware and without using extra bandwidth and energy. To achieve this, proper resource allocation is needed. Among the available resources, transmit power is one of the most important degree of freedom to control the spectral eciency and energy eciency. Due to the use of excessive number of antennas and low-end hardware at the base station, new aspects of power allocation compared to current systems arises. In the rst part of the thesis, a new uplink power allocation schemes that based on long term channel statistics is proposed. Since quality of the channel estimates is crucial in massive MIMO, in addition to data power allocation, joint power allocation that includes the pilot power as additional variable should be considered. Therefore a new framework for power allocation that matches practical systems is developed, as the methods developed in the literature cannot be applied directly to massive MIMO systems. Simulation results conrm the advantages brought by the the proposed new framework. In the second part of the thesis, we investigate the eects of using low-end ampliers at the base stations. The non-linear behavior of power consumption in these ampliers changes the power consumption model at the base station, thereby changes the power allocation. Two dierent scenarios are investigated and both results show that a certain number of antennas can be turned o in low load scenarios.
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2.
  • Haque, Muhammad Fahim Ul (författare)
  • Pulse-Width Modulated RF Transmitters
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The market for wireless portable devices has grown signicantly over the recent years.Wireless devices with ever-increased functionality require high rate data transmissionand reduced costs. High data rate is achieved through communication standards such asLTE and WLAN, which generate signals with high peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR),hence requiring a power amplier (PA) that can handle a large dynamic range signal. Tokeep the costs low, modern CMOS processes allow the integration of the digital, analogand radio functions on to a single chip. However, the design of PAs with large dynamicrange and high eciency is challenging due to the low voltage headroom.To prolong the battery life, the PAs have to be power-ecient as they consume a sizablepercentage of the total power. For LTE and WLAN, traditional transmitters operatethe PA at back-o power, below their peak efficiency, whereas pulse-width modulation(PWM) transmitters use the PA at their peak power, resulting in a higher efficiency.PWM transmitters can use both linear and SMPAs where the latter are more power efficient and easy to implement in nanometer CMOS. The PWM transmitters have a higher efficiency but suffer from image and aliasing distortion, resulting in a lower dynamic range,amplitude and phase resolution.This thesis studies several new transmitter architectures to improve the dynamicrange, amplitude and phase resolution of PWM transmitters with relaxed filtering requirements.The architectures are suited for fully integrated CMOS solutions, in particular forportable applications.The first transmitter (MAF-PWMT) eliminates aliasing and image distortions whileallowing the use of SMPAs by combining RF-PWM and band-limited PWM. The transmittercan be implemented using all-digital techniques and exhibits an improved linearity and spectral performance. The approach is validated using a Class-D PA based transmitter where an improvement of 10.2 dB in the dynamic range compared to a PWM transmitter for a 1.4 MHz of LTE signal is achieved.The second transmitter (AC-PWMT) compensates for aliasing distortion by combining PWM and outphasing. It can be used with switch-mode PAs (SMPAs) or linear PAs at peak power. The proposed transmitter shows better linearity, improved spectral performanceand increased dynamic range as it does not suffer from AM-AM distortion of the PAs and aliasing distortion due to digital PWM. The idea is validated using push-pull PAs and the proposed transmitter shows an improvement of 9 dB in the dynamic rangeas compared to a PWM transmitter using digital pulse-width modulation for a 1.4 MHzLTE signal.The third transmitter (MD-PWMT) is an all-digital implementation of the second transmitter. The PWM is implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) core, and outphasing is implemented as pulse-position modulation using FPGA transceivers, which drive two class-D PAs. The digital implementation offers the exibility to adapt the transmitter for multi-standard and multi-band signals. From the measurement results, an improvement of 5 dB in the dynamic range is observed as compared to an all-digital PWM transmitter for a 1.4 MHz LTE signal.The fourth transmitter (EP-PWMT) improves the phase linearity of an all-digital PWM transmitter using PWM and asymmetric outphasing. The transmitter uses PWM to encode the amplitude, and outphasing for enhanced phase control thus doubling the phase resolution. The measurement setup uses Class-D PAs to amplify a 1.4 MHz LTEup-link signal. An improvement of 2.8 dB in the adjacent channel leakage ratio is observed whereas the EVM is reduced by 3.3 % as compared to an all-digital PWM transmitter.The fifth transmitter (CRF-ML-PWMT) combines multilevel and RF-PWM, whereas the sixth transmitter (CRF-MP-PMWT) combines multiphase PWM and RF-PWM. Both transmitters have smaller chip area as compared to the conventional multiphase and multilevel PWM transmitters, as a combiner is not required. The proposed transmitters also show better dynamic range and improved amplitude resolution as compared to conventional RF-PWM transmitters.The solutions presented in this thesis aims to enhance the performance and simplify the digital implementation of PWM-based RF transmitters.
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3.
  • Mollén, Christopher, 1987- (författare)
  • High-End Performance with Low-End Hardware : Analysis of Massive MIMO Base Station Transceivers
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Massive MIMO (multiple-input–multiple-output) is a multi-antenna technology for cellular wireless communication, where the base station uses a large number of individually controllable antennas to multiplex users spatially.  This technology can provide a high spectral efficiency.  One of its main challenges is the immense hardware complexity and cost of all the radio chains in the base station.  To make massive MIMO commercially viable, inexpensive, low-complexity hardware with low linearity has to be used, which inherently leads to more signal distortion.  This thesis investigates how the degenerated linearity of some of the main components—power amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and low-noise amplifiers—affects the performance of the system, with respect to data rate, power consumption and out-of-band radiation. The main results are: Spatial processing can reduce PAR (peak-to-average ratio) of the transmit signals in the downlink to as low as 0B; this, however, does not necessarily reduce power consumption.  In environments with isotropic fading, one-bit ADCs lead to a reduction in effective signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) of 4dB in the uplink and four-bit ADCs give a performance close to that of an unquantized system.  An analytical expression for the radiation pattern of the distortion from nonlinear power amplifiers is derived.  It shows how the distortion is beamformed to some extent, that its gain never is greater than that of the desired signal, and that the gain of the distortion is reduced with a higher number of served users and a higher number of channel taps.  Nonlinear low-noise amplifiers give rise to distortion that partly combines coherently and limits the possible SINR.  It is concluded that spatial processing with a large number of antennas reduces the impact of hardware distortion in most cases.  As long as proper attention is paid to the few sources of coherent distortion, the hardware complexity can be reduced in massive MIMO base stations to overcome the hardware challenge and make massive MIMO commercial reality.
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4.
  • Nilsson, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Ultra Low Power Wake-Up Radio Using Envelope Detector and Transmission Line Voltage Transformer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: IEEE JOURNAL ON EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS. - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - 2156-3357. ; 3:1, s. 5-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An ultra-low power wake-up radio receiver using no oscillators is described. The radio utilizes an envelope detector followed by a baseband amplifier and is fabricated in a 130-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. The receiver is preceded by a passive radio-frequency voltage transformer, also providing 50 Omega antenna matching, fabricated as transmission lines on the FR4 chip carrier. A sensitivity of -47 dBm with 200 kb/s on-off keying modulation is measured at a current consumption of 2.3 mu A from a 1 V supply. No trimming is used. The receiver accepts a dBm continuous wave blocking signal, or modulated blockers 6 dB below the sensitivity limit, with no loss of sensitivity.
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5.
  • Yanggratoke, Rerngvit, 1983- (författare)
  • Data-driven Performance Prediction and Resource Allocation for Cloud Services
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cloud services, which provide online entertainment, enterprise resource management, tax filing, etc., are becoming essential for consumers, businesses, and governments. The key functionalities of such services are provided by backend systems in data centers. This thesis focuses on three fundamental problems related to management of backend systems. We address these problems using data-driven approaches: triggering dynamic allocation by changes in the environment, obtaining configuration parameters from measurements, and learning from observations. The first problem relates to resource allocation for large clouds with potentially hundreds of thousands of machines and services. We developed and evaluated a generic gossip protocol for distributed resource allocation. Extensive simulation studies suggest that the quality of the allocation is independent of the system size for the management objectives considered.The second problem focuses on performance modeling of a distributed key-value store, and we study specifically the Spotify backend for streaming music. We developed analytical models for system capacity under different data allocation policies and for response time distribution. We evaluated the models by comparing model predictions with measurements from our lab testbed and from the Spotify operational environment. We found the prediction error to be below 12% for all investigated scenarios.The third problem relates to real-time prediction of service metrics, which we address through statistical learning. Service metrics are learned from observing device and network statistics. We performed experiments on a server cluster running video streaming and key-value store services. We showed that feature set reduction significantly improves the prediction accuracy, while simultaneously reducing model computation time. Finally, we designed and implemented a real-time analytics engine, which produces model predictions through online learning.
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6.
  • Liu, Yang, et al. (författare)
  • A Study Towards Enhanced Reliability Performance of Remote Control and Monitoring Application Over Commercial Wireless Communication Networks
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: 2006 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing. - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - 1424405173 - 1424405173 ; , s. 1-4
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Remote control and monitoring systems provide many useful operating advantages in industrial automation and demand highly reliable and secure communication means. Their widespread use is, however, limited because of the high cost of current communications in use making them economically infeasible. Hence, there is a need to develop new low cost communication and control concepts by making such solutions economically feasible. In this paper, we present a scheme for implementing reliable wireless communication links for application of remote control and monitoring system based on current available commercial wireless communication networks, e.g. GPRS/EDGE/UMTS. The reliability enhancement over wireless networks has been proposed and its performance has been studied. This paper examines the proposed solution by means of both analytical and numerical evaluation, and has shown that the demanded reliability performance can be met by using only commercial wireless communication networks.
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7.
  • Karlsson, Marcus, 1988- (författare)
  • Aspects of Massive MIMO
  • 2016
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Next generation cellular wireless technology faces tough demands: increasing the throughput and reliability without consuming more resources, be it spectrum or energy. Massive mimo (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) has proven, both in theory and practice, that it is up for the challenge. Massive mimo can offer uniformly good service to many users using low-end hardware, simultaneously, without increasing the radiated power compared to contemporary system. In Massive mimo, the base stations are equipped with hundreds of antennas. This abundance of antennas brings many new, interesting aspects compared to single-user mimo and multi-user mimo. Some issues of older technologies are nonexistent in massive mimo, while new issues in need of solutions arise. This thesis considers two aspects, and how these aspects differ in a massive mimo context: physical layer security and transmission of system information. First, it is shown that a jammer with a large number of antennas can outperform a traditional, single-antenna jammer in degrading the legitimate link. The excess of antennas gives the jammer opportunity to find and exploit structure in signals to improve its jamming capability. Second, for transmission of system information, the vast number of antennas prove useful even when the base station does not have any channel state information, because of the increased availability of space-time coding. We show how transmission without channel state information can be done in massive mimo by using a fixed precoding matrix to reduce the pilot overhead and simultaneously apply space-time block coding to use the excess of antennas for spatial diversity.
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8.
  • Abbas, Taimoor, et al. (författare)
  • A Measurement Based Shadow Fading Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Network Simulations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Antennas and Propagation. - : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 1687-5869 .- 1687-5877.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) propagation channel has significant implications on the design and performance of novel communication protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Extensive research efforts have been made to develop V2V channel models to be implemented in advanced VANET system simulators for performance evaluation. The impact of shadowing caused by other vehicles has, however, largely been neglected in most of the models, as well as in the system simulations. In this paper we present a shadow fading model targeting system simulations based on real measurements performed in urban and highway scenarios. The measurement data is separated into three categories, line-of-sight (LOS), obstructed line-of-sight (OLOS) by vehicles, and non-line-of-sight due to buildings, with the help of video information recorded during the measurements. It is observed that vehicles obstructing the LOS induce an additional average attenuation of about 10 dB in the received signal power. An approach to incorporate the LOS/OLOS model into existing VANET simulators is also provided. Finally, system level VANET simulation results are presented, showing the difference between the LOS/OLOS model and a channel model based on Nakagami-m fading.
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9.
  • Wang, W., et al. (författare)
  • Packet priority assignment for wireless control systems of multiple physical systems
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2019. - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 9781728101507 ; , s. 143-150
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wireless control systems (WCSs) have gained much attention lately, due to their easy deployment and flexibility compared to wired control systems. However, this comes at the cost of possibly increased network delay and packet losses, that can significantly impact the control system performance, and possibly its stability. Such problems become even more relevant if the network is shared among different control systems, and thus becomes a scarce resource, like in Industrial Internet of Things applications. In this paper, we describe how to assign packet priorities dynamically when there are many physical systems sharing a given network, aiming at minimizing the performance degradation of the WCS. Towards that, we present a network model including both delay and packet losses, both of which are very important for the control system performance. Our solution is evaluated over two different use cases to show the generality of the approach: the WCS for a set of inverted pendula, and the WCS for small modular reactors in a nuclear power plant. The results show that the proposed approach allows for a more stable performance even in presence of highly nonlinear systems, sensitive to time-varying delays, as well as in presence of high network interference.
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10.
  • Liu, Yang, et al. (författare)
  • A Study Towards Reliability- and Delay-Critical Wireless Communication for RoboCup Robotic Soccer Application
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: 2007 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing. - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - 1424413117 - 9781424413119 - 1424413125 - 1424413125 - 1424413117 ; , s. 633-636
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RoboCup is an international competition for a team of multiple fast-moving robots under a dynamic environment to autonomously play soccer game against another team. Due to the nature of the competition, the requirements and constraints for the wireless communication are extremely tight. The challenge is that wireless communication is involved in the control loop and therefore the reliability and propagation delay are vital factors which directly affect the team performance. Beside, various interferences with known and unknown frequency / transmission power usually exist at the competition site, which are hazardous environment to achieve reliable and low latency performance for wireless communication. This paper investigates the performance strengths and weaknesses of wireless communication means e.g. RF, IEEE 802.11a/b, IEEE 802.15.4, DECT, Linx, etc, which are commonly used nowadays in different RoboCup teams and propose improvements towards reliable and delay-critical wireless communication.
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