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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2009)"

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  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005 : Data from the national prostate cancer register in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - Stockholm : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 41:6, s. 456-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising rapidly in Sweden and there is a need to better understand the pattern of diagnosis, tumor characteristics and treatment. Material and methods. Between 1996 and 2005, all new cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were intended to be registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). This register contains information on diagnosing unit, date of diagnosis, cause of diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor stage according to the TNM classification in force, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis and primary treatment given within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Results. In total, 72 028 patients were registered, comprising >97% of all pertinent incident cases of prostate cancer in the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). During the study period there was a considerable decrease in median age at the time of diagnosis, a stage migration towards smaller tumors, a decrease in median serum PSA values at diagnosis, a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate of men diagnosed with distant metastases or with a PSA level of >100 ng/ml at diagnosis and an increase in the proportion of tumors with Gleason score ≤6. Relatively large geographical differences in the median age at diagnosis and the age-standardized incidence of cases with category T1c tumors were observed. Treatment with curative intent increased dramatically and treatment patterns varied according to geographical region. In men with localized tumors and a PSA level of <20 ng/ml at diagnosis, expectant treatment was more commonly used in those aged ≥75 years than in those aged <75 years. Also, the pattern of endocrine treatment varied in different parts of Sweden. Conclusions. All changes in the register seen over time are consistent with increased diagnostic activity, especially PSA testing, resulting in an increased number of cases with early disease, predominantly tumors in category T1c. The patterns of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer vary considerably in different parts of Sweden. The NPCR continues to be an important source for research, epidemiological surveillance of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer
  • Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • Proton MR spectroscopy and preoperative diagnostic accuracy: an evaluation of intracranial mass lesions characterized by stereotactic biopsy findings
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: AJNR. - 1936-959X. ; 21:1, s. 84-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has made it easier to distinguish among the different types of intracranial mass lesions. Nevertheless, it is sometimes impossible to base a diagnosis solely on clinical and neuroradiologic findings, and, in these cases, biopsy must be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopy is able to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy in cases of intracranial tumors and may therefore obviate stereotactic biopsy. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with intracranial tumors underwent MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and stereotactic biopsy. MR spectroscopic findings were evaluated for the distribution pattern of pathologic spectra (NAA/Cho ratio < 1) across the lesion and neighboring tissue, for signal ratios in different tumor types, and for their potential to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Gliomas and lymphomas showed pathologic spectra outside the area of contrast enhancement while four nonastrocytic circumscribed tumors (meningioma, pineocytoma, metastasis, and germinoma) showed no pathologic spectra outside the region of enhancement. No significant correlation was found between different tumor types and signal ratios. MR spectroscopy improved diagnostic accuracy by differentiating infiltrative from circumscribed tumors; however, diagnostic accuracy was not improved in terms of differentiating the types of infiltrative or circumscribed lesions. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy can improve diagnostic accuracy by differentiating circumscribed brain lesions from histologically infiltrating processes, which may be difficult or impossible solely on the basis of clinical or neuroradiologic findings.
  • Mårtensson, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • A nonsurgical technique for blood access in extracorporeal affinity adsorption of antibodies in rats.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Artificial Organs. - : Wiley. - 0160-564X .- 1525-1594. ; 31:4, s. 312-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monoclonal antibodies for targeting cytotoxic conjugates to tumor cells are currently being evaluated together with extracorporeal affinity adsorption. The aim of the adsorption was to reduce undesired side effects in normal organs and to increase the tumor-to-normal tissue ratios. This technique is also applicable to several other therapeutic areas such as immune-mediated disorders, that is, autoimmunity, allergy, and transplantation rejection. We describe an improved technique for extracorporeal affinity adsorption of radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies in rats. Blood access is established through the tail artery and tail vein, without surgical insertion of permanent catheters. This technique is simple, does not require surgery, and causes only minimal stress to the animals. In addition, experiments can be carried out on several animals simultaneously. This new technique is of considerable benefit for studying extracorporeal affinity adsorption in rats, as experiments can be carried out with negligible anatomical and physiological interventions, compared to previously used techniques.
  • Nittby, Henrietta, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bioelectromagnetics. - : Wiley. - 0197-8462 .- 1521-186X. ; 29:3, s. 219-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considering the frequent use of mobile phones, we have directed attention to possible implications on cognitive functions. In this study we investigated in a rat model the long-term effects of protracted exposure to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed for 2 h each week for 55 weeks to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation at different SAR levels (0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period) emitted by a (GSM-900) test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After this protracted exposure, GSM-900 exposed rats were compared to sham exposed controls. Effects on exploratory behaviour were evaluated in the open-field test, in which no difference was seen. Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).
  • Salford, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • The mammalian brain in the electromagnetic fields designed by man with special reference to blood-brain barrier function, neuronal damage and possible physical mechanisms
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PROGRESS OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS SUPPLEMENT. - 0375-9687. ; :173, s. 283-309
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Life oil earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are all example of oscillations possibly important for life.(1)) The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what; extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio frequency fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1989 Our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leak-age of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.(2)-6)) One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAB-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure 7) but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 clays, but not after 28.(8)) in our continued research, also the non-thermal effects oil tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.(9)) We have also performed microarray analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.(10),11)) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Some other Studies agree while others find no effects. The mechanisms by which the EMFs may alter BBB permeability are not Well Understood. At low field strengths, the effects on body temperature are negligible and thus heating effects are not involved. A change in the physicochemical characteristics of membranes has been suggested as a cause.(12)) We have performed experiments to verify a quantum mechanical model for interaction with protein-bound ions. Our results show that controlled frequency and amplitude of ELF EM fields upon spinach plasma vesicles can steer transport over the membrane.(13)) This may be a first proof of a resonance phenomenon where appropriate levels of frequency and amplitude in the right combination have the potency to communicate with the biology of membranes and transport systems. Our study has prompted Lis to elaborate on magnetic resonance models; the Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) model and the Ion Parametric Resonance (IPR) Model in an attempt to explain the occurrence of resonance frequencies. This is extensively described here under the heading: Mechanisms behind the effects of electromagnetical fields upon biology. We also bring forward the concept of solitons being active in membranes and DNA/RNA-transcription as a, possible mean to understand and prove the biological effects of EMF. The Nishinomiya-Yukawa International and Interdisciplinary Symposium 2007 raised the question: What is Life? An obvious and simple answer could be: It is DNA! The DNA strand can be looked upon as an antenna resonating in the microwave band 6GHz with its harmonics and subharmonics.(14)-18)) If this holds true, the dramatic situation might exist, that all living organisms have a receptor for the newly constructed and world-wide man-made microvaves, leading to a direct effect upon the function of DNA - in concordance with our experimental findings! Our generation invented the microwave emitters. We now have in imperative obligation to further investigate the links between EMF and biology in order to prevent possible detrimental effects of the microwaves.
  • Toporski, Jacek, et al. (författare)
  • High-dose iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine with haploidentical stem cell transplantation and posttransplant immunotherapy in children with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. - : Elsevier BV. - 1083-8791. ; 15:9, s. 1077-1085
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of using high-dose iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and transplantation of T cell-depleted haploidentical peripheral blood stem cells (designated haplo-SCT) to treat relapsing/refractory neuroblastoma (RRNB). Five RRNB patients were enrolled: 4 with relapse (3 after autologous SCT) and 1 with induction therapy failure. The preparative regimen included high-dose (131)I-MIBG on day -20, followed by fludarabine (Flu), thiotepa, and melphalan (Mel) from day -8 to -1. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized, T cell-depleted haploidentical paternal stem cells were infused on day 0 together with cultured donor mesenchymal stem cells. A single dose of rituximab was given on day +1. After cessation of short immunosuppression (mycophenolate, OKT3), 4 children received donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). (131)I-MIBG infusion and RIC were well tolerated. All patients engrafted. No primary acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was observed. Four children developed aGVHD after DLI and were successfully treated. Analysis of immunologic recovery showed fast reappearance of potentially immunocompetent natural killer (NK) and T cells, which might have acted as effector cells responsible for the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Two children are alive and well, with no evidence of disease 40 and 42 months after transplantation. One patient experienced late progression with new bone lesions (sternum) 38 months after haplo-SCT, and is being treated with local irradiation and reinstituted DLI. One patient rejected the graft, was rescued with autologous backup, and died of progressive disease 5 months after transplantation. Another child relapsed 7 months after transplantation and died 5 months later. High-dose (131)I-MIBG followed by RIC and haplo-SCT for RRNB is feasible and promising, because 2 of 5 children on that regimen achieved long-lasting remission. Further studies are needed to evaluate targeted therapy and immune-mediated tumor control in high-risk neuroblastoma.
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