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1.
  • Pan, E., et al. (författare)
  • Low rate of reoperations after acute type A aortic dissection repair from The Nordic Consortium Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. - : Elsevier BV. - 0022-5223 .- 1097-685X. ; 156:3, s. 939-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To describe the relationship between the extent of primary aortic repair and the incidence of reoperations after surgery for type A aortic dissection. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 1159 patients treated for type A aortic dissection at eight Nordic low-to medium-sized cardiothoracic centers from 2005 to 2014. Data were gathered from patient records and national registries. Patients were separately divided into 3 groups according to the distal anastomoses technique (ascending aorta [n = 791], hemiarch [n = 247], and total arch [n = 66]), and into 2 groups for proximal repair (aortic root replacement [n = 285] and supracoronary repair [n = 832]). Freedom from reoperation was estimated with cumulative incidence survival and Fine-Gray competing risk regression model was used to identify independent risk factors for reoperation. Results: The median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0-10 years). Altogether 51 out of 911 patients underwent reoperation. Freedom from distal reoperation at 5 years was 96.9%, with no significant difference between the groups (P = .22). Freedom from proximal reoperation at 5 years was 97.8%, with no difference between the groups (P = .84). Neither DeBakey classification nor the extent of proximal or distal repair predicted freedom from a later reoperation. The only independent risk factor associated with a later proximal reoperation was a history of connective tissue disease. Conclusions: Type A aortic dissection repair in low-to medium-volume centers was associated with a low reoperation rate and satisfactory midterm survival. The extent of the primary repair had no significant influence on reoperation rate or midterm survival.
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2.
  • Hansmann, Georg, et al. (författare)
  • 2019 updated consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension: The European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN), endorsed by AEPC, ESPR and ISHLT
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. - : Elsevier BV. - 1053-2498. ; 38:9, s. 879-901
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network is a registered, non-profit organization that strives to define and develop effective, innovative diagnostic methods and treatment options in all forms of pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease, including pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, PH associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), persistent PH of the newborn, and related cardiac dysfunction. The executive writing group members conducted searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE bibliographic database (1990–2018) and held face-to-face and web-based meetings. Ten section task forces voted on the updated recommendations, based on the 2016 executive summary. Clinical trials, meta-analyses, guidelines, and other articles that include pediatric data were searched using the term “pulmonary hypertension” and other keywords. Class of recommendation (COR) and level of evidence (LOE) were assigned based on European Society of Cardiology/American Heart Association definitions and on pediatric data only, or on adult studies that included >10% children or studies that enrolled adults with CHD. New definitions by the World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension 2018 were included. We generated 10 tables with graded recommendations (COR/LOE). The topics include diagnosis/monitoring, genetics/biomarkers, cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance/chest computed tomography, associated forms of PH, intensive care unit/lung transplantation, and treatment of pediatric PH. For the first time, a set of specific recommendations on the management of PH in middle- and low-income regions was developed. Taken together, these executive, up-to-date guidelines provide a specific, comprehensive, detailed but practical framework for the optimal clinical care of children and young adults with PH.
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3.
  • Fagevik Olsén, Monika, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of Pressure Generated by Resistors From Different Positive Expiratory Pressure Devices
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Care. - : Daedalus Enterprises. - 0020-1324 .- 1943-3654. ; 60:10, s. 1418-1423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to improve pulmonary function and airway clearance. Different PEP devices are available, but there have been no studies that describe the pressure generated by different resistors. The purpose of this study was to compare pressures generated from the proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial flow-dependent PEP valves with all other parameters kept constant. METHODS: Resistors from 4 flow-regulated PEP devices (Pep/Rmt system, Wellspect HealthCare; Pipe P breathing exerciser, Koo Medical Equipment; Mini-PEP, Philips Respironics [including resistors by Rusch]; and 15-mm endo-adapter, VBM Medizintechnik) were tested randomly by a blinded tester at constant flows of 10 and 18 L/min from an external gas system. All resistors were tested 3 times. RESULTS: Resistors with a similar diameter produced statistically significant different pressures at the same flow. The differences were smaller when the flow was 10 L/min compared with 18 L/min. The differences were also smaller when the diameter of the resistor was increased. The pressures produced by the 4 resistors of the same size were all significantly different when measuring 1.5- and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 10 L/min and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 18 L/min (P < .001). There were no significant differences between any of the resistors when testing sizes of 4.5 and 5.0 mm at either flow. The Mini-PEP and adapter resistors gave the highest pressures. CONCLUSIONS: Pressures generated by the different proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial PEP devices were not comparable, even though the diameter of the resistors is reported to be the same. The pressures generated were significantly different, particularly when using small-diameter resistors at a high flow. Therefore, the resistors may not be interchangeable. This is important information for clinicians, particularly when considering PEP for patients who do not tolerate higher pressures. (C) 2015 Daedalus Enterprises
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4.
  • Gulyas, Miklos, et al. (författare)
  • COX-2 expression and effects of celecoxib in addition to standard chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 57:2, s. 244-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is proposed as a treatment option in several cancer types. However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), phase III trials have failed to demonstrate a benefit of adding COX-2 inhibitors to standard chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells as predictive biomarker for COX-2 inhibition.Methods: In a multicenter phase III trial, 316 patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive celecoxib (400 mg b.i.d.) or placebo up to one year in addition to a two-drug platinum-based chemotherapy combination. In a subset of 122 patients, archived tumor tissue was available for immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells. For each compartment, COX-2 expression was graded as high or low, based on a product score of extension and intensity of positively stained cells.Results: An updated analysis of all 316 patients included in the original trial, and of the 122 patients with available tumor tissue, showed no survival differences between the celecoxib and placebo arms (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.81–1.27 and HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.78–1.61, respectively). High COX-2 scores in tumor (n = 71) or stromal cells (n = 55) was not associated with a superior survival outcome with celecoxib vs. placebo (HR =0.96, 95% CI 0.60–1.54; and HR =1.51; 95% CI 0.86–2.66), and no significant interaction effect between COX-2 score in tumor or stromal cells and celecoxib effect on survival was detected (p = .48 and .25, respectively).Conclusions: In this subgroup analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC treated within the context of a randomized trial, we could not detect any interaction effect of COX-2 expression in tumor or stromal cells and the outcome of celecoxib treatment in addition to standard chemotherapy.
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5.
  • Balcan, Baran, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment and Depression in Adults with Coronary Artery Disease and Nonsleepy Obstructive Sleep Apnea. A Secondary Analysis of the RICCADSA Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of the American Thoracic Society. - 2325-6621. ; 16:1, s. 62-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and depression are common among adults with coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on depression in adults with CAD and nonsleepy OSA. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the RICCADSA (Randomized Intervention with CPAP in CAD and Sleep Apnea) trial, conducted in Sweden between 2005 and 2013. Adults with CAD and nonsleepy OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15/h, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale <10 at baseline) and complete Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaires at baseline, after 3 and 12 months, were included. Participants analyzed in their randomized arm were CPAP (n = 99) or no-CPAP (n = 104). Depression was defined as a Zung SDS score of 50 or greater. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the absolute change in the SDS score from baseline. RESULTS: No significant between-group differences were observed in SDS scores during follow-up in the entire study sample. Among the 56 participants with an SDS of 50 or greater at baseline (27.6%), the mean (±SD) baseline SDS was 55.0 (±5.5) in the CPAP group, and 53.9 (±4.0) in the no-CPAP group. In the CPAP group, SDS scores decreased at 3 months (47.2 ± 8.2) and 12 months (45.8 ± 7.6), but remained stable in the no-CPAP group at 3 months (53.1 ± 8.0) and 12 months (52.6 ± 8.1) (P = 0.01). The proportion with depression decreased from 30.3% at baseline to 16.2% after 3 months, and to 13.1% after 12 months in the CPAP group, from 25.0% at baseline to 23.1% after 3 months, and to 24.0% after 12 months in the no-CPAP group (P = 0.001). Moreover, there was an association between the duration of CPAP usage (h/night) and the longitudinal decline in SDS score (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). CPAP usage categories (3, 4, and 5 h/night) were significantly associated with improvement in SDS (odds ratio = 3.92, 4.45, and 4.89, respectively) in multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, apnea-hypopnea index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with depression, nonsleepy OSA, and CAD, 3 months of CPAP treatment improved depression scores. The improvement in mood persisted up to 12 months. An on-treatment adjusted analysis confirmed these findings. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00519597).
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6.
  • Barman, Malin, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort).
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6643. ; 7:12, s. 10100-10115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster) had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561) were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.
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7.
  • Bjerg, Anders, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based study of animal component sensitization, asthma, and rhinitis in schoolchildren
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - : Wiley. - 0905-6157 .- 1399-3038. ; 26:6, s. 557-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAnimal sensitization is a major determinant of asthma in children. Component-resolved studies of unselected pediatric populations are lacking. The aim was to describe sensitization to animal components and the association with asthma and rhinitis in animal-sensitized schoolchildren. MethodsA random sample of 696 children (11-12years) from a Swedish population-based cohort was tested for sensitization to cat, dog, and horse dander using ImmunoCAP. Sera from animal-sensitized children were further analyzed by microarray including three allergen components from cat, four from dog, and two from horse. The parents completed an expanded ISAAC questionnaire. ResultsOf 259 animal-sensitized children (0.1 kU(A)/l), 51% were sensitized to all three, 23% to two, and 25% to one species. Current asthma and asthma symptoms following contact with cats were associated with co-sensitization to Fel d 1 and Fel d 4. This association was seen already at moderate-level sensitization (1-15 ISU) to Fel d 4, at which level most children were sensitized to Fel d 1, as well. In dog-sensitized children, the majority was sensitized to more than one dog component, and co-sensitization to Can f 5 and Can f 1/f 2 conferred the greatest risk for asthma. Sensitization to the highly cross-reactive serum albumins was uncommon and not associated with asthma. ConclusionsAmong schoolchildren in northern Sweden, where mite allergy is uncommon, furry animals were the primary perennial sensitizers. Asthma was associated with higher levels of component sensitization, and sensitization to more than one component from the same animal conferred the greatest risk.
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8.
  • Carlsson, Axel C, et al. (författare)
  • Endostatin predicts mortality in patients with acute dyspnea - a cohort study of patients seeking care in emergency departments.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Biochemistry. - : Elsevier BV. - 0009-9120 .- 1873-2933. ; 75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Increased levels of circulating endostatin predicts cardiovascular morbidity and impaired kidney function in the general population. The utility of endostatin as a risk marker for mortality in the emergency department (ED) has not been reported.AIM: Our main aim was to study the association between plasma endostatin and 90-day mortality in an unselected cohort of patients admitted to the ED for acute dyspnea. Design Circulating endostatin was analyzed in plasma from 1710 adults and related to 90-day mortality in Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, body temperature, C-reactive protein, lactate, creatinine and medical priority according to the Medical Emergency Triage and Treatment System-Adult score (METTS-A). The predictive value of endostatin for mortality was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and compared with the clinical triage scoring system and age.RESULTS: Each one standard deviation increment of endostatin was associated with a HR of 2.12 (95 % CI 1.31-3.44 p< 0.01) for 90-day mortality after full adjustment. Levels of endostatin were significantly increased in the group of patients with highest METTS-A (p<0.001). When tested for the outcome 90-day mortality, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.616 for METTS-A, 0.701 for endostatin, 0.708 for METTS -A and age and 0.738 for METTS-A, age and levels of endostatin.CONCLUSIONS: In an unselected cohort of patients admitted to the ED with acute dyspnea, endostatin had a string association to 90-day mortality and improved prediction of 90-day mortality in the ED beyond the clinical triage scoring system and age with 3 %.
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9.
  • Hagman, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Club cell secretory protein (CC16) in gastric fluid at birth and subsequent lung disease in preterm infants
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Pulmonology. - : Wiley. - 8755-6863. ; 53:10, s. 1399-1406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundClub cell secretory protein (CC16) probably has a role in protecting the lung from inflammation. AimTo evaluate if low levels of CC16 in gastric fluid at birth, reflecting low levels of CC16 in the lung, would be associated with lung inflammation and respiratory morbidity. MethodsA study of 64 infants with mean gestational age 26.1 weeks. CC16 was analyzed in gastric fluid at birth. CC16, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and MMP-9 were analyzed in tracheal aspirate within 24h from birth. ResultsCC16 in gastric fluid increased with gestational age (P=0.033). Lower concentrations of CC16 in gastric fluid at birth were associated with higher concentrations of IL-1 (P=0.028), TNF- (P=0.034), and MMP-9 (P=0.015) in tracheal aspirate. Infants who needed mechanical ventilation at 24 and 72h of age had lower CC16 in gastric fluid than those not ventilated at these ages (P=0.011 and P=0.024, respectively). Lower CC16 in gastric fluid was associated with higher FiO(2) at 6h (P=0.009), higher PaCO2 at 24h (P=0.03), more ventilator days (P=0.012) and more days with supplemental oxygen (P=0.03). Infants who had either died or were still treated with supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age had lower CC16 in gastric fluid than infants with none of these outcomes (P=0.049). ConclusionA low CC16 concentration in gastric fluid at birth was associated with increased inflammation in the trachea within the first 24h of life and with more need for respiratory support in the neonatal period.
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10.
  • Johansson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The contribution of hypoxia to the association between sleep apnoea, insomnia, and cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling elderly with and without cardiovascular disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. - : Sage Publications. - 1474-5151 .- 1873-1953. ; 14:3, s. 222-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims:This study explores if nightly hypoxia (i.e. percentage of sleep time with oxygen saturation lower than 90% (SaO2<90%)) contributed to the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and insomnia in community-dwelling elderly with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). A second aim was to explore a potential cut-off score for hypoxia to predict insomnia and the association of the cut-off with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular mortality.Method:A total of 331 community-dwelling elderly aged 71–87 years underwent one-night polygraphic recordings. The presence of insomnia was recorded by a self-report questionnaire. The presence of CVD was objectively established and mortality data were collected after three and six years.Results:In both patients with CVD (n=119) or without CVD (n=212) SDB was associated with hypoxia (p<0.005). Only in the patients with CVD was hypoxia associated with insomnia (p<0.001) which mediated an indirect effect (p<0.05) between SDB and insomnia. Hypoxia of more than 1.5% of sleep time with SaO2<90% was found to be a critical level for causing insomnia. According to this criterion 32% (n=39) and 26% (n=55) of those with and without CVD had hypoxia, respectively. These groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease or levels of SDB. However, in the CVD group, hypoxia was associated with cardiovascular mortality at the three-year follow-up (p=0.008) and higher levels of insomnia (p=0.002).Conclusion:In the elderly with CVD, SDB mediated by hypoxia can be associated with more insomnia and a worse prognosis.
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