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1.
  • Willadsen, E., et al. (författare)
  • Inter-rater reliability in classification of canonical babbling status based on canonical babbling ratio in infants with isolated cleft palate randomised to Timing of Primary Surgery for Cleft Palate (TOPS)
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0269-9206 .- 1464-5076. ; 37:1, s. 77-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canonical babbling (CB) is commonly defined as present when at least 15% of all syllables produced are canonical, in other words a canonical babbling ratio (CBR) >= 0.15. However, there is limited knowledge about inter-rater reliability in classification of CB status based on CBR and inter-rater differences in assessment of CBR. We investigated inter-rater reliability of experienced Speech Language Therapists (SLTs) on: classification of CB status based on CBR >= 0.15, CBRs and the total number of syllables per infant used to calculate CBR. Each infant (n = 484) was video-recorded at a clinical site in play interaction with their parent as part of the randomised controlled trial Timing of Primary Surgery for Cleft Palate. Each recording was subsequently assessed by three independent SLTs, from a pool of 29 SLTs. They assessed the recordings in real time. The three assessing SLTs agreed in classification of CB status in 423 (87.4%) infants, with higher complete agreement for canonical (91%; 326/358) than non-canonical (77%; 97/126). The average difference in CBR and total number of syllables identified between the SLT assessments of each infant was 0.12 and 95, respectively. This study provided new evidence that one trained SLT can reliably classify CB status (CBR >= 0.15) in real time when there is clear distinction between the observed CBR and the boundary (0.15); however, when the observed CBR approaches the boundary multiple SLT assessments are beneficial. Thus, we recommend to include assessment of inter-rater reliability, if the purpose is to compare CBR and total syllable count across infants or studies.
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2.
  • Forsberg, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection in COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter cohort study in Sweden
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0001-5172 .- 1399-6576. ; 68:2, s. 226-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI) increase morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Higher incidences of VA-LRTI have been reported among COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The primary objectives of this study were to describe clinical characteristics, incidence, and risk factors comparing patients who developed VA-LRTI to patients who did not, in a cohort of Swedish ICU patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Secondary objectives were to decipher changes over the three initial pandemic waves, common microbiology and the effect of VA-LTRI on morbidity and mortality.Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to 10 ICUs in southeast Sweden between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2021 because of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and were mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h. The primary outcome was culture verified VA-LRTI. Patient characteristics, ICU management, clinical course, treatments, microbiological findings, and mortality were registered. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine risk factors for first VA-LRTI.Results: Of a total of 536 included patients, 153 (28.5%) developed VA-LRTI. Incidence rate of first VA-LRTI was 20.8 per 1000 days of IMV. Comparing patients with VA-LRTI to those without, no differences in mortality, age, sex, or number of comorbidities were found. Patients with VA-LRTI had fewer ventilator-free days, longer ICU stay, were more frequently ventilated in prone position, received corticosteroids more often and were more frequently on antibiotics at intubation. Regression analysis revealed increased adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) for first VA-LRTI in patients treated with corticosteroids (aOR 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]] [1.31-5.74]), antibiotics at intubation (aOR 2.01 95% CI [1.14-3.66]), and days of IMV (aOR 1.05 per day of IMV, 95% CI [1.03-1.07]). Few multidrug-resistant pathogens were identified. Incidence of VA-LRTI increased from 14.5 per 1000 days of IMV during the first wave to 24.8 per 1000 days of IMV during the subsequent waves.Conclusion: We report a high incidence of culture-verified VA-LRTI in a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients from the first three pandemic waves. VA-LRTI was associated with increased morbidity but not 30-, 60-, or 90-day mortality. Corticosteroid treatment, antibiotics at intubation and time on IMV were associated with increased aOR of first VA-LRTI.
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3.
  • Hårdstedt, Maria, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Swimming-Induced Pulmonary Edema : Diagnostic Criteria Validated by Lung Ultrasound
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Chest. - : American College of Chest Physicians. - 0012-3692 .- 1931-3543. ; 158:4, s. 1586-1595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing popularity of open water swimming worldwide, swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) is a poorly recognized condition lacking established diagnostic criteria.RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to identify diagnostic criteria of SIPE during a large open water swimming event.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 17,904 individuals swam 1,000, 1,500, or 3,000 m in cold open water during Sweden's largest open water swimming event in 2018 and 2019. Of 166 swimmers seeking medical attention for acute respiratory symptoms, 160 were included in the study. Medical history, symptoms, and clinical findings were collected. On-site lung ultrasound (LUS) was performed to verify pulmonary edema.RESULTS: Pulmonary edema was confirmed by LUS in 102 patients (64%); findings were unilateral in 11 (7%). Peripheral oxygen saturation was identified as a strong independent diagnostic test for pulmonary edema, with ≤ 95% as the suggested cut off based on receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve, 0.893; P < .0001). Crackles on lung auscultation, predominantly over the anterior chest, identified 88% of patients with edema. Peripheral oxygen saturation ≤ 95% or auscultation findings of crackles identified pulmonary edema with a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 86%. A specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 99% for LUS-verified pulmonary edema were reached if patients presented with both oxygen saturation ≤ 95% and auscultation of crackles.INTERPRETATION: We suggest a clinical algorithm for diagnosis of SIPE for swimmers with acute respiratory symptoms during swimming in cold open water. Novel features of focally distributed edema in the anterior parts of the lungs, sometimes unilateral, add to this unique dataset of an underreported condition.
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4.
  • Stråvik, Mia, 1994, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal Intake of Cow's Milk during Lactation Is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Food Allergy in Offspring
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6643 .- 2072-6643. ; 12:12, s. 1-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation may affect the propensity of the child to develop an allergy. The aim was to assess and compare the dietary intake of pregnant and lactating women, validate it with biomarkers, and to relate these data to physician-diagnosed allergy in the offspring at 12 months of age. Maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation was assessed by repeated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in a prospective Swedish birth cohort (n = 508). Fatty acid proportions were measured in maternal breast milk and erythrocytes. Allergy was diagnosed at 12 months of age by a pediatrician specialized in allergy. An increased maternal intake of cow's milk during lactation, confirmed with biomarkers (fatty acids C15:0 and C17:0) in the maternal blood and breast milk, was associated with a lower prevalence of physician-diagnosed food allergy by 12 months of age. Intake of fruit and berries during lactation was associated with a higher prevalence of atopic eczema at 12 months of age. Our results suggest that maternal diet modulates the infant's immune system, thereby influencing subsequent allergy development.
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5.
  • Yilmaz, Aylin, et al. (författare)
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Levels of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 RNA and Duration of Viral RNA Shedding Do Not Differ Between Patients With Mild and Severe/Critical Coronavirus Disease 2019
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6613 .- 0022-1899. ; 223:1, s. 15-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study reports longitudinal viral RNA loads from the nasopharynx/throat in patients with mild and severe/critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We also investigated whether the duration of symptoms correlated with the duration of viral RNA shedding. A total of 56 patients were included. The highest viral loads occurred early after onset of symptoms. Neither the viral RNA loads in the upper respiratory tract nor the time to viral RNA clearance differed between patients with mild or severe/critical disease. There was a moderate correlation between number of days with symptoms and number of days with viral RNA shedding in patients with mild COVID-19.
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6.
  • Humayun, Jhangir, et al. (författare)
  • Systematic review of the healthcare cost of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMJ open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 11:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine the costs directly or indirectly related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The secondary objective was to stratify the costs based on gestational age and/or birth weight.Systematic literature review.PubMed and Scopus were searched on 3 February 2020. Studies were selected based on eligibility criteria by two independent reviewers. Included studies were further searched to identify eligible references and citations.Two independent reviewers extracted data with a prespecified data extraction sheet, including items from a published checklist for quality assessment. The costs in the included studies are reported descriptively.Costs of BPD.The 13 included studies reported the total costs or marginal costs of BPD. Most studies reported costs during birth hospitalisation (cost range: Int$21392-Int$1 094509 per child, equivalent to €19103-€977397, in 2019) and/or during the first year of life. One study reported costs during the first 2years; two other studies reported costs later, during the preschool period and one study included a long-term follow-up. The highest mean costs were associated with infants born at extremely low gestational ages. The quality assessment indicated a low risk of bias in the reported findings of included studies.This study was the first systematic review of costs associated with BPD. We confirmed previous reports of high costs and described the long-term follow-up necessary for preterm infants with BPD, particularly infants of very low gestational age. Moreover, we identified a need for studies that estimate costs outside hospitals and after the first year of life.CRD42020173234.
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7.
  • Amid Hägg, Shadi, et al. (författare)
  • The negative health effects of having a combination of snoring and insomnia
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SLEEP MEDICINE. - : American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). - 1550-9389 .- 1550-9397. ; 18:4, s. 973-981
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Objectives: Insomnia and snoring are common sleep disorders. The aim was to investigate the association of having a combination of insomnia symptoms and snoring with comorbidity and daytime sleepiness. Methods: The study population comprised 25,901 participants (16-75 years, 54.4% women) from 4 Swedish cities, who answered a postal questionnaire that contained questions on snoring, insomnia symptoms (difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep and/or early morning awakening), smoking, educational level, and respiratory and nonrespiratory disorders. Results: Snoring was reported by 4,221 (16.2%), while 9,872 (38.1%) reported 1 insomnia symptom. A total of 2,150 (8.3%) participants reported both insomnia symptoms and snoring. The association with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.2-1.6), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4), asthma (adjusted OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.6-2.3), daytime sleepiness (adjusted OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 7.1-8.8), and the use of hypnotics (adjusted OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 6.1-9.1) was highest for the group with both insomnia symptoms and snoring. Conclusions: Participants with both snoring and insomnia run an increased risk of hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, daytime sleepiness, and use of hypnotics. It is important to consider snoring in patients seeking medical assistance for insomnia and, vice versa, in patients with snoring inquiring about insomnia.
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8.
  • Baldanzi, Gabriel, et al. (författare)
  • OSA Is Associated With the Human Gut Microbiota Composition and Functional Potential in the Population-Based Swedish CardioPulmonary bioImage Study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Chest. - : Elsevier. - 0012-3692 .- 1931-3543. ; 164:2, s. 503-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-breathing disorder linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Intermittent hypoxia and intermittent airway obstruction, hallmarks of OSA, have been shown in animal models to induce substantial changes to the gut microbiota composition and subsequent transplantation of fecal matter to other animals induced changes in blood pressure and glucose metabolism.RESEARCH QUESTION: Does obstructive sleep apnea in adults associate with the composition and metabolic potential of the human gut microbiota?STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We used respiratory polygraphy data from up to 3,570 individuals aged 50-64 from the population-based Swedish CardioPulmonary bioImage Study combined with deep shotgun metagenomics of fecal samples to identify cross-sectional associations between three OSA parameters covering apneas and hypopneas, cumulative sleep time in hypoxia and number of oxygen desaturation events with gut microbiota composition. Data collection about potential confounders was based on questionnaires, on-site anthropometric measurements, plasma metabolomics, and linkage with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.RESULTS: We found that all three OSA parameters were associated with lower diversity of species in the gut. Further, the OSA-related hypoxia parameters were in multivariable-adjusted analysis associated with the relative abundance of 128 gut bacterial species, including higher abundance of Blautia obeum and Collinsela aerofaciens. The latter species was also independently associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Further, the cumulative time in hypoxia during sleep was associated with the abundance of genes involved in nine gut microbiota metabolic pathways, including propionate production from lactate. Lastly, we observed two heterogeneous sets of plasma metabolites with opposite association with species positively and negatively associated with hypoxia parameters, respectively.INTERPRETATION: OSA-related hypoxia, but not the number of apneas/hypopneas, is associated with specific gut microbiota species and functions. Our findings lay the foundation for future research on the gut microbiota-mediated health effects of OSA.
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9.
  • Bjornsdottir, E., et al. (författare)
  • Are symptoms of insomnia related to respiratory symptoms? Cross-sectional results from 10 European countries and Australia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To compare the prevalence of different insomnia subtypes among middle-aged adults from Europe and Australia and to explore the cross-sectional relationship between insomnia subtypes, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Design Cross-sectional population-based, multicentre cohort study. Setting 23 centres in 10 European countries and Australia. Methods We included 5800 participants in the third follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III (ECRHS III) who answered three questions on insomnia symptoms: difficulties falling asleep (initial insomnia), waking up often during the night (middle insomnia) and waking up early in the morning and not being able to fall back asleep (late insomnia). They also answered questions on smoking, general health and chronic diseases and had the following lung function measurements: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Changes in lung function since ECRHS I about 20 years earlier were also analysed. Main outcome measures Prevalence of insomnia subtypes and relationship to respiratory symptoms and function. Results Overall, middle insomnia (31.2%) was the most common subtype followed by late insomnia (14.2%) and initial insomnia (11.2%). The highest reported prevalence of middle insomnia was found in Iceland (37.2%) and the lowest in Australia (22.7%), while the prevalence of initial and late insomnia was highest in Spain (16.0% and 19.7%, respectively) and lowest in Denmark (4.6% and 9.2%, respectively). All subtypes of insomnia were associated with significantly higher reported prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Only isolated initial insomnia was associated with lower FEV1, whereas no association was found between insomnia and low FEV1/FVC ratio or decline in lung function. Conclusion There is considerable geographical variation in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Middle insomnia is most common especially in Iceland. Initial and late insomnia are most common in Spain. All insomnia subtypes are associated with respiratory symptoms, and initial insomnia is also associated with lower FEV1.
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10.
  • Celik, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness with the Zung Self-Rated Depression Subscales in Adults with Coronary Artery Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diagnostics. - : MDPI AG. - 2075-4418. ; 11:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a factor associated with both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and depressive symptoms. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment may decrease EDS in adults with OSA; however, the modulatory role of depressive symptoms on the improvement of EDS is not known. We aimed to explore the association between subscales of the Zung Self-rated Depression Scale (SDS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) over a 2-year period in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with OSA. This was a post-hoc analysis of the RICCADSA cohort, in which 399 adults with CAD (155 sleepy OSA [apnea-hypopnea index >= 15/h] and ESS score >= 10, who were offered CPAP; and 244 nonsleepy OSA [ESS < 10]), randomized to CPAP [n = 122] or no-CPAP [n = 122]) were included. Three factors were extracted from the Zung SDS, based on the principal component analysis: F1, cognitive symptoms and anhedonia; F2, negative mood; and F3, appetite. In a mixed model, the ESS score decreased by 3.4 points (p < 0.001) among the sleepy OSA phenotype, which was predicted by the decline in the F2, but not in the F1 and F3 scores. The fixed effects of time were not significant in the nonsleepy OSA groups, and thus, further analyses were not applicable. Additional within-group analyses showed a significant decrease in all subscales over time both in the sleepy and nonsleepy OSA patients on CPAP whereas there was a significant increase in the nonsleepy OSA group randomized to no-CPAP. We conclude that the improvement in negative mood symptoms of depression, but not changes in cognitive symptoms and anhedonia as well as appetite, was a significant predictor of decline in the ESS scores over a 2-year period in this CAD cohort with sleepy OSA on CPAP treatment.
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