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1.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X .- 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
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2.
  • Birnir, Bryndis, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of sub-cellular location and intracellular neuronal proteins on properties of GABA(A) receptors
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Current Pharmaceutical Design. - : Bentham Science Publishers. - 1381-6128 .- 1873-4286. ; 13:31, s. 3169-3177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most studies of GABA(A) receptor accessory proteins have focused on trafficking, clustering and phosphorylation state of the channel-forming subunits and as a result a number of proteins and mechanisms have been identified that can influence the GABA(A) channel expression and function in the cell plasma membrane. In the light of a growing list of intracellular and transmembrane neuronal proteins shown to affect the fate, function and pharmacology of the GABA(A) receptors in neurons, the concept of what constitutes the native GABA(A) receptor complex may need to be re-examined. It is perhaps more appropriate to consider the associated proteins or some of them to be parts of the receptor channel complex in the capacity of ancillary proteins. Here we highlight some of the effects the intracellular environment has on the GABA-activated channel function and pharmacology. The studies demonstrate the need for co-expression of accessory proteins with the GABA(A) channel-forming subunits in heterologous expression systems in order to obtain the full repertoire of GABA(A) receptors characteristics recorded in the native neuronal environment. Further studies e.g. on gene-modified animal models are needed for most of the accessory proteins to establish their significance in normal physiology and in pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric diseases. The challenge remains to elucidate the effects that the accessory proteins and processes (e.g. phosphorylation) plus the sub-cellular location have on the "fine-tuning" of the functional and pharmacological properties of the GABA(A) receptor channels.
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3.
  • Lindquist, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • Extrasynaptic GABA(A) channels activated by THIP are modulated by diazepam in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain hippocampal slice
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. - : Elsevier. - 1044-7431 .- 1095-9327. ; 24:1, s. 250-257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Single-channel currents were activated by THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) in cell-attached patches on CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampal slice preparation. THIP activated GABA(A) channels after a delay that was concentration-dependent and decreased by 1 muM diazepam. The currents showed outward rectification. Channels activated at depolarized 40 mV relative to the chloride reversal potential had low conductance (<40 pS) but the conductance increased with time, resulting in high-conductance channels (>40 pS). The average maximal-channel conductances for 2 and 100 muM THIP were 59 and 62 pS (-Vp = 40 mV), respectively, whereas in 2 muM THIP plus 1 muM diazepam, it was 71 pS. The results show that in hippocampal neurons THIP activates channels with characteristics similar to those of channels activated by low concentrations (0.5-5 AM) of GABA. The increase in the inhibitory conductance with membrane depolarization permits gradation of the shunt pathway relative to the level of the excitatory input. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Magnusson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • A placebo-controlled study of retinal blood flow changes by pentoxifylline and metabolites in humans
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0306-5251 .- 1365-2125. ; 61:2, s. 138-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To investigate the possible effects of pentoxifylline metabolites on retinal blood flow in humans. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period cross-over study that was observer blinded and partly blinded for the eight participants. On one occasion a placebo was given as an intravenous (i.v.) infusion over 100 min. On the other three occasions pentoxifylline was administered as i.v. infusions over 100 min at a rate of 3 mg min(-1). Before two of the pentoxifylline infusions the subjects were pretreated with either ciprofloxacin or rifampicin. Retinal blood flow was measured by scanning laser doppler flowmetry (SLDF) in a selected area of the central temporal retina before, during and until 5 h after the end of infusion. Blood samples for concentration analyses of pentoxifyllin, R-M1, S-M1, M4 and M5 were taken serially and areas under the curves (AUCs) were calculated. Linear mixed models were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Mean AUCs (ng h ml(-1)) were significantly increased for pentoxifylline (1964 vs. 1453) and S-M1 (5804 vs. 4227), but not R-M1 when pentoxifylline was co-administered with ciprofloxacin. The mean AUC for M5 was significantly reduced when subjects were pretreated with rifampicin (2041 vs. 3080). Pentoxifylline with and without pretreatment with rifampicin significantly increased retinal blood flow assessed as mean flow, pulsation (i.e. 1-systole/diastole), and diastolic flow (but not during systole), compared with placebo. The increases over placebo were more pronounced on diastolic flow, 9.7% (95% confidence interval 4.2, 15.5) than on mean flow, 4.6% (1.1, 8.3) after pentoxifylline administration. With pentoxifylline after rifampicin pretreatment the corresponding differences were 11.7% (5.8, 17.9) and 5.1% (1.4, 7.8) over placebo, respectively. After co-administration of pentoxifylline and ciprofloxacin we saw only a nonsignificant trend towards increased flow during diastole, but a significant decrease in pulsation. When AUCs for pentoxifylline and its metabolites were used as regressor variables to retinal mean flow we found that pentoxifylline, R-M1 and M5 had coefficients with a positive sign indicating that they enhanced the retinal blood flow. In contrast, S-M1 and M4 had coefficients with negative sign and thus appeared to decrease the blood flow in subjects treated with pentoxifylline. CONCLUSION: The R-M1 and M5 metabolites of pentoxifylline contributed significantly to the effects of pentoxifylline on retinal blood flow.
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5.
  • Rhodin, Malin M., et al. (författare)
  • Human renal function maturation: a quantitative description using weight and postmenstrual age
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Nephrology. - : Springer. - 1432-198X .- 0931-041X. ; 24:1, s. 67-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study pools published data to describe the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from very premature neonates to young adults. The data comprises measured GFR (using polyfructose, Cr-51-EDTA, mannitol or iohexol) from eight studies (n=923) and involved very premature neonates (22 weeks postmenstrual age) to adulthood (31 years). A nonlinear mixed effects approach (NONMEM) was used to examine the influences of size and maturation on renal function. Size was the primary covariate, and GFR was standardized for a body weight of 70 kg using an allometric power model. Postmenstrual age (PMA) was a better descriptor of maturational changes than postnatal age (PNA). A sigmoid hyperbolic model described the nonlinear relationship between GFR maturation and PMA. Assuming an allometric coefficient of 3/4, the fully mature (adult) GFR is predicted to be 121.2 mL/min per 70 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 117-125]. Half of the adult value is reached at 47.7 post-menstrual weeks (95% CI 45.1-50.5), with a Hill coefficient of 3.40 (95% CI 3.03-3.80). At 1-year postnatal age, the GFR is predicted to be 90% of the adult GFR. Glomerular filtration rate can be predicted with a consistent relationship from early prematurity to adulthood. We propose that this offers a clinically useful definition of renal function in children and young adults that is independent of the predictable changes associated with age and size.
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6.
  • van West, Dirk, et al. (författare)
  • Glucocorticoid receptor gene-based SNP analysis in patients with recurrent major depression
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0893-133X .- 1740-634X. ; 31:3, s. 620-627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, one of the stress-response systems, is one of the key neurobiological features of major depression (MDD). Data supporting the notion that glucocorticoid-mediated feedback inhibition is impaired in MDD come from a multitude of studies demonstrating nonsuppression of cortisol secretion following administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. We examined whether genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 3, Group C, Member 1; NR3C1) could be associated with increased susceptibility for MDD using a whole gene-based association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Four SNPs were identified in NR3C1 and genotyped in two well-diagnosed samples of patients with MDD ascertained in Belgium and northern Sweden, and matched control samples. In total, 314 MDD patients and 354 control individuals were included in the study. In the Belgian sample, we observed significant allele (p=0.02) and genotype (p=0.02) association with an SNP in the promoter region (NR3C1-1); in the Swedish sample, we observed significant allele (p=0.02) and genotype (p=0.02) association with the R23K SNP. The haplotype association studies showed modest evidence for an involvement of the 5' region of the NR3C1 gene in the genetic vulnerability for MDD. This study suggests that polymorphisms in the 5' region of the NR3C1 gene may play a role in the genetic vulnerability for MDD.
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7.
  • Saulo, Eleonor C., et al. (författare)
  • Willingness and ability to pay for artemisinin-based combination therapy in rural Tanzania
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - London : BioMed Central. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 7, s. 227-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP) and ability to pay (ATP) for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored.MethodsStructured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors.ResultsAmong 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%–95%) were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh) 500 (US$ 0.46) for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%–61%) were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.6). Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care."Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug.ConclusionWTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision taken in Tanzania to subsidize Coartem® fully at governmental health care facilities and at a consumer price of TSh 300–500 (US$ 0.28–0.46) at special designated shops through the programme of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) appears to be well founded.
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8.
  • Birnir, Bryndis, et al. (författare)
  • Conductance of recombinant GABA(A) channels is increased in cells co-expressing GABA(A) receptor-associated protein
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 1083-351X .- 0021-9258. ; 279:21, s. 21701-21706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High conductance gamma- aminobutyric acid type A ( GABA(A)) channels (> 40 picosiemens ( pS)) have been reported in some studies on GABA(A) channels in situ but not in others, whereas recombinant GABA(A) channels do not appear to display conductances above 40 pS. Furthermore, the conductance of some native GABA(A) channels can be increased by diazepam or pentobarbital, which are effects not reported for expressed GABA(A) channels. GABARAP, a protein associated with native GABA(A) channels, has been reported to cause clustering of GABA(A) receptors and changes in channel kinetics. We have recorded single channel currents activated by GABA in L929 cells expressing alpha(1), beta(1), and gamma(2S) subunits of human GABA(A) receptors. Channel conductance was never higher than 40 pS and was not significantly increased by diazepam or pentobarbital, although open probability was increased. In contrast, in cells expressing the same three subunits together with GABARAP, channel conductance could be significantly higher than 40 pS, and channel conductance was increased by diazepam and pentobarbital. GABARAP caused clustering of receptors in L929 cells, and we suggest that there may be interactions between subunits of clustered GABA(A) receptors that make them open co- operatively to give high conductance " channels." Recombinant channels may require the influence of GABARAP and perhaps other intracellular proteins to adopt a fuller repertoire of properties of native channels.
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9.
  • Graffner-Nordberg, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Computational predictions of binding affinities to dihydrofolate reductase: synthesis and biological evaluation of methotrexate analogues
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1520-4804 .- 0022-2623. ; 43:21, s. 3852-3861
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relative binding affinities to human dihydrofolate reductase of four new potential antifolates, containing ester linkages between the two aromatic systems, were estimated by free energy perturbation simulations. The ester analogue, predicted to exhibit the highest binding affinity to human dihydrofolate reductase, and a reference ester (more structurally related to methotrexate) were synthesized. As deduced from the measured IC(50) values, the calculated ranking of the ligands was correct although a greater difference in affinity was indicated by the experimental measurements. Among the new antifolates the most potent inhibitor exhibited a similar pharmacokinetic profile to methotrexate but lacked activity in a complex antiarthritic model in rat in vivo.
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10.
  • Lindquist, Catarina (författare)
  • Physiology and Pharmacology of GABAA receptors: The Brakes in the Brain
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain is mostly mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. These receptors are involved in both phasic inhibition (point-to-point inhibition, synaptic transmission) and tonic inhibition (diffuse form of inhibition, brain homeostasis). In this thesis the functional and pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors expressed in brain slices or in Sf 9 cells were studied. GABAA receptors expressed extrasynaptically are believed to be involved in tonic inhibition. In hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells we identified and characterized three types of extrasynaptic receptor types (GABARex) that varied in their affinity for GABA, maximal single-channel conductance and sensitivity to drugs. For the first time we showed how the GABA concentration determines the conductance of GABAA receptors in brain tissue. There is thus a direct link between the extracellular GABA concentration and the level of the tonic inhibition, providing dynamic control. It is only within the last ten years or so that the tonic inhibition was discovered and only recently has it gained widespread interest. One reason is that it has become quite clear that the first site of action and probably often the most important site of action of drugs are the extrasynaptic receptors. We found that a drug now in clinical trials (THIP) at the clinically relevant concentration activates these extrasynaptic receptors. It has been assumed that spontaneous openings of the receptors are only functionally significant in receptor complexes containing the epsilon-subunit or mutations. We show that alpha/beta and alpha/beta/gamma?receptors can open spontaneously and be modified by drugs. The capacity to open spontaneously may be vital for fast responses such as at synapses. This suggests that the functional properties of receptors located at synapses and outside of synapses (extrasynaptic receptors: GABARex) differ. Those at synapses open rapidly (ms) whereas those at extrasynaptic sites open after a delay of ten to hundreds of seconds. This functional difference is very important in terms of brain function as it ensures fast flow of information (synaptic transmission) but in a controlled way that is set by the gain and the time window for synaptic transmission integration via the tonic inhibition. By using the compound SR95531, we constructed a model that accounts for activation and inhibition of both phasic- and tonic-like currents in an expression system. This model can be used to calculate what concentrations of the inhibitor to use to specifically block certain GABARex receptors in brain tissue to study how a particular population of GABARex contributes to the tonic inhibition and how it affects both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission.
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