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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Farmaceutiska vetenskaper) srt2:(2000-2009);srt2:(2008)"

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  • Saulo, Eleonor C., et al. (författare)
  • Willingness and ability to pay for artemisinin-based combination therapy in rural Tanzania
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - London : BioMed Central. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 7, s. 227-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP) and ability to pay (ATP) for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored.MethodsStructured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors.ResultsAmong 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%–95%) were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh) 500 (US$ 0.46) for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%–61%) were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.6). Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care."Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug.ConclusionWTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision taken in Tanzania to subsidize Coartem® fully at governmental health care facilities and at a consumer price of TSh 300–500 (US$ 0.28–0.46) at special designated shops through the programme of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) appears to be well founded.
  • Wettermark, Bjoern, et al. (författare)
  • Secondary prevention in a large stroke population - A study of patients' purchase of recommended drugs
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - New York : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 39:10, s. 2880-2885
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose - In this study, linked, anonymous data from The National Hospital Discharge Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register were used for studying to what extent recommended drugs for secondary prevention after stroke and TIA were purchased by patients in the region of Stockholm, Sweden (2 million inhabitants). Methods - Data on purchased drugs for secondary stroke prevention during July 2005 to June 2006 by 17 902 patients > 18 years discharged after stroke or TIA during the period 1997 to June 2005 were analyzed by age, gender, and year of discharge. Results - Antiplatelets and warfarin were purchased by 87% of all stroke and 83% of all TIA patients, antihypertensives by 74% and 70%, and lipid lowering drugs by 41% and 39%, respectively. Conclusion - Time after discharge had only a minor influence on the proportion of patients purchasing the medicines.
  • Karypidis, A.-H., et al. (författare)
  • Deletion polymorphism of the UGT2B17 gene is associated with increased risk for prostate cancer and correlated to gene expression in the prostate
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Pharmacogenomics Journal. - Avenet, NJ : Nature Pub. Group. - 1470-269X .- 1473-1150. ; 8:2, s. 147-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolism of androgens includes glucuronidation, the major pathway of steroid elimination in several steroid target tissues. Glucuronidation is catalysed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). UGT2B17 has been shown to be particularly active against androgens and is highly abundant in the prostate. Recently, we discovered that deletion of the UGT2B17 gene is associated with low or undetectable urinary testosterone levels. Here, we determined the phenotypic outcome of the deletion by quantifying the UGT2B17 mRNA expression in normal prostate tissues in individuals with different genotypes. Additionally, the frequency of UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism was studied in a Swedish population-based case–control study including 176 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and 161 controls. We found that the individuals homozygous for the insertion allele expressed 30 times more UGT2B17 mRNA in prostate tissue than the heterozygotes. Carriers of the deletion allele had a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.32–3.25). In conclusion, these results show the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism is associated with prostate cancer risk. 
  • Abdurahman, Samir, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Activity of the small modified amino acid alpha-hydroxy glycineamide on in vitro and in vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid assembly and infectivity
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. - 0066-4804 .- 1098-6596. ; 52:10, s. 3737-3744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Upon maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion, proteolytic cleavage of the Gag precursor protein by the viral protease is followed by morphological changes of the capsid protein p24, which will ultimately transform the virus core from an immature spherical to a mature conical structure. Virion infectivity is critically dependent on the optimal semistability of the capsid cone structure. We have reported earlier that glycineamide (G-NH(2)), when added to the culture medium of infected cells, inhibits HIV-1 replication and that HIV-1 particles with aberrant core structures were formed. Here we show that it is not G-NH(2) itself but a metabolite thereof, alpha-hydroxy-glycineamide (alpha-HGA), that is responsible for the antiviral activity. We show that alpha-HGA inhibits the replication of clinical HIV-1 isolates with acquired resistance to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors but has no effect on the replication of any of 10 different RNA and DNA viruses. alpha-HGA affected the ability of the HIV-1 capsid protein to assemble into tubular or core structures in vitro and in vivo, probably by binding to the hinge region between the N- and C-terminal domains of the HIV-1 capsid protein as indicated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry results. As an antiviral compound, alpha-HGA has an unusually simple structure, a pronounced antiviral specificity, and a novel mechanism of antiviral action. As such, it might prove to be a lead compound for a new class of anti-HIV substances.
  • Gullberg, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis induces transcytosis of nanoparticles across human intestinal villus epithelium via invasin-dependent macropinocytosis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology. - New York, USA : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1530-0307 .- 0023-6837. ; 88:11, s. 1215-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Crohn's disease is characterized by a defect in intestinal barrier function, where bacteria are considered the most important inflammation-driving factor. Enteric bacteria, including E. coli and Yersinia spp, affect tight junctions in enterocytes, but little is known about bacterial effects on the transcellular pathway. Our objective was to study the short-term effects of Y. pseudotuberculosis on uptake of nanoparticles across human villus epithelium. Monolayers of human colon epithelium-derived Caco-2 cells and biopsies of normal human ileum were studied after 2 h exposure to Y. pseudotuberculosis expressing (inv+) or lacking (inv-) the bacterial adhesion molecule, invasin. Transepithelial transport of fluorescent nanoparticles (markers of transcytosis) was quantified by flow cytometry, and mechanisms explored by using inhibitors of endocytosis. Epithelial expressions of beta1-integrin and particle uptake pathways were studied by confocal microscopy. The paracellular pathway was assessed by electrical resistance (TER), mannitol flux, and expression of tight junction proteins occludin and caludin-4 by confocal microscopy. Inv+ Y. pseudotuberculosis adhered to the apical surface of epithelial cells and induced transcytosis of exogenous nanoparticles across Caco-2 monolayers (30-fold increase, P<0.01) and ileal mucosa (268+/-47% of control; P<0.01), whereas inv bacteria had no effect on transcytosis. The transcytosis was concentration-, particle size- and temperature-dependent, and possibly mediated via macropinocytosis. Y. pseudotuberculosis also induced apical expression of beta1-integrin on epithelial cells. A slight drop in TER was seen after exposure to inv+ Y. pseudotuberculosis, whereas mannitol flux and tight junction protein expression was unchanged. In summary, Y. pseudotuberculosis induced apical expression of beta1-integrin and stimulated uptake of nanoparticles via invasin-dependent transcytosis in human intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that bacterial factors may initiate transcytosis of luminal exogenous particles across human ileal mucosa, thus presenting a novel mechanism of intestinal barrier dysfunction.
  • Magnusson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of pentoxifylline and its metabolites on platelet aggregation in whole blood from healthy humans
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pharmacology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0014-2999 .- 1879-0712. ; 581:3, s. 290-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is known that pentoxifylline inhibits platelet aggregation in vitro, but the effects from pentoxifylline and its main metabolites: 3,7-dimetyl-1(5 hydroxyhexyl)xanthine (R-M1 and S-M1), 3,7-dimetyl -1(4-carboxybutyl)xanthine (M4), 3,7-dimetyl -1(3-carboxypropyl)xanthine (M5), on platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro and in vivo have not been studied. We found that pentoxifylline, rac-M1, R-M1, S-M1 and M4 significantly inhibit ADP induced platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, R-M1 being the most potent followed by rac-M1, S-M1, pentoxifylline, and M4. In this series of experiments the effects on aggregation induced ATP-release were less pronounced and were only significant after treatment with pentoxifylline, rac-M1 and R-M1, but the potency order appears to be the same. Since the metabolites are not available for use in humans, and also since each substance would be extensively metabolised in vivo, we made an attempt to estimate the relative contribution of each substance to the total effect of pentoxifylline in vivo. Previously published concentrations of pentoxifylline and these metabolites in humans, after administration of pentoxifylline, were used in combination with the potency ratios from this study. The findings from these calculations were that the main effect in vivo comes from S-M1 followed by pentoxifylline, the other metabolites contribute less than 10% each. In conclusion: in the following potency order R-M1, rac-M1, pentoxifylline, S-M1 and M4 all have significant effects on platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro. However, it appears that the main effects in vivo are caused by S-M1 and pentoxifylline.
  • Kadi, Fawzi (författare)
  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the action of testosterone on human skeletal muscle : a basis for illegal performance enhancement
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology. - Basingstoke : Nature Publ. Group. - 0007-1188 .- 1476-5381. ; 154:3, s. 522-528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The popularity of testosterone among drug users is due to its powerful effects on muscle strength and mass. Important mechanisms behind the myotrophic effects of testosterone were uncovered both in athletes using steroids for several years and in short-term controlled studies. Both long-term and short-term steroid usage accentuates the degree of fibre hypertrophy in human skeletal muscle by enhancing protein synthesis. A mechanism by which testosterone facilitates the hypertrophy of muscle fibres is the activation of satellite cells and the promotion of myonuclear accretion when existing myonuclei become unable to sustain further enhancement of protein synthesis. Interestingly, long-term steroid usage also enhances the frequency of fibres with centrally located myonuclei, which implies the occurrence of a high regenerative activity. Under the action of testosterone, some daughter cells generated by satellite cell proliferation may escape differentiation and return to quiescence, which help to replenish the satellite cell reserve pool. However, whether long-term steroid usage induces adverse effects of satellite cells remains unknown. Testosterone might also favour the commitment of pluripotent precursor cells into myotubes and inhibit adipogenic differentiation. The effects of testosterone on skeletal muscle are thought to be mediated via androgen receptors expressed in myonuclei and satellite cells. Some evidence also suggests the existence of an androgen-receptor-independent pathway. Clearly, testosterone abuse is associated with an intense recruitment of multiple myogenic pathways. This provides an unfair advantage over non-drug users. The long-term consequences on the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle are unknown.
  • Ahn, Jae Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Likelihood based approaches to handling data below the quantification limit using NONMEM VI
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1567-567X .- 1573-8744. ; 35:4, s. 401-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To evaluate the likelihood-based methods for handling data below the quantification limit (BQL) using new features in NONMEM VI. METHODS: A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption was chosen for investigation. Methods evaluated were: discarding BQL observations (M1), discarding BQL observations but adjusting the likelihood for the remaining data (M2), maximizing the likelihood for the data above the limit of quantification (LOQ) and treating BQL data as censored (M3), and like M3 but conditioning on the observation being greater than zero (M4). These four methods were compared using data simulated with a proportional error model. M2, M3, and M4 were also compared using data simulated from a positively truncated normal distribution. Successful terminations and bias and precision of parameter estimates were assessed. RESULTS: For the data simulated with a proportional error model, the overall performance was best for M3 followed by M2 and M1. M3 and M4 resulted in similar estimates in analyses without log transformation. For data simulated with the truncated normal distribution, M4 performed better than M3. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses that maximized the likelihood of the data above the LOQ and treated BQL data as censored provided the most accurate and precise parameter estimates.
  • Alderborn, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Mechanical strength of tablets
  • 2008. - 3
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms. - New York : Informa Healthcare. - 9780849390166 - 0849390168
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Alenius, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Gene polymorphism influencing treatment response in psychotic patients in a naturalistic setting
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0022-3956 .- 1879-1379. ; 42:11, s. 884-893
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE: Many patients with psychotic symptoms respond poorly to treatment. Factors possibly affecting treatment response include the presence of polymorphisms in genes coding for various receptor populations, drug-metabolizing enzymes or transport proteins. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms could be indicators of treatment response to antipsychotic drugs. The genes of interest were the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2), the serotonin 2A and 2C receptor genes (HTR2A and HTR2C), the P-glycoprotein gene (ABCB1 or MDR1) and the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data for this naturalistic, cross-sectional study of patients requiring antipsychotic drugs and attending the Psychosis Outpatient Care clinic in Jönköping, Sweden were obtained from patient interviews, blood samples and information from patient files. Blood samples were genotyped for DRD2 Taq1 A, Ins/Del and Ser311Cys, HTR2A T102C, HTR2C Cys23Ser, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, 3435C>T and genetic variants of CYP2D6. The patients (n=116) were grouped according to the CANSEPT method regarding significant social and clinical needs and significant side effects. RESULTS: Patients on olanzapine homozygous for ABCB1 3435T, had more significant social and clinical needs than others. Patients with one or two DRD2 Taq1 A1 alleles had a greater risk of significant side effects, particularly if they were male, Caucasian, had a schizophrenic or delusional disorder or were taking strong dopamine D2-receptor antagonistic drugs. CONCLUSION: If these results are confirmed, patients carrying the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele would benefit from using drugs without strong dopamine D2 receptor antagonistic properties.
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