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Sökning: marie väfors fritz

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1.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan, et al. (författare)
  • Gärningsmannen, brottet och offret
  • 2019. - 1
  • Ingår i: Brottslighet och utsatthet i Malmö. - : Studentlitteratur AB. - 9789144126272 ; , s. 51-66
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In addition to Malmö having the most reported crimes in relation to its population, it is also one of the cities in the country with the highest percentage of gun-related violence. Our earlier studies show that people who commit serious crimes such as homicide or attempted homicide in Malmö are primarily single, have no psychiatric diagnosis and mainly use knives or other sharp weapons to commit their crimes, although guns do cause more fatalities. The victims are usually somewhat older than the offenders and there is often a relationship between them. In fatal knife attacks, the leading cause of death among victims is loss of blood. For victims who are attacked by guns, head injuries are the main cause of death.
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2.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan, et al. (författare)
  • The Offender, the crime and the victim
  • 2019. - 1
  • Ingår i: Crime, Victimization and Vulnerability in Malmö. - : Studentlitteratur AB. - 9789144133041 ; , s. 53-69
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In addition to Malmö having the most reported crimes in relation to its population, it is also one of the cities in the country with the highest percentage of gun-related violence. Our earlier studies show that people who commit serious crimes such as homicide or attempted homicide in Malmö are primarily single, have no psychiatric diagnosis and mainly use knives or other sharp weapons to commit their crimes, although guns do cause more fatalities. The victims are usually somewhat older than the offenders and there is often a relationship between them. In fatal knife attacks, the leading cause of death among victims is loss of blood. For victims who are attacked by guns, head injuries are the main cause of death.
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3.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Reported Mental Health and Risky Lifestyle in Swedish Youth
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Book of Abstracts. - : European Society of Criminology. ; , s. 465-465
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Self-reported mental health and risky lifestyle in Swedish youth Marie Väfors Fritz (Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Sweden), Anna-Karin Ivert (Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Sweden) Mental ill-health has become increasingly common among youth in Sweden. Mental ill-health and criminality are substantial public health problems in terms of human suffering as well as direct and indirect societal costs. A particularly vulnerable group to experience mental health problems and subsequent consequences are immigrants and immigrants’ children. Identification difficulties, social constrains and psychosomatic symptoms are some of the arduousness experienced by immigrants and reflect the hurdles of acculturation. Another vulnerable group in terms of specific mental health symptoms constitutes half of the population, females. More females than ever seek help and treatment for depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal attempts and recommendations are to develop a knowledge base and lead local discussions to stop this down spiral trend. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to investigate mental health and lifestyles among 15-16 year olds living in Malmo, Sweden. The first aim is to explore how these youths report their mental health according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Secondly, the relationship between reported mental health and problematic lifestyle (such as drinking, smoking, and delinquency) will be explored. Lastly, possible differences in mental health and lifestyles across sex and ethnicity will be investigated. Results indicate differences in self-reported mental health across sex and ethnic groups.
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4.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Antisocial process screening device : Validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:5, s. 438-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age = 16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700–707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383–392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.
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5.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie (författare)
  • Internationalising the Curriculum : Benefits and Challenges in a Swedish Case
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL). - : Malmö universitet. - 2004-4097. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globalisering och internationellt berikade lärandemiljöer värderas högt i högre utbildning idag. För att möta denna efterfrågan påbörjades en utvecklingsprocess att internationalisera mastersprogrammet på institutionen för kriminologi vid Malmö universitet. Internationalisering inom forskning som bedrevs på institutionens var redan etablerad och internationella utbytesavtal existerade också men utnyttjades endast på en väldigt begränsad nivå då institutionen inte hade kurser på engelska. Studenter som studerade på programmen kunde åka iväg på utbyte men inga inkommande utbytesstudenter kom in. Engelska som undervisningsspråk introducerades därför. Denna text beskriver planen, implementeringen och utvärderingen av denna utvecklingsprocess. Processen omfattar en initial omvärldsanalys, stödjande seminarier och workshops för både studenter och medarbetare samt en processutvärdering. Avslutningsvis presenteras reflektioner kring processen samt konkluderande kommentarer från programmets externa utvärdering.  
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6.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Psychopathy and violence in juvenile delinquents : What are the associated factors?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:3, s. 272-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present study was a) to examine the discriminative power of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), aggressive traits, impulsiveness, antisocial attitudes and alcohol-related problems between subgroups of Russian juvenile delinquents (n = 175) with low versus high levels of violent behavior; and b) to compare the predictive value of these variables in two subgroups defined by higher versus lower levels of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated that the APSD score, traits of physical aggression and alcohol-related problems were able to discriminate between groups with various levels of violence. Furthermore, the level of violence was the only variant factor when comparing levels of psychopathy. Finally, different sets of predictors emerged for the group with higher versus lower psychopathy scores. The results are discussed in relation to specific features of psychopathy and environmental factors in general and the use of alcohol in particular.
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7.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie (författare)
  • In and Out of Criminality and Substance Abuse : Life Stories
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Many would agree that desistance from crime and substance abuse is a process and not a one-time event. In order to enhance the understanding of this process, a small number of interviews were conducted to listen to the subjective voices of individuals that have been through the hazards of trying to repeatedly leave a life of crime and substance abuse. Men and women in the ages between 20-50 yrs. of age were asked to narrate their own life stories. The purpose of the study was to investigate the lives of people with repeated substance abuse and criminal behavior. Semi-structured interviews were used in order to give the narrators the freedom of conveying freely their life story and yet giving the interviewer opportunity to ask about and thus cover aspects of their lives known in the literature as risk factors to develop antisocial behavior. The subjects were recruited by the general manager together with a psychiatric consultant at a treatment center for repeated and hard to treat individuals with sever substance abuse problems and criminal behavior. Results will convey both the power and challenges of individual perceptions on family and social bonds and utilization of health care.
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8.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of Life in Different Male Offender Groups – Possible Underlying Effects of Intelligence and Psychopathic Tendencies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Science & Criminology. - : Annex Publishers. - 2348-9804. ; 4:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of psychopathic tendencies and intelligence on Quality of life (QoL) ratings in different male offender groups was explored. Participants were 199 Swedish males with a history of criminality at age 11-14 and matched controls from the longitudinal project Young Lawbreakers as Adults. Based on registered crimes prior to 15 years and up to 34 years of age, four criminal groups were yielded: non-criminals (NC); adolescence-limited (AL); persistent (P); and adult-onset (AO). The QoL construct consists of the following dimensions: Self-perception, Psychological health, Family, Children, Education, Work, and Finances, all self-rated at age 38-41 when also psychopathic tendencies were clinically assessed using the Psychopathy Check List (PCL). The P group reported lower QoL in all dimensions compared to the NC and AL groups and lower QoL regarding Family and Education than the AO group. When controlling for psychopathic tendencies, the group differences in QoL regarding Self-perception and Children was no longer significant. Generally, individuals with higher IQ scores rated higher QoL than individuals with lower IQ scores. IQ however did not explain the divergence in QoL between offender groups. Psychopathic tendencies are suggested to overtake the importance of group belonging regarding the QoL dimensions of Self-perception and Children.
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9.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of Life - Towards an understanding of individuals with psychopathic tendencies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Personality and Mental Health. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1932-8621 .- 1932-863X. ; 3:3, s. 183-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives are to explore: (1) the association between psychopathy and self-rated quality of life; and (2) the possible role of childhood hyperactivity on the relationships between Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) scores and self-rated domains of Quality of Life (QoL). Male subjects with a history of criminality at age 11-14 years (n = 108) and matched controls (n = 59) from a Swedish longitudinal project were studied. Self-rated QoL domains of psychological health, family relationships and work satisfaction were dichotomized and used as dependent variables in calculations of odds ratios (ORs) with dichotomized PCL scores as the independent variable, as assessed at age 38-41. The results showed that for each of the three QoL domains, the proportion of individuals that reported dissatisfaction was significantly higher in both criminals and controls characterized by psychopathic tendencies (PT) compared with the groups with no psychopathic tendencies. Furthermore, the results revealed higher strata-specific risk of dissatisfaction among the PT individuals for two of the domains: psychological health (OR = 6.58) and work satisfaction (OR = 7.98). Childhood hyperactivity individuals were overrepresented in the PT group. However, hyperactivity did not confound the association between PCL and QoL. The results are discussed in the light of possible treatment implications.
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10.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Stressors, anxiety, acculturation and adjustment among international and North American students
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Intercultural Relations. - 0147-1767 .- 1873-7552. ; 32:3, s. 244-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The acculturation process generally contributes greatly to stress and anxiety levels among international students. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to see whether international students experience more anxiety, irritability, and stress from being apart from family and friends, pressure from school, difficulties with language, work and finances than students with permanent US residency, and (2) to investigate the same stressors in groups within the international student population. Surveys were distributed to 246 students aged 17-51 at an ethnically diverse community college in Southern California, US. Analysis of variance was conducted to investigate group differences between students: permanent US residents vs. international students, and, permanent US residents vs. European and Asian students, respectively. No significant differences were found between international students and students with permanent US residency. However, when the international student population was sub-grouped by above cultural regions a different pattern emerged. Difficulties of not being able to work and of socially related problems were perceived as more severe for the European and the Asian groups, while finance problems were hard for all three groups. The variable of language difficulties was harder for Asian students, while that of stress of being apart from family was harder for students from Europe. Findings are not only congruent with prior research results on international students but also demonstrate that international students with culturally diverse needs should not be considered as one homogenous group. It is suggested that educational systems need to properly adapt in order to accommodate international students' unique cultural needs.
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