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Sökning: mat:dok lärosäte:mau år:(2013)

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1.
  • Abrahamsson, Cecilia (författare)
  • Masticatory function and temporomandibular disorders in patients with dentofacial deformities : studies before and after orthodontic and orthognathic treatment
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ca 30 % av Sveriges befolkning genomgår någon gång i livet behandling med tandreglering. I de fall där bettavvikelsen är mer omfattande är enbart tandreglering inte tillräckligt för att uppnå ett bra bett. Istället kombinerar man tandregleringen med en kirurgisk förflyttning av käkarna s.k. ortognat kirurgi. Dessa patienter besväras ofta, före behandling, av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkar och tuggmuskler och är dessutom ofta missnöjda med sitt utseende. Då denna behandling är omfattande, kostsam och inte helt utan komplikationer är det av stort intresse att undersöka utfallet av behandlingen och om denna motsvarar förväntningarna hos patienterna.Tidigare studier som har utvärderat utfallet av tandreglering i kombination med ortognat kirurgi har kommit fram till motsägelsefulla slutsatser vad gäller hur behandlingen har påverkat förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkar och tuggmuskulatur.Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att i en serie studier, före och efter ortognat kirurgi, utvärdera och jämföra före- komsten av smärta och käkfunktionsstörningar hos patienter med stora bettavvikelser.Avhandlingen är baserad på följande studier:delarbete I är en systematisk litteraturöversikt med följande frågeställning:Påverkar ortognat kirurgi förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskulatur?I studien utvärderas den tillgängliga vetenskapliga litteraturen ur ett evidensbaserat perspektiv. Översikten omfattade tidsperioden januari 1966 till april 2006 och utökades senare till maj 2013.Slutsatser i delarbete I• Det finns ett otillräckligt vetenskapligt underlag för om förekomsten av diagnostiserad smärta och funktionsstörning i käkleder och tuggmuskler minskar efter ortognat kirurgi• Det vetenskapliga underlaget är begränsat när det gäller en minskning av palpationsömhet i tuggmuskler efter ortognata kirurgi.• Det finns ett otillräckligt vetenskapligt underlag för om förekomsten av käkledsljud påverkas av ortognat kirurgi.• Det behövs ytterligare en studier som är av hög eller medelhög kvalitet för att på ett evidensbaserat sätt kunna styrka behandlingsutfallet av ortognat kirurgi när det gäller smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler.delarbetena II och III är kontrollerade studier som undersöker förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler hos patienter med stora bettavvikelser, i jämförelse med personer med eller utan små bettavvikelser (ej i behov av tandreg- lering). Patienterna var remitterade för behandling med ortognat kirurgi. I delarbete III, som är en longitudinell uppföljningsstudie, analyseras hur förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler påverkas av behandlingen och även hur patienttillfredsställelsen är tillgodosedd.Slutsatser i delarbete II och III• Patienter som ska behandlas med ortognat kirurgi har mer smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler jämfört med kontrollgruppen.• Patienter som genomgått ortognat kirurgi har ett positivt behandlingsutfall avseende smärta från käkleder och tuggmuskler.• Efter behandling är förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler låg och i nivå med den i kontrollgruppen.Delarbete IV utvärderar den självupplevda tuggförmågan och den testade tuggprestationen före och efter ortognat kirurgi hos samma individer som i studie II och III.Slutsatser i delarbete IV• Patienter med stora bettavvikelser har innan ortognat kirurgi en sämre självupplevd tuggförmåga och testad tuggprestation jämfört med kontrollgruppen.• Efter behandling förbättras både den självupplevda tuggförmågan och tuggprestationen.Klinisk betydelse:Patienter som har stora bettavvikelser och dessutom smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler har oftast ett positivt behandlingsutfall efter ortognat kirurgi. Dessutom förbättras den självupplevda tuggförmågan och den testade tuggprestationen efter behandlingen. Patienter med stora bettavvikelser som ska behandlas med tandreglering i kombination med ortognat kirurgi kan därför rekommenderas behandlingen för möjlighet till minskade besvär från tuggmuskler och käkleder och förbättrad tuggförmåga.
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2.
  • Andersson, Frida (författare)
  • The female offender : patterning of antisocial and criminal behaviour over the life-course
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The studies included in the thesis illustrate the patterning of female offending over the life course. The overarching aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the female offender and of the heterogeneity in female criminal offending trajectories over the life course, and also of factors that differentiate between these trajectories. In order to extend the knowledge on individual predictors of female offending, the thesis analyses the correlations between offending and measures of crime propensity. Study I analyses sex differences in criminal career patterns using a group-based trajectory method. The overall conclusion is that the females in the study were much less predisposed to offend than the males, but when they did, they tended to follow a similar set of career trajectories. Four offending trajectories were identified for each sex, two sex-invariant and two sex-unique. Among both females and males, a group of Low Rate Desisters (LRD) and a group of High Level Chronics (HLC) were identified, which correspond with the groups commonly identified in earlier research focused on various cohorts. In addition, every sixth female offender was characterized as an Early Onset Desister (EOD). The offending pattern of this group was characterized by a very early onset of criminality, followed by almost no offending at all in the subsequent age categories. The second of the two female-unique patterns was denoted Adult Onset (AO). The offending pattern of this group was characterized by a late onset in crime followed by a high level of criminal activity over subsequent years. Studies II and III explore the within- and between-individual patterning of the different female offending trajectories identified in the Study I. Individual and social characteristics were investigated, along with the question of how such factors change and shape patterns of criminal involvement. Research has consistently shown that childhood risk factors appear to be important for distinguishing chronic from adolescent-limited offenders. Based on the data available to this thesis, the analyses confirm that this baseline assumption appears also to apply to females. The analyses show that it is possible on the basis of variables measuring different aspects of socio-demographic background and family functioning to separate offenders from non-offenders, and chronics from less severe offenders. Study III examines the AO group in more detail. Predictors in childhood and adolescence that are known to be related to chronic offending all produced significant effects in relation to memberships of the AO group. In addition, variables related to working class background, such as father’s occupation and coming from a family that had received social welfare payments during childhood, a low level of educational achievement and unemployment in adulthood, all seem to be related to the AO trajectory and indicate a need for further research. Studies I-III had provided indications of sex differences not only in criminal patterning but also in risk factors and life events and transitions. In Study IV, the aim was to try to identify and evaluate whether and how self-control and morality affect criminal activity for females and males respectively. Results from a split sample analysis showed that self-control was the strongest independent predictor for both sexes; further, self-control did not help explain the gender gap in offending. Overall, different aspects of morality also seemed to be powerful predictors of offending for both sexes. As regards the explanation of sex differences in offending, the impact of anticipated guilt appeared to be most important. No interaction effects were found between self-control and morality.
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3.
  • Dawson, Andreas (författare)
  • Experimental tooth clenching : a model for studying mechanisms of muscle pain
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • “I felt like I’d done three rounds with Mike Tyson…all becauseI was grinding my teeth in my sleep”, så beskrev en patient somintervjuades av Daily Mail i en artikel där det ökade problemet medöverbelastning i käkarna beskrevs, vilket kan leda till tandslitage,muskelsmärta, och frakturer på tandmaterial. Det personliga lidandet,och de ekonomiska kostnaderna för både individ och samhälle ärstort. Bruxism innebär en daglig och/eller nattlig tandpressningeller tandgnissling och anges med en förekomst av ca 10-20% ibefolkningen.Tidigare undersökningar har visat att tandpressning ochpsykologisk stress är vanligare bland patienter med kroniskmuskelsmärta i ansiktet jämfört med friska försökspersoner, ochanses kunna bidra till kronisk muskelsmärta i ansiktet, så kalladmyofasciell temporomandibulär dysfunktion (M-TMD). Dethar även föreslagits att bruxism, t ex tandpressning, kan leda tillträningsvärk i tuggmuskulaturen. M-TMD är ett smärttillstånd somkan drabba tuggmuskulaturen och är ungefär dubbelt så vanligt hoskvinnor som hos män. Vanligt förekommande symtom är smärtaoch ömhet i tuggmuskulaturen, men även en reducerad tuggfunktion.Flera studier har använt sig av experimentellatandpressningsmodeller för att öka förståelsen mellan tandpressningoch smärta i tuggmuskulaturen. I dessa studier har olika stor bitkraftanvänts vid tandpressningen, vilket resulterar i att det blir svårt attjämföra resultaten från dessa studier och dra slutsatser om vilkatandpressningsmodeller som är de mest optimala.12Vid tandpressning så kan det bli syrefattigt i tuggmuskulaturen,vilket kan resultera i en frisättning av smärtframkallande substanser,såsom serotonin och glutamat. I tuggmuskulaturen finns detsmärtreceptorer som kan aktiveras av dessa substanser. I tidigarestudier har man observerat att patienter med M-TMD har en högrehalt av dessa substanser i tuggmuskulaturen jämfört med friskaindivider.Finns det ett samband mellan tandpressning och träningsvärk?Hur kommer det sig att patienter med M-TMD har en högre haltav serotonin och glutamat i tuggmuskulaturen? Denna kunskapsaknas idag, således var det övergripande målet med denna avhandlingatt öka kunskapen om detta. På sikt kan denna kunskap bidra tillförbättrade diagnostiska metoder, och behandlingsmodeller.I studie I så utvecklades ett instrument som undersöker kvalitetenpå experimentella bruxismstudier, som senare kan användas i ensystematisk översikt, så att slutsatser kan dras avseende de mestoptimala experimentella bruxism modellerna som inducerar ensmärta på friska individer som efterliknar den kliniska smärtan sompatienter med M-TMD uppvisar.I studie II undersöktes sambandet mellan tandpressning vidolika bitkraftsnivåer och träningsvärk. Våra resultat antyder attträningsvärk i tuggmuskulaturen inte tycks uppstå efter experimentelltandpressning hos friska individer.I delstudier III och IV undersöktes frisättning av serotonin ochglutamat efter tandpressning hos friska individer och patienter medM-TMD med hjälp av mikrodialys. De huvudsakliga fynden var attvi kunde bekräfta tidigare fynd, att patienter med M-TMD har enhögre halt av serotonin i tuggmuskulaturen. Däremot utsöndradesdessa substanser inte i samband med tandpressning, varken hosfriska individer eller hos patienter.
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4.
  • Gansing, Kristoffer (författare)
  • Transversal media practices : media archaeology, art and technological development
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Transversal Media Practices work across specific situations of technological development, critically examining and redefining the terms of production in different media by bringing heterogeneous histories, institutions, actors and materialities into play with one another. This dissertation is all about trying out and refining the methodologies of such transversal media practices, in the end outlining a conceptual set of tools for further development. Following the technological hype of the “digital revolution” of the mid-1990s, the field of new media studies gained popularity over a ten year period. This dissertation takes its cue from a historical turn in new media theory, and argues that it is time leave behind strict polarisations between old and new as well as analogue and digital. The study unfolds through two case-studies. The first, “The World’s Last Television Studio”, looks at tv-tv, an art and media-activist project that negotiates the socio¬cultural and material changes of the “old” and institutionalised mass medium of television. In the second case study, “The Art of the Overhead”, another old medium is engaged: the overhead projector – a quintessen¬tial 20th century institutional medium here presented as a device for rethinking the new through the old. The problematic of technological development, i.e. dealing with questions of how (media) technologies develop over time, forms the background to these two case studies. A key issue being how cultural and artistic practices dealing with the interaction of old and new media invite us to conceptualise technological development in new ways. The emerging field of media archaeology is employed as a methodology in media studies and cultural production, comprising a theoretical and applied analysis of media history, materiality and practice. This transversal approach allows media archaeologists to deal with the relation between the old and the new in a non-linear way as well as to pay attention to the technical materiality of media. It is argued that the transversality of the media-archaeological approach should be seen in contrast to other conceptions of media history and technological development, such as progressivist, mono-medial and evolutionary ones. In this study, the author tries out the potential of media archaeology to reform our conception of media technologies, and eventually formulates a set of concepts for thinking and doing media archaeology as a transversal media practice. These tools are about the imaginary, residual and renewable dimensions of media technologies and are meant to assist in the opening up and intervening into processes of standardised media development. On a general level the resulting set of tools for transversal media practices builds a bridge between theory and practice: they can be used for further research and cultural analysis where objects of study speak back to analytical concepts. At the same time these are tools for transversality that expand this form of cultural analysis in that the travelling between disciplines here also means a travelling between theory and practice. On a specific level, the tools enable this travel between theory and practice in media- and communication studies, and as such they contribute to the development of new practice-based methodologies in media research.
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5.
  • Hulusjö, Anna (författare)
  • The multiplicities of prostitution experience : narratives about power and resistance
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is not primarily about ‘the rights and wrongs of prostitution’, at least not as they are conveyed in the prostitution debate, rather it aims to shift the focus from what prostitution is (work or violence, empowerment or exploitation), the topic of most prostitution debate, to how prostitution operates. That is, how power relations, knowledges, discourses and practices interconnect in making particular forms of prostitution and particular ways of making sense of prostitution experience possible. The study is situated on the feminist narrative field and is constituted of interviews with twenty women with prostitution experience. With a genealogical approach to narrative analysis the participants’ narratives are not treated as reflections of an assumed prostitution ‘reality’, but rather there is an exploration of what the participants do as they narrate their experience, how they, through their narratives, construct their identities and make sense of their experiences and their lives. By engaging with the participants’ narratives, the power and domination of the institution of prostitution and the multitude of tactics that the participants employed in order to negotiate, resist and destabilize power and domination were explored. The participants’ narratives were both entangled with and positioned against dominant narratives about prostitution and ‘the prostitute’. They contained complexities, contradictions and multiple meanings; prostitution was described as both enabling and constraining, as a means of resistance and as an effect of power. The participants spoke of how the institution of prostitution produced different experiences of being constituted as a ‘commodified body’, an ‘appropriate target for violence/undeserving victim’ and a stigmatized identity. 8 Depending on their social location and personal biography the participants were more or less able to manage the emotional and physical risks that prostitution involved. The narratives revealed how prostitution, as it currently operates, is conditioned by intersecting structures of social inequality.
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6.
  • Ivert, Anna-Karin (författare)
  • Adolescent mental health and utilisation of psychiatric care : the role of parental country of birth and neighbourhood of residence
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The studies included in this thesis aim to illustrate different aspects of mentalhealth and the utilisation of psychiatric care among Swedish children andadolescents, with the overarching aim being to improve the existingknowledge on how the neighbourhood of residence and parental country ofbirth influence adolescents’ mental health and their pathways into andutilisation of psychiatric care.The first study investigates referral pathways to child and adolescentpsychiatric clinics, directing a special focus at how these pathways differ onthe basis of parental country of birth and neighbourhood of residence. Theresults show that parental country of birth plays an important role in howchildren and adolescents are referred to the child and adolescent psychiatricsector. Children and adolescents with Swedish-born parents appear more oftento have been referred by their families, whereas by comparison with childrenand adolescents with Swedish-born parents, those with foreign-born parentshad more often than been referred by someone outside the family, such as thesocial services or their school. Neighbourhood of residence was found to playa significant role in relation to family referrals; children and adolescents livingin neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were morelikely to have been referred by their families by comparison with those frommore deprived neighbourhoods.The second study investigates how parental country of birth and individualgender are associated with the utilisation of psychiatric care. The findingsfrom the study indicate that adolescents whose parents were born in middleorlow-income countries present lower levels of psychiatric outpatient careutilisation than those with Swedish-born parents. Initially, no associations7were found between parental country of birth and inpatient care. Followingadjustment for socio-demographic variables, it was found that adolescentswhose parents were born in low-income countries were also less likely toutilise inpatient care. Girls were more likely to have utilised psychiatric care,but controlling for possible interactions revealed that this was true primarilyfor girls with parents born in Sweden or other high-income countries.In the third study, psychiatric care utilisation patterns are analysed in relationto the neighbourhood of residence. In part the aim was to investigate thevalidity of the neighbourhood when it comes to understanding variations inadolescents’ utilisation of psychiatric care, but the study also examineswhether neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated withindividual variations in the utilisation of psychiatric care. The results indicatethat the neighbourhood of residence has little influence on the utilisation ofpsychiatric care, only 1.6 % of the variance was found at the neighbourhoodlevel. No clear association between the neighbourhood level of socioeconomicdeprivation and levels of psychiatric care utilisation was found in the study.The final study investigates how adolescents’ perceptions of the socialcharacteristics of their neighbourhood are related to their self-reported mentalhealth, while controlling for the socioeconomic structure of theneighbourhood. The results show that adolescents’ perceptions of theirneighbourhood are associated with their self-reported mental health,particularly their perceptions of social disorder. However, these associationsdiffer between girls and boys, and between adolescents with Swedish- andforeign-born parents.In conclusion, the results presented in the thesis show that parental country ofbirth is an important factor when it comes to understanding differences inreferral patterns and in the utilisation of psychiatric care. However, the role ofthe neighbourhood of residence appears to be more complex.
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7.
  • Koch, Margaretha (författare)
  • On implementation of an endodontic program : change of practice, treatment outcome and cost-effectiveness
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • It is widely accepted that the uptake of research findings by practitionersis unpredictable, yet until they are adopted, advances intechnology and clinical research cannot improve health outcomesin patients. Despite extensive research there is limited knowledgeof the processes by which changes occur and ways of measuringthe effectiveness of change of practice. The overall aim of this thesiswas to investigate aspects of an educational intervention in clinicalendodontic routines and new instrumentation techniques in aSwedish County Public Dental Service. Special reference was madeto the establishment of changed behaviour in practice, the process ofchange, and the clinical effects.Although a high level of competence in root canal treatment proceduresis required in general dental practice, a number of Swedishstudies have revealed inadequate root-fillings quality and associatedperiapical inflammation in general populations. It is suggested thatthe adoption of the nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (NiTiR)technique would improve the cleaning and shaping of root canalsand the quality of the root-filling. However, there is limited knowledgeof the effectiveness of the technique when applied in generaldental practice.In two of four consecutive studies, the subjects were employees of acounty Public Dental Service. The aim was to investigate the rate ofadoption of clinical routines and the NiTiR technique: the output,and the qualitative meaning of successful change in clinical practice.In the other two studies the aim was to investigate treatment effectand the cost-effectiveness of root canal treatment in a general population:the outcome.Four hundred employees (dentists, dental assistants, administrativeassistants and clinical managers) of a Swedish County Public DentalService were mandatorily enrolled in an educational and trainingprogram over two years. Change of practice was investigated in apost-education survey. The NiTiR technique was adopted by significantlymore dentists in the intervention county compared to acontrol county (77% and 6% respectively). Dentists in the interventioncounty completed root canal instrumentation in significantlyfewer sessions than the dentists in the control county.Eight in-depth interviews, two with each participant, (dentist, dentalassistant, receptionist, clinical manager), were strategically selectedfor a phenomenological analysis. Four factors were identified asnecessary for successful change: 1) disclosed motivation, 2) allowancefor individual learning processes, 3) continuous professionalcollaboration, and 4) a facilitating educator.A random sample of 850 performed root canal treatments was usedfor a study of treatment outcome; 425 before and 425 after the educationand adoption of the NiTiR technique. Root-filling quality,periapical status and tooth survival were assessed on radiographstaken at treatment and at follow-up, ≥4 years later. Apical periodontitiswas found in 34% of the teeth root-filled before the educationcompared to 33%, after. After the education, root-filling qualityimproved significantly, tooth survival was significantly higher,however, without a subsequent improvement in success rate posteducation;68% vs. 67%.A micro-costing model was used to calculate the costs of root canalinstrumentation, pre- and post-education, in the same sample usedin the study of treatment outcome. Costs were lower post-education:by SEK 264 for teeth with one canal and SEK 564 for teeth withthree or more canals. A reason for lower costs was that the NiTiRtechnique dominated after the education and required significantlyfewer instrumentation sessions. A cost-minimization analysis disclosedthat root canal treatments undertaken post-education weremore cost-effective.In conclusion, there was only a partial relationship between outputand outcome. Although root-filling quality improved significantly,the study did not show any association between the more frequentuse of NiTiR and an improvement in remaining teeth with normalperiapical status or success rate. However, the use of NiTiR wasmore cost-effective. These results are in accordance with previousfindings of the so called efficacy-effectiveness gap in clinical practice:a high output is not predictive of a high outcome. The overallconclusion to be drawn from these studies is that further researchis warranted to identify factors associated with improvement of thequality of endodontic care.The general interpretation of the findings of these implementationstudies is as important as the effects of the change in endodonticinstrumentation: a clinically relevant and applicable intervention,introduced by experienced expertise under allowing learning and collaboratingcircumstances, disclosed clinicians’ motivation and facilitatedimplementation. The finding of qualitative differences betweenthe questionnaire responses and the in-depth interviews suggestthat a critical approach is warranted when comparing surveys andqualitative methods aimed at investigating qualitative experiences ofchange, due to their different epistemological premises.
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8.
  • Lindroth, Malin (författare)
  • Utsatthet och sexuell hälsa : en studie om unga på statliga ungdomshem
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The dissertation concems youths in detention at residential group homes, their sexuality in general, their sexual health in particular. and their sex education. According to Swedish law, sex education is required in the Swedish public school system.The education must be perceived as relevant by youths and promotion rather than preventive-focused. Despite this legislative measure, Swedish research data on this youth population are scarce; available international research shows that youths in detention have poor sexual heal th. The aim is thus to gain knowledge about the sexual health among youths in detention at residential group homes, and to develop and present a sex education curriculum targeted to their special needs. A survey followed by an interview study seeks to assess knowledge of sexual health among these adolescents (papers I-III). Exposure to untoward sexual behaviors alongside sexual risk taking is found, concomitant to apportunities for these youths to experience healthy sexual encounters that may outweigh the risks. Furthermore, this group of detained adolescents are more risk taking and exposed to negative sexual experiences compared to their non-detained same aged peers. In focus group interviews, the sex education curriculum is presented to the detainees (paper IV). They consider the information relevant and share advice of how to furtherad just the material to thei r needs. The data are discussed from the perspective of social psychology, and the rationale behind the youths' risk taking is explored. The study pennits the voices of the youths be heard; it presents a nuanced portrait of the camplexity behind their sexual risk taking and elucidates the pereceived advantages of unsafe sex. The results are of i nterest to researchers and clinicians in areas of sociaJ work where specialized knowledge of socially disadvantaged youth and sexual health has been lacking.
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9.
  • Lund, Martin, 1984- (författare)
  • Rethinking the Jewish-comics connection
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The publication of Michael Chabon’s Pulitzer-prize winning novel The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay (2000) brought the Jewish–comics connection to popular attention. The novel illuminated the fact that many of the pioneers of American mainstream comics were Jewish. Owing to this history, and to the fact that there today exists a large and growing library of self-consciously Jewish comic books and graphic novels, much has been written about the meaning of the connection. Engaging in a critical dialogue with extant writing on the subject, this thesis argues that much of the popular and scholarly writing on the subject of Jews and comics is historical in the sense that it is a product of its own time, rather than in the sense that it critically investigates the past. Rethinking the Jewish¬–Comics Connection presents three studies of commonly cited mainstream comics texts written by Jewish Americans: the character Superman from his first appearance in June 1938 until America’s entry in the Second World War in December 1941; comics writer, artist, and advocate Will Eisner’s The Spirit (1940–1952) and long-form comics (1978–2005); and the first and second series of X-Men comic books (1963–1970 and 1975–1991). Situating these texts in their respective contexts and offering alternative interpretations, the thesis suggests that the historical Jewish–comics connection most clearly emerges as an expression of what it meant, for the writers, to be Jewish Americans in relation to their own time.
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10.
  • Mordenfeld, Arne (författare)
  • On tissue reactions to and resorption of bone substitutes
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: The increasing need for bone grafting procedures inimplant dentistry and the introduction of a variety of bone substitutesrequire a deeper understanding of the biological response and shortandlong-term behaviour of these materials to choose the adequategraft and surgical procedure for the intended clinical application.Aims: The overall aim was to clinically and histologically studythe short- and long-term tissue reactions to and resorption of bonesubstitutes after bone augmentation.Material and methods: In paper I, dentin blocks with different demineralizationtimes were placed subperiostally in 40 rat skulls. Aftera healing period of 4 weeks the rats were sacrificed and the healingof the dentin blocks were evaluated. In paper II, eleven patients weretreated with bilateral sinus floor augmentation using biphasic calciumphosphate (BCP) on one side and deproteinized bovine bone (DPBB)on the contralateral side, acting as control. After 3 years, biopsieswere retrieved from the grafted area for histological evaluation andhistomorphometry and 62 dental implants, placed 8 months aftergraft healing, were clinically evaluated. In paper III and IV, fourteen(22 sinuses) of the included 20 patients (30 sinuses) treated withsinus floor augmentation with a mixture of 80% DPBB and 20%autogenous bone (AB) from the chin were followed throughout the10 years study period. These patients had 53 implants placed ingrafted sites and 15 implants placed in non-grafted bone. Clinicaland radiographic examinations were performed. Biopsies wereretrieved from the grafted sinuses after 11 years of graft healing for16histological evaluation and histomorphometry. The particle sizeswere compared with samples retrieved after 6 months from the samepatients and pristine particles from the manufacturer. In paper V, 13patients (14 jaws) were treated with lateral ridge augmentation using2 different mixtures of DPBB:AB (90:10 and 60:40) in a randomizedand controlled trial, designed as a split mouth study. The width andvolume changes were evaluated after 7.5 months by means of conebeam computed tomography. After 8 months of graft healing, at thetime of implant placement, biopsies were retrieved for histologicalevaluation and histomorphometry.Results: Resorption increased with increasing degree of demineralizationof dentin blocks while bone formation increased with increasingdegree of demineralization, in the latter case provided inflammationwas compensated for (paper I). After 3 years of healing the BCPparticles showed different levels of dissolution, in contrast to DPBBparticles that showed no signs of resorption. The overall implantsurvival rate was 96.8% and the success rate for implants placed inBCP and DPBB was 91.7% and 95.7% respectively (paper II). Thecumulative survival rate of the implants after 10 years was 86% andthe marginal bone loss was 1.6 mm. There was only a reduction ingraft height between 3 months and 2 years but no further reductionup to 10 years (paper III). There was no difference between the sizeof DPBB particles after 11 years compared to those measured after6 months or to particles from the manufacturer (paper IV). Thegain in width of the alveolar crest was 3.5 mm and 2.9 mm and thereduction of the grafts were 37% and 47% for the 60:40 mixtureand 90:10 mixture respectively (significant differences). There wereno histomorphometrical differences between the groups (paper V).Conclusions: Partial demineralization may provide a method foroptimizing the integration of dentin onlays. A similar degree of boneformation and bone-to-graft contact for BCP and DBB was found 3years after maxillary sinus augmentation with similar success ratesfor implants placed in both grafting materials. At 10 years follow-upafter sinus floor augmentation with 80:20 (DPBB:AB) graft, theremaining implants presented good clinical and radiological resultsand there seems to be no further graft resorption after 2 years of17graft healing. DPBB particles were found to be well integrated inlamellar bone, showing no apparent signs of resorption after 11 yearsin humans. Despite a small difference in width changes after lateralridge augmentation, the amount of AB added to DPBB did not seemto have a major impact on the graft healing and graft reduction, thusmaking it possible to install implants in all grafted sites.
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11.
  • Radmann, Aage (författare)
  • Huliganlandskapet : medier, våld och maskuliniteter
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of the dissertation is to understand and explain howthe narrative image of the Swedish hooligan and hooliganism iscreated and recreated in various (media) descriptions. The dissertationconsists of four articles and one summarising chapter. Analysisof different types of media and in-depth interviews constitute thesource material for the study, which provides new insights intoSwedish hooligan culture. One important conclusion of the study isthat hooliganism is understood differently depending on the beholder’sposition in the hooligan landscape. The dissertation alsodemonstrates how various media narratives have had a decisivefunction in the rise, expansion and manifestation of Swedish hooliganculture.
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12.
  • Sjöstedt, Bengt (författare)
  • Ämneskonstruktioner i ekonomismens tid : Om undervisning och styrmedel i modersmålsämnet i svenska och danska gymnasier
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Under vilka villkor formar en dansklärare och en svensklärare sin pedagogiska gärning? Utifrån vilka ideal och organisatoriska förutsättningar möter de sina elever? Bengt Sjöstedt presenterar i denna doktorsavhandling i svenska med didaktisk inriktning sina svar på dessa frågor. Till grund för hans slutsatser ligger omfattande studier av undervisningen i skolämnena danska och svenska i gymnasiemiljöer i Danmark respektive Sverige. Hans undersökningar av den faktiska undervisningen tillsammans med studier av internationell forskning om skolan och dess styrsystem resulterar i en tankeväckande bild av den pedagogiska praktik lärarna har möjlighet att utveckla. Sjöstedts jämförande studie är den första i sitt slag och skapar därmed nya förutsättningar för fortsatt samtal på nordisk nivå om de framtida villkoren för de nordiska modersmålen.
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13.
  • Znamenskaya, Yana (författare)
  • Effect of hydration on thermodynamic, rheological and structural properties of mucin
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Mucus, an adherent hydrated layer covering the epithelium, is found in all internal tracts of the body and plays an important role in animal and human life. One of the essential functions of mucus is protection of tissues against dehydration. A major component of mucus, forming the macromolecular matrix and also being responsible for its viscoelastic properties, is the glycoprotein mucin. Mucin is a complex molecule owing to the high molar mass, its polydispersity and high degree of glycosylation. This thesis is aimed to investigate how thermodynamic, structural and rheological properties of mucin are affected by hydration. The effect of hydration on thermodynamic properties of pig gastric mucin (PGM) and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) has been studied using sorption calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analysis of sorption isotherms shows higher water sorption capacity of PGM compared to BSM at relative humidity (RH) levels lower than about 78%. The value of the hydration enthalpy at zero water content at 25ºC for both biopolymers is close to -20 kJ/ mol. RH levels at which glass transition of both mucins occurs are shown to be between 60 and 70%. The RH at which glass transition occurs is weakly dependent on the temperature and mucin type. The phase diagram of PGM demonstrates two different glass transition regions: dependent and independent on hydration levels, respectively. In particular at mucin concentrations from 0 to 67 wt%, the glass transition occurs at a constant temperature of about –15ºC. At higher concentrations of mucin, the glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with increasing mucin concentrations. It is also demonstrated that the QCM-D technique can be used to obtain the water sorption isotherms of mucin films in particular and in general to monitor glass transitions in biopolymers. Hydration-induced changes of rheological properties of mucin films are investigated using a model-free approach. The ratio of G’/G’’ is evaluated as a function of relative humidity. Observed transitions from solid-like behaviour to liquid-like behaviour in mucin system occur in the same humidity range as that found in sorption calorimetric experiments. The structural properties of mucin have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). AFM indicates the presence of dumbbell as well as fiber-like structures in PGM samples. In the case of BSM samples, only fiber-like structures are observed. SAXS studies show three ranges of scattering vector q corresponding to different fractal dimensions in dilute PGM and BSM solutions. Dehydration-induced structural changes in PGM are demonstrated by a distinct appearance of peaks on scattering curves starting from 20 wt% of mucin. Structural changes at about 80 wt% obtained in SAXS at 25°C, correspond to mucin glass transition, and are in agreement with sorption calorimetry and DSC studies. Temperature-induced phase behaviour changes occur around 60-70°C at intermediate levels of hydration. A comparison between water sorption isotherms of BSM/chitosan multilayers and those of individual biopolymers shows that the water sorption capacity of BSM/chitosan multilayers is similar compared to that of individual biopolymers, although some differences exist. In particular, at low RH levels the water sorption capacity of multilayers is slightly higher compared to each biopolymer, however at high RH the multilayer films are less hydrated than individual biopolymers.
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