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1.
  • Alkhabbas, Fahed (författare)
  • Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast-spreading technology that enables new types of services in several domains such as transportation, health, and building automation. To exploit the potential of the IoT effectively, several challenges have to be tackled, including the following ones that we study in this thesis. First, the proposed IoT visions provide a fragmented picture, leading to a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. To piece together the fragmented picture of IoT systems, we systematically identified their characteristics by analyzing existing taxonomies. More specifically, we identified seventeen characteristics of IoT systems, and grouped them into two categories, namely, elements and quality aspects of IoT systems. Moreover, we conducted a survey to identify the factors that drive the deployment decisions of IoT systems in practice. A second set of challenges concerns the environment of IoT systems that is often dynamic and uncertain. For instance, due to the mobility of users and things, the set of things available in users' environment might change suddenly. Similarly, the status of IoT systems’ deployment topologies (i.e., the deployment nodes and their interconnections) might change abruptly. Moreover, environmental conditions monitored and controlled through IoT devices, such as ambient temperature and oxygen levels, might fluctuate suddenly. The majority of existing approaches to engineer IoT systems rely on predefined processes to achieve users’ goals. Consequently, such systems have significant shortcomings in coping with dynamic and uncertain environments. To address these challenges, we used the concept of Emergent Configurations (ECs) to engineer goal-driven IoT systems. An EC is an IoT system that consists of a dynamic set of things that cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. To realize ECs, we proposed an abstract architectural approach, comprising an architecture and processes, as well as six novel approaches that refine the abstract approach. The developed approaches support users to achieve their goals seamlessly in arbitrary environments by enabling the dynamic formation, deployment, enactment, and self-adaptation of IoT systems. The approaches exploit different techniques and focus on different aspects of ECs. Moreover, to better support users in dynamic and uncertain environments, we investigated the automated configuration of those environments based on users' preferences. 
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2.
  • Bakitian, Fahad (författare)
  • Monolithic and semi-monolithic translucent zirconium-dioxide restorations : aspects on design, material and strength
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Although many clinical reports have shown high rates of clinical success associated with fixed dental restorations made of traditional zirconium-dioxide (zirconia), clinical failure due to improper design aiming to achieve high strength and optimal aesthetics, still occurs. Previous clinical and laboratory studies indicated that veneering porcelain and the connector represent the weak parts of the fully-veneered zirconia restorations where failure may occur. Although the clinical performance of such restorations has recently been reported to be comparable to metal-ceramic restorations, more improvements in design are still required. Restorations with monolithic design made of modified translucent zirconia materials offer an excellent solution for these clinical problems. One of the advantages of monolithic restoration is that such restorations can be prepared without the weak veneering material. Thus, this restoration design has a much higher load-bearing capacity compared to the veneered restorations since it provides additional space for the high-strength zirconia material. With regard to strength and aesthetics, the translucency of the former generation of monolithic translucent zirconia, which comes with equivalent mechanical properties to traditional zirconia, is insufficient. Recently, monolithic zirconia with high translucent properties was developed for highly aesthetic clinical uses. These new systems of translucent zirconia materials have limited capacity in terms of fracture strength and fracture toughness properties. Further, earlier studies have shown doubtful aging stability for these materials. Maintaining well-known strength properties of zirconia restorations while providing high aesthetic outcome is the ultimate goal for dental restorations such as single crowns (SCs) and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The optimum design for restorations made of the former generation of translucent zirconia could help to prevent the risks associated with bilayered restorations and overcome the limitations of high-translucent monolithic restorations. Based on clinical needs and previous clinical observations, the overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate translucent zirconia restorations regarding the effect of design modifications, used to enhance the aesthetics, on fracture resistance.In the first three studies, I, II, and III, all the SCs and the FDPs were artificially aged and loaded to fracture. Fracture mode analysis in the different studies was performed visually and microscopically. In study I, fracture strength and fracture mode of veneered translucent zirconia SCs designed with different porcelain layer thicknesses were evaluated. The outcomes showed that translucent zirconia SCs can be veneered with minimal thickness layer of 0.5 mm porcelain without showing significantly reduced fracture strength compared to traditionally veneered (1.0-2.0 mm) SCs. Fracture strength of micro-veneered SCs with a layer of porcelain (0.3 mm) is lower than that of traditionally veneered SCs but still within range of what may be considered clinically sufficient. Porcelain layers of 2.0 mm or thicker should be used only where the expected loads are low. All the SCs in groups 2.5 and 2.0 and more than 80% of the SCs in groups 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 showed cohesive fracture mode. Conversely, there were significantly (p≤0.05) more complete fractures in group 0.3 compared to all other groups.Study II described different designs of partially veneered monolithic (semi-monolithic) SCs made of translucent zirconia and evaluated the effect of those designs on fracture resistance and fracture mode of SCs made of two generations of translucent zirconia materials. The results demonstrated that translucent and high-translucent zirconia SCs might be used in combination with a 0.3 mm micro-coating porcelain layer with semi-monolithic design to enhance the aesthetic properties of restorations without significantly decreasing fracture resistance of the SCs. If a 0.5 mm porcelain layer is needed for a semi-monolithic SCs, wave design or cap design might be used to increase fracture resistance. The SCs made of translucent zirconia showed higher fracture loads compared to those made of high-translucent zirconia, regardless of design. All monolithic SCs, semi-monolithic SCs with 0.3 mm buccal veneer (100%), and all but one of semi-monolithic SCs with cap design (95%) showed complete fractures. Semi-monolithic SCs with wave design and semi-monolithic SCs with a 0.5 mm buccal veneer showed (70% and 55%, respectively) cohesive veneer fractures.Study III investigated the load-bearing capacity and failure mode of monolithic zirconia FDPs with different connector designs gained by using different embrasure shaping methods. The results showed that sharp embrasures and interproximal separations made with diamond discs significantly decrease the load-bearing capacity of monolithic zirconia FDPs compared to monolithic FDPs made with blunt embrasures (p<0.001). Blunt embrasures in combination with localized porcelain build-up produce monolithic FDPs with high load-bearing capacity in relation to loads that might be expected under clinical use. Fracture mode of the FDPs fabricated with sharp embrasures, and interproximal disc separations differed significantly compared to the FDPs with no occlusal embrasures, the FDPs with blunt embrasures, and the FDPs with interproximal porcelain separations (p < 0.001).Finally, study IV in this thesis aimed to evaluate the influence of the framework designs on the stress distribution within tooth-supported semi-monolithic FDPs made of translucent zirconia material under simulated loads using a three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Simplified 3D solid models of prepared abutment teeth with different 3-unit FDPs based on the designs were created. The designs of 3-unit FDPs included monolithic zirconia, semi-monolithic zirconia with 0.3 mm veneer thickness, semi-monolithic zirconia with 0.5 mm veneer thickness, semi-monolithic zirconia with 0.5 mm veneer thickness supported with cap design, and semi-monolithic zirconia with 0.5 mm veneer thickness supported with wave design. The elastic properties of the components (bone, dentine, cement, translucent zirconia, and veneering porcelain) were gained from the standard references for FEA. Simulated static loading force (300 N) was applied at 10° oblique direction over six points in the occlusal surfaces of the FDPs. Maximum principal stress, shear stress, and safety factor were calculated and analyzed among the different models. The findings confirmed that framework and veneer designs play a significant role in the stress distribution of the partially veneered zirconia FDPs under loading. The FDPs with zirconia frameworks with cap design minimize the maximum principal tensile stress in the veneering porcelain. The FDPs with 0.3 mm-veneering porcelain show low maximum principal tensile stress in the veneering porcelain, but the highest maximum shear stress at the zirconia-veneer interface. The FDPs with wave design of zirconia frameworks minimize the maximum shear stress considerably.
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3.
  • Berlin, Henrik (författare)
  • Procedural and postoperative pain in paediatric dentistry
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Tooth extraction is one of the most commonly performed dental treatments and there is always a risk of pain during and after this procedure. Pain is a major contributor to the development of dental fear and anxiety(DFA) and dental behaviour management problems (DBMP) in children and adolescents. These, in turn, are two of the most common reasons for referrals to specialist in paediatric dentistry. DFA and DBMP lead to reduced oral health and possibly suffering for the individual, as well as huge costs for society as a whole. It is therefore of uttermost importance that all dental treatments be performed with the aim of avoiding or minimising pain. The aims of this thesis were to (i) investigate how and to what extent Swedish dentists (both general dental practitioners and specialists inpaediatric dentistry) use different pain management strategies when treating children and adolescents, (ii) explain the natural course of pain after uncomplicated bilateral extractions of maxillary premolars in children between the ages of 10 and 15, (iii) systematically evaluate the effect of postoperatively administered over-the-counter oral analgesics as a means to minimise postoperative pain after oral surgery in children between the ages of 0 and 18, and finally (iv) gain greater insight into how children between the ages of 10 and 16 perceive the whole process of tooth extraction (during the procedure and after extraction) as part of orthodontic treatment. In the first study, a postal survey was sent to all active general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Skåne County, and to all specialists in paediatric dentistry (SPDs) in Sweden. The main findings were that pain management strategies differ between the two groups; in addition, GDPs used different strategies depending on whether primary or permanent teeth were being treated. In general, the survey found an underuse of local anaesthesia by general dentists. This calls for guidelines on pain management strategies in paediatric dental care. In the second study, pain intensity was measured at 14 different time points after tooth extraction performed prior to orthodontic treatment, in a sample of 31 children 10 to15 years of age. Pain intensity after extraction of an upper tooth was generally mild to moderate. The natural course of pain intensity followed the same pattern regardless of how the data were analysed. Pain peaked at 2 hours after treatment, then decreasing rapidly until the next measurement that took place 4 hours after treatment. There was no difference between the first and second extraction, indicating that this model is an excellent one for further research on pain management strategies, with no carryover effect. The third study was a systematic review(SR) and health technology assessment (HTA). A systematic review regarding preoperatively administered oral analgesics has been previously published, but it does not present any scientific evidence showing their administration as providing additional pain relief in children after dental treatment. An SR/HTA looked at postoperatively administered oral analgesics with the goal of minimising postoperative pain after oral surgical therapies in children. This SR/HTA yielded an empty review. As of today, there is no scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the administration of oral analgesics postoperatively in order to minimise postoperative pain after oral surgical therapies in children aged 0–18 years. Neither is there any evidence to reject this strategy. This highlights the need for well-designed primary studies on this topic. In the fourth and final study of this thesis, children’s perception of tooth extraction and the postoperative period was investigated in order to better understand the child’s perspective regarding this treatment. A qualitative research approach, using grounded theory, was used. Although the subjects were a bit anxious before the procedure, they all managed to handle the treatment using different types of coping strategies. One central theme that emerged from analysing the interviews was the importance of getting proper information from dental staff, at the right time. Children who received adequate information were able to withstand some pain and discomfort. Having some form of control over the situation also emerged as a coping strategy.ConclusionsAmong Swedish dentists (both GDPs and SPDs), there seems to be uncertainty regarding pain management strategies in children and adolescents in terms of the use of local anaesthetics and oral analgesics. There are differences in pain management strategies between GDPs and SPDs. The majority of the participants perceived pain intensity after tooth extraction due to orthodontic indication to be mild to moderate. These types of extractions can serve as a good model for future pain research. The amount of pain research on paediatric populations in dentistry is scarce. We need more well-designed primary studies before guidelines on pain management strategies for paediatric dental care can be formulated. When given proper and honest information at the right time, children are able to cope with dental treatments, even if they are a bit anxious beforehand and even if they perceive pain or discomfort during and after treatment.
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4.
  • Bjärsholm, Daniel (författare)
  • Idrott som medel – inte som mål : Förutsättningar för socialt entreprenörskap inom idrotten
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In sport management research, little attention has been paid to the relatively new concept of social entrepreneurship. In short, the concept refers to innovative methods of creating and satisfying social values through sport. However, research has shown that social entrepreneurs in sporting contexts are having difficulties in creating sustainable businesses. In addition to that the economic preconditions for social entreprenurial undertakings are uncertain, more research is needed on the general preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. Hence, the aim of this compilation thesis, which consists of five papers, is to examine and analyse the preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, the subject of research (i.e., social entreprenurship in sport) is presented and defined. This is done by contextualising social entrepreneurship, analysing previous research on social entrepreneurship in sport, theoretically defining the concept and describing some research ethical issues that might arise in studies of social entrepreneurship. The second part of the thesis consists of three empirical studies of organisational, economic and political preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. The findings from this thesis are based on an extensive literature review and five case studies in which multiple methods of data collection were used (interviews, documents and observations). The first paper, Sport and social entrepreneurship: a review of a concept in progress, shows that research on social entrepreneurship in sport is limited, the concept is seldom defined and sometimes used in ways more similar to philanthropy or corporate social responsibility. Also, sport only plays a minor role in the reviewed literature. The second paper, Ethical considerations in researching sport and social entrepreneurship, discusses some of the ethical dilemmas that have occurred when researching social entrepreneurship in sport. These dilemmas can, for example, be related to the principle of confidentiality. The third paper, Social entrepreneurship, sport and democracy development, offers an explanation of how to understand the “social” dimension in the concept of social entrepreneurship in sport. The social is ultimately about democracy in the sense that the participants are recognised, are given influence and are included in the organisation and in its community. The fourth paper, Networking as a cornerstone within the practice of social entrepreneurship in sport, focuses on how social entrepreneurial sport organisations can achieve economic sustainability by using their networks. The analysis shows, for instance, that the network of a social entrepreneurial sport organisation encompasses many actors from all sectors of society, and that the networks themselves assume many forms. The fifth and final paper, Swedish sport policy in an era of neoliberalism: An expression of social entrepreneurship?, provides an analysis of political preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport in Sweden. The paper, for example, argues that some political initiatives in the Swedish sport policy can be regarded as social innovations, since these aim to both solve certain identified social problems in society in general (e.g., social inclusion), or in sport in particular (e.g., making sport activities more accessible by lowering costs). In sum, this thesis contributes with: (a) empirical examples of social entrepreneurial sport organisations; (b) a theoretical understanding of the “social” dimension of social entrepreneurship in sport; (c) an ethical discussion on the role of researchers; and (d) a starting point when discussing the Swedish government support for sport.
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6.
  • Gjelvold, Björn (författare)
  • On the Clinical Outcome of Different Single Implant Treatment Modalities
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Today there are several treatment techniques available to replace a missing tooth. Since the beginning of the 1990s, it has become increasingly common to treat individual tooth loss with dental implants. Important patient factors are survival, success, functionality, aesthetics, oral health and quality of life.The range of indications and possibilities for implant treatment has broadened compared to the originally proposed treatment indications. A variety of methods, components and materials are available today. Improvements of the implant surface have led to shorter healing periods, which has affected the overall treatment time. Methods for computer-assisted implant planning and surgical guides have been developed to improve treatment planning. Several techniques are involved in the manufacturing of implant-supported single crowns, from the traditional plaster models, wax, casting and porcelain veneering to 3D scanning, computer aided design and manufacturing. It is important that all these treatment modalities are evaluated in a systematic and scientific way to ensure that the treatment given is the best one possible according to the individual conditions that exist.The general aim of this project was to evaluate the treatment outcome between different treatment modalities for single dental implants. Study I aims to retrospectively evaluate implant survival. Patient reported outcome measures, marginal bone loss (MBL), clinical and esthetic outcomes following conventional single implant treatment. The aim of study II, a prospective randomized clinical study, was to compare the overall treatment outcome following immediate loading (IL) and delayed loading (DL) of single implants. In study III the aim was to in a vitro setting evaluate the deviation in final dental implant position after the use of surgical guides fabricated from two different desktop 3D printers using a digital workflow. For study IV the aim was to, in a non-randomized study, compare clinical and aesthetic outcomes between immediately loaded single implants placed with and without a fully guided-surgery procedure (DIL). In study I a total of 85 implants were examined after a mean follow-up time of 7.51 years. The 5-year implant survival rate was98.4% (95% CI: 96.3% - 100%), with a crown survival rate of91.8% (95% CI: 86.3%-97.3%). Overall mean MBL was -0.13 mm. Final and initial total Pink esthetic score (PES) were 9.61 and 11.49 (P<.001) Mean White esthetic score (WES) was 6.48 at final follow-up. Visual analog scale (VAS) score for soft tissue and implant-supported crown aesthetics were 73.5 and 82.1 (maximum score 100). A oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) 14 score of 16.11 was observed at the final follow-up. Study II and IV found implant survival rates of 100%, 96% and 90.5 % for IL, DL and DIL, respectively, after 1-year. No statistically significant differences were found for MBL, PES, WES and OHIP-14after 1-year. Statistically significant lower papilla index scores were found for the IL. Overall statistically significant improvement inPES, WES and OHIP-14 were found over time. In the DIL group a moderate correlation between aesthetics and deviation in fixture position was found. For Study III a statistically significant difference between stereolithography and direct light processing (DLP) was found fordeviation at entry point (P = .023) and the vertical implant position(P = .009). Overall lower deviations were found for the guides from the DLP printer, with the exception of deviation in horizontal implant position.The results from these studies suggest that good clinical results can be achieved with different treatment modalities for single implants. Positive advantages with immediate loading and guided surgery is primarily seen in the early faces of the treatment procedure only. Care needs to be exerted with technically complicated treatment procedures as the effect on implant survival should not be underestimated. Further studies have to be performed to evaluate guided surgery and immediate loading to identify possible factors effecting survival.
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7.
  • Iskanderani, Durer (författare)
  • Temporomandibular joint imaging using cone-beam computed tomography
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is one of the most revolutionary innovations in dentistry, and was introduced into the dental field two decades ago as a three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality. Since then, it has gained general clinical acceptance, and is widespread among many dental specialties. The CBCT examination is a fast and user-friendly technique that provides multiplanar images with high spatial resolution, providing information that is unattainable with two-dimensional (2D) imaging in many diagnostic tasks. Thus, CBCT is an essential examination tool that can replace or complement other examinations. CBCT imaging plays a valuable role when hard tissue abnormalities are suspected in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by providing diagnostic information on cortical and subcortical boneintegrity or destruction/production changes.The growing availability and use of CBCT at dental clinics has led to concerns as to whether the information obtained by CBCT imaging justifies the additional exposure of the patient to radiation and the training required to examine and interpret the images. The radiation protection principles: justification and optimisation, should always be applied as the basis for protection. This thesis presents four studies on TMJ imaging using CBCT. In line with recent trends towards digital online education, two CBCT educational tools were developed for the interpretation of CBCT images of the TMJ and published on the Malmö University web site. The first was an educational tool including 35 CBCT examinations of TMJ, presented as 2D multiplane CBCT images. The second was a web-based programme containing 15 CBCT examinations of TMJ, presented as 3D multiplane CBCT images. Both tools included the image analysis criteria of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular disorder (DC/TMD) as an assessment module, and were tested by dental students. It was found that they could be useful educational tools for TMJ assessment using CBCT images.The aim of the third study was to map and compare the distribution of absorbed doses using radiochromic film dosimeters in panoramic radiography and CBCT examinations of the TMJ using adult and child anthropomorphic head phantoms. Sheets of Gafchromic film (XR-QA2)were placed at five levels, corresponding to the radiographic examination, in the phantoms. The clinical protocols for panoramic and CBCT imaging of the TMJ of three dental X-ray units were used. The mean absorbed doses to a number of radiosensitive tissues within the oral and maxillofacial regions were estimated. The absorbed doses varied considerably among and within the radiosensitive tissues with examination type, X-ray unit, clinical setting, and patient age. The bonesurface and salivary glands received the highest absorbed doses in both radiographic examinations. The radiation burden was lower when using two small right and left fields of view (FOVs) than when using a single larger FOV. Accurate measurements of the absorbed dose in small dental radiation fields is challenging due to steep dose gradients. The use of Gafchromic film has shown promising results, allowing dose comparisons between different radiographic imaging.The last study was carried out to investigate the possibility of dose optimisation in CBCT examinations of the TMJ, in line with there commendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Thirty-four adult patients referred for CBCT imaging of the TMJ underwent two examinations with different scanning protocols, a manufacturer-recommended protocol (default), and a low-dose protocol in which the tube current was reduced to 20% of that in the default protocol. Three image stacks were reconstructed: the default protocol, the low-dose protocol, and the low-dose protocol processed using a noise reduction algorithm. Four radiologists evaluated the visibility of TMJ anatomic structures, image quality and radiographic findings. It was found that the visibility of the TMJ anatomical structures, the overall image quality and the radiographic findings using the low-dose protocol were comparable to those in the default protocol, indicating that diagnostically comparable results could be obtained with a five times lower radiation dose.Finally, this thesis highlights the diagnostics of TMJ imaging using CBCT in the context of image interpretation, imaging dosimetry and dose optimisation, all with the purpose of improving and optimising radiological TMJ diagnostics.
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8.
  • Jarhall, Jessica (författare)
  • Historia från kursplan till klassrum : perspektiv på lärares historieundervisning från Lpo 94 till Lgr 11
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The thesis examines how history teachers perceive history teaching in Swedish lower secondary schools during a time-period when two different curricula were in use: Lpo 94 and Lgr 11. The overall aim is to investigate how history can be expressed through teachers' transformation of the subject, from syllabus to classroom. The study focuses mainly on the perceived and the operational curricula, according to Goodlad et als curriculum theory. Transformation and transformation factors, i.e. factors that influence teachers' transformation, are central concepts of the thesis. Those are based on Shulman's theory of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and teachers' knowledge base. The term transformation is used in a wide sense, including the process of planning, teaching, and evaluation. Theories from both German and Anglo-american history didactics are used to create an analytical model, including three dimensions of historical knowledge and three sets of historical concepts. The model is used to analyze the respondents' stories as content knowledge, disciplinary knowledge and functional knowledge.The empirical material was collected from qualitative interviews with twenty-one history teachers at six different lower secondary schools.  In addition to the interviews, teaching material in the form of teacher planning, examinations and other documents were collected. These documents were used to support, or question, the findings in the interviews.The results show that teachers transformed the history subject in several different ways, using the syllabus as starting point. The main factors influencing the teachers' choice of goals, content and methods in their history teaching were the students, the text books and their knowledge base. For the teachers in the second sub-study, the new national test had a profound impact on the choices teachers made. The three dimensions of knowledge, dealing with content (substantive knowledge), metahistorical concepts and skills (procedural knowledge), and value related issues (meaning) in history proved to be important in history teaching, both before and after Lgr 11. Although the main emphasis on knowledge as content was a continuity, the disciplinary aspects have gained importance during the period. All teachers also took the dimension of meaning into their teaching. A specific result shows that teachers who taught in multi-cultural classrooms especially saw identity and democratic citizenship as important aspects of their teaching. Another important result is that the national tests had a great impact on teachers after Lgr 11. The study also showed that history teachers were affected by the educational context, i.e. accountability, a strong emphasis on the quality of education and increased control.
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9.
  • Klinge, Anna (författare)
  • Craniofacial Height in Relation to Alveolar Bone Morphology
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There is a constant development towards a more aesthetically oriented dentistry. New techniques and new materials are introduced to improve and optimise treatment results and shorten treatment time. This development can be favourable for both the dentist and the patient. If missing one or more teeth due to congenital reason or an incident (dental trauma), it is often challenging to already at an early stage choose the best and most optimal treatment for the particular clinical situation and individual. This thesis presents an overview of the basic biological factor of importance for a succesful treatment outcome: the relation between craniofacial height and alveolar bone height and width (morphology). The idea is to not just focus on the area of the missing tooth, but to incorporate other important factors, such as craniofacial height, sex, and age, in a broader context.The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate the relation between craniofacial height and alveolar bone morphology (height and width of the maxilla and mandible) as a support and tool in therapy planning of individuals in need of tooth replacement through orthodontic treatment and/or dental implant treatment.Paper I reports results of an investigation regarding the relation between the craniofacial height and height and width of the maxilla and mandible. The craniofacial height of the patients is divided into three groups: low, normal, and high angle. A radiographic profile image was used to establish the craniofacial height. Two separate lines are traced between anatomical structures on the radiographic 11image. The angle formed between these two lines is used for the classification of craniofacial height (low < 27°, normal 27-37°, high >37°).The alveolar bone is measured in millimeter with a digital caliper on radiographs obtained in three planes. The measurements of the jaws are performed both in the maxilla and in the mandible, between the teeth in the front (midline), between the premolars, and between the molars, on the right and left side respectively. An association between the craniofacial height and the height and width of the alveolar bone (morphology) was found. The greatest differences between the three craniofacial groups were seen in the anterior region, both in the maxilla and in the mandible. This means that an individual from the high-angle group displays a higher alveolar bone which also is more narrow in the anterior region, especially in the mandible. The opposite pattern is displayed in the low-angle group where the subjects present a low and wide alveolar bone.In paper II, the measurement technique for the maxilla and mandible was evaluated. Five raters with different experiences within the field of dentistry repeats the same measurements, independent of each other. The results show strong reliability of the measurement technique.In paper III, new measurements of the alveolar bone were presented, however this time focus was on the anterior part of the maxilla, which is a more aesthetically challenging area. The results from this study strengthen the association previously reported between the craniofacial height and height and width of the maxilla measured on cross-sectional images.Paper IV is a systematic review of the scientific literature, evaluating risk factors for a maxillary anterior tooth to end up in infraposition over time and to not follow the growth pattern of the adjacent teeth. Infraposition occurs when a tooth or dental implant does not continue to erupt and follow the anticipated growth pattern of the individual. This results in a growth cessation of the topical area and a dental implant still remain in the same place as immediately following treatment, whereas the surrounding teeth continue to erupt as the jaw grows. Dental infraposition can be a disadvantage from both an aesthetic and a functional perspective. An individual with a high angle (high craniofacial height), who presents with a thinner and longer alveolar bone, especially in the anterior part of the jaw, seems to be at a greater risk of developing infraposition of a traumatised tooth or a dental implant since growth seems to continue for longer (both as measured in mm and in years) compared to individuals with a low craniofacial height. The different risk factors investigated were age, sex, and craniofacial height. According to the findings in our systematic review, there is a lack of new scientific papers of high quality and the topic needs to be explored further in order for any conclusions to be drawn.In conclusion, the results of the present thesis show that craniofacial height should be considered in therapy planning in order to achieve the best long-term treatment results for the patients. This seems to be especially relevant in young individuals where continued growth is expected.
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10.
  • Kvist, Martin (författare)
  • Varken resurs eller problem : om lågutbildade ungas etablerings- och försörjningsmöjligheter
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores labour market opportunities for young people based on the assumption that these opportunities vary depending on the local socio-economic context (level of education, level of income, the proportion of employed within the population). The situation for young people with low education, i.e. those who have not completed grundskolan (primary school) or gymnasieskolan (upper secondary school) is specifically focused. The thesis explores two conditions of importance for low-educated young people:the possibilities of developing elements of vocational education/training within the introductory programmes of the Swedish gymnasium (upper secondary school) andto what extent public labour market policy and municipal social welfare meet the needs of low educated young people with low income. In the thesis, quantitative and qualitative methods are combined. Official statistics, primarily from Statistics Sweden (SCB), are used to explore how the impact of socio-economic context on labour market establishment patterns of young people can be understood and made visible. This is done by summarizing a collection of favourable and less favourable conditions and outcomes related to the establishment patterns of young people at the municipal level in Sweden. Statistics related to individuals who have been registered in Malmö has also been used. Information about where the individuals have been living and about their family and educational background enables an understanding of the impact of the socio-economic context but also makes it possible to explore the effects of educational orientation. The qualitative material of the thesis consists of interviews with 14 representatives of the social partners, including both employer and union representatives, as well as representatives from the Swedish National Agency for Education (Skolverket) and Swedish Public Employment Service (Arbetsförmedlingen).An important observation in the thesis is that the vast majority of the group with a precarious establishment situation, i.e. an income below two price base amounts, do not receive social assistance or state benefits from the employment service. A follow up of individuals who were registered in Malmö and attended year 6 of primary school in Malmö in 2008, shows that among those defined as NEET:s the majority lacked completed upper secondary education, and only a small proportion of them received any social benefits.The results of the thesis also indicate that educational orientation is of great importance for young people's establishment and support opportunities. Young people with a background in one of the upper secondary school's vocational programmes are to a greater extent employed and have higher incomes compared to those with no upper-secondary education and those with a background in a university preparatory program. This also applies to the group that did not conduct any studies during the follow-up year. Furthermore, the results indicate that vocational education also has positive effects on those who started but did not complete such an education.The results of the thesis also indicate that there is scepticism among the social partners to employ low-educated young people and young people who have attended the upper secondary school's introductory programmes. The respondents of the thesis expressed scepticism about expanding the elements of vocational education within the introductory programmes.
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11.
  • Larneby, Marie, 1978- (författare)
  • Vi och de Andra : Om idrott, genus och normer på en idrottsprofilerad högstadieskola
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this dissertation is to describe and problematize normative patterns related to sport and gender at a sport’s profiled secondary school,and discuss what consequences these patterns may have for student-athletes. The dissertation has an ethnographic approach and the empirical data was collected through observations and semi-structured interviews. I have followed one cohort of 78 student-athletes during their three years at thestudied school (grade 7–9), of which 29 were interviewed. In addition, seven members of the staff were interviewed. I chose to follow the sport groups in tennis, floorball, football for boys, football for girls and lessons in physical education and health (PEH). This dissertation project was guided by the theoretical frameworks provided by gender theories: gender as a social institution (Lorber, 1994), the process of othering (Puwar, 2004; Pickering, 2001), and inclusive masculinity (Anderson, 2009). In addition, sport related logics and norms of performance and competition was utilized as theoretical tools (Engström, 2010; SOU 2008:59).The main results are that there were two main normative patterns related to sport and gender that prevailed at the studied school: the logic of performance and competition, and a gender norm stating that boys are better than girls. These patterns were resilient but also faced deviations and resistance. Sport occupied a significant space at this school. Socialization of performance and competition, with admittance through selection and early specialization directed the organization of the profile and its practice, but also the student-athletes’ attitudes, behaviors and actions. The logic of performance was often expressed as a sound comparison and competition that functioned as an incentive for motivation and a strategy for improvement, and was regarded as an inherent part of sport. However, comparison and competition were used as a stratifying instrument in order to rank oneself higher in the school’s internal hierarchy. Moreover, students-athletes testified to the presence of an expectation of a certain kind of engagement, focus, attendance, level of ambition and attitude towards sports. When one or more of these expectations were not met, due to for instance injuries, decreased motivation or lack of interest, the student-athletes felt that they (or peers at the school) deviated from the normative position as an ideal student-athlete. Within this sport centered school, a gender norm stating that boys are better than girls prevailed. This norm was produced, reproduced and confirmed in the daily school sport activities as well as inthe classroom setting. An active differentiation lead to a general stratification, which resulted in a construction of boys and girls being different athletes who were explained being not equally skilled, and that boys’ sport is valued more then girls’. This differentiation and stratification was a result of the logics of performance and competition, with a need to compare boys and girls although they never competed against each other, they only trained together. However, when student-athletes talked of themselves at an individual level, there was less emphasis on gender. The athletic skills strength, speed and technique were demanded, and it was often expected that girls were to adopt boys’ way to do sports. It contradicts and simultaneously challenges the gender norm that boys are better than girls are. To conclude: since competition and comparison was a strong logic, it was directed inwards towards peers and a constructed meaning of status within the bigger school group. In addition, gender produced another dimension of stratification between athletes, which should be of no value in organized competition as boys and girls almost never compete against each other. However, at this school, gender differentiation and stratification got a lot of attention because it was constructed to be of significance.Norms, values and logics from the world of sports had entered school and established a normative system that produced a student-athlete and a school sport profile that was an extension of organized sport.
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12.
  • Larsson, Helena (författare)
  • Existentiell ensamhet hos sköra äldre personer : ett närståendeperspektiv
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis was to explore existential loneliness from the perspective of significant others, to contrast their perceptions with frail older people’s experiences and to describe significant others’ and family care advisors’ views on existential support. This thesis is part of a larger research project about existential loneliness among frail older people, the LONE study. The thesis embraces three qualitative and one quantitative study. A total of 29 significant others, 15 frail older people and 120 family care advisors participated in the studies. The significant others were husbands, wives, daughters, sons, other relatives and friends to frail older people. The concept ‘frail older people’ was defined as older persons (≥ 75 years old) dependent on long-term health- or social care. The qualitative studies were based on multistage focus-group interviews (study I) and individual interviews (studies II and III). The quantitative study (IV) had a cross-sectional design and was based on a questionnaire specifically developed for the current study. Different methods to analyse data were used; hermeneutics (study I), content analysis (study II), a case study with thematic analysis (study III) and descriptive statistics (study IV). Findings from the four studies show that existential loneliness emerges when: 1) Longing for, but also striving for, a deeper feeling of connectedness, 2) Being in, but also enduring, an unwanted separation, and 3) Not finding, but still trying to recreate meaning. This thesis also shows that existential loneliness is often experienced in so-called limit situations in life and arises in difficult choices related to close relationships, in connection with experiences of meaninglessness and in the absence of connection to something or someone. The results show that existential loneliness emerges in the process of balancing between what was and what is to come in the unknown future. Significant others navigate themselves, and sometimes together with the older person, through an unfamiliar existence that makes them feel ambivalent about the de-cisions they have previously made and the decisions they need to make in the future, while also doubting the meaning in their current situation. Existential support should mainly focus on transition phases and on relational aspects. Person-centredness can be a way to make the existential needs of significant others and older people visible and to provide support based on their needs.
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13.
  • Lind, Jacob (författare)
  • The politics of undocumented migrant childhoods : Agency, rights, vulnerability
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis, I investigate the paradoxical characteristics of political struggles that take place in relation to undocumented migrant childhoods. Drawing on ethnographic research in Birmingham, UK and Malmö, Sweden between 2014 and 2017, I take as my starting point the everyday life experiences of children and families who have experienced living under an immanent risk of deportation. Through a critical engagement with issues of agency, rights and vulnerability, I contrast the experiences of the children and their families with the development of policies and political debates in both countries. By analysing the contexts of Birmingham, UK and Malmö, Sweden in parallel as sites of irregular migration, I contribute with a clearer understanding of the specific characteristics of how each context constructs and governs irregular migration and how this is experienced by migrants themselves.In this thesis, I argue that a discussion about the political agency of children positioned as undocumented migrants is crucial for an informed and contextualised understanding of the political conflicts that characterise the issue of undocumented migrant childhoods. Through an analysis of the children and families’ everyday struggles, I highlight the role played by children’s rights as being perhaps the most important resource for enabling limited forms of support for these families from the host societies. However, I also show how the arguments and practices surrounding rights can be mobilised for migration control. In this sense,rights are “dangerous”.I suggest that if the intergenerational context of undocumented children’s rights is neglected, there is a risk that the human rights of children as well as adults will be marginalised. State actors arguing for the rights of undocumented migrant children often attempt to strengthen children’s deservingness by portraying their parents as “bad parents”who put their children at risk of increased vulnerability. While the state views the parents as putting their children at risk by “hiding” them, the parents view the state as putting their children at risk by trying to deport them. Parents are then forced to act as “humanitarian agents” responsible for caring for the children when state support to the rights-bearing migrant child is limited by the notion of the migrant child at risk of deportation.This “child migrant paradox” is an overall entrance point from which many of the political issues discussed in the thesis can be traced. The politics of rights in the context of undocumented migration is closely related to processes of vulnerability. Rights are mostly perceived as a matter of implementation while vulnerabilities, which rights are supposed to ameliorate, are mainly understood as descriptively self-evident. In this thesis, I problematise such commonplace understandings of rights and vulnerabilities and theorises them as fundamentally political concepts that need to be understood as enacted and reproduced through different political processes at different scales.I introduce the concept of “vulnerabilisation” to capture how states first create vulnerability through hostile policies towards undocumented migrants, then label the targeted groups as vulnerable and finally utilise this vulnerability to rationalise the governing of undocumented migrant children and families’ mobility and territorial presence. To enable children’s rights to be a productive tool for challenging the repressive governing of migrant families and children, I argue in this thesis that both the children’s rights paradigm and the vulnerabilisation of migrant childhoods need to be problematised and contextualised. Rights struggles by and on behalf of undocumented migrant children and families thus need to be aware of the fundamentally political character of rights and vulnerability.
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14.
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15.
  • Nigro, Claudio, 1988, et al. (författare)
  • Phase-field modeling of stress-induced precipitation and kinetics in engineering metals
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The formation of brittle compounds in metals operating in corrosive environments can be a tremendous source of embrittlement for industrial structures and such phenomenon is commonly enhanced in presence of stresses. To study this type of microstructural change modeling is preferred to experiment to reduce costs and prevent undesirable environmental impacts. This thesis aims at developing an engineering approach to model stress-induced precipitation, especially near stress concentrators, e.g. crack tips, for multi-phase and polycrystalline metals, with numerical efficiency. In this thesis, four phase-field models are developed and applied on stress-induced hydride precipitation in zirconium and titanium alloys. The energy of the system is minimized through the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, which provides insights to the kinetics of the phenomenon. In these models, the driving force for precipitation is the coupling between the applied stress and the phase transformation-induced dilatation of the system. Models 1-3 implicitly incorporate near crack-tip stress fields by using linear elastic fracture mechanics so that only the phase-field equation is solved numerically with the finite volume method, reducing the computational costs. Phase transformation is investigated for intragranular, intergranular and interphase cracks in single- and two-phase materials by considering isotropy and some degrees of anisotropy, grain/phase boundary energy, different transition orders and solid solubility limit. Model 4 allows representing anisotropy connected to lattice mismatch and the orientation of the precipitates influenced by the applied stress. The model is employed through the finite element program Abaqus, where the fully coupled thermo-mechanical solving method is applied to the coupled mechanical/phase-field problem. Hydride growth is observed to follow the near-crack tip hydrostatic stress contours and can reach a steady state for specific conditions. The relation between hydride formation kinetics and material properties, and stress relaxation are well-reflected in the results. With the presented approaches, precipitation kinetics including different kinds of defects, multi-phase microstructures, phase/grain boundaries, order transitions and loading modes can be successfully captured with low computational costs. They could therefore contribute to the numerical efficiency of multi-scale environment-assisted embrittlement prediction schemes within commercial software serving engineering projects.
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16.
  • Nilsson Sjöberg, Mattias (författare)
  • Relationär pedagogik - för ett sannare liv : En essäistisk sammanläggning om dys/funktionell uppfostran: exemplet ADHD
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Föreliggande doktorsavhandling utgör en pedagogisk-filosofisk studie av diagnosen ADHD som uppfostran. Avhandlingen består av fyra internationellt publicerade artiklar samt en substantiell kappa. Det övergripande syftet är att lägga fram ett pedagogiskt argument för varför en förändring kan förefalla nödvändig om målet är att leva ett mer sant liv. Metoden använd utgörs av en triadisk modell som innefattar den grävande mullvaden, den filosofiska ugglan och den pedagogiska örnen. Det pedagogiska exempel som används i studien är den så kallat neuropsykiatriska diagnosen ADHD.Baserat på en kritisk undersökning av diagnosen ADHD påvisas att denna diagnos inte är vad den sägs vara, utan även någonting annat. Diagnosen ADHD förefaller vara ett symptom på en pedagogisk irrationalitet som hos den enskilde individen re/producerar ”brister” och ”avvikelser” vilket öppnar upp för olika former av mer eller mindre behavioristisk uppfostran. I kappan argumenteras för att diagnosen ADHD bygger på en modern form av sofism, vilken utgör en negativ identitetslogik och en biopedagogik som konstituerar dysfunktionell Andrahet.Vidare visar analysen att diagnosen ADHD inte enbart är irrationell, utan även orättvis, oren, ond och våldsam. Detta resultat bygger på en teoretisk dialog med tänkare som Michel Foucault, Karen Barad, Michel Serres, Baruch Spinoza, och inte minst Alain Badiou. Utifrån Badiou argumenteras för att diagnosen ADHD bygger på ett ändligt pedagogiskt tänkande, framför oändligt många andra sätt att bli till på tillsammans. Platsen för denna pedagogiska möjlighet uppgår i det unika mötet. I detta unika pedagogiska möte öppnas upp för ett gemensamt kreativt utforskande av världen och därmed möjligheten för de olika parterna att leva ett mer sant liv.Avhandlingen avslutas med den retoriska frågan om huruvida pedagogen trofast ska hålla fast vid idén om den universella möjligheten att verka för ett mer sant liv, alternativt genom fortsatt bruk av kvasi-diagnostik – diagnosen ADHD – re/producera en irrationell, orättvis, oren, ond och våldsam uppfostran.
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17.
  • Paraschakis, Dimitris, 1980- (författare)
  • Sociotechnical Aspects of Automated Recommendations : Algorithms, Ethics, and Evaluation
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Recommender systems are algorithmic tools that assist users in discovering relevant items from a wide range of available options. Along with the apparent user value in mitigating the choice overload, they have an important business value in boosting sales and customer retention. Last, but not least, they have brought a substantial research value to the algorithm developments of the past two decades, mainly in the academic community. This thesis aims to address some of the aspects that are important to consider when recommender systems pave their way towards real-life applications.
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18.
  • Peiteado Fernández, Vítor (författare)
  • Producing Alternative Urban Spaces : Social Mobilisation and New Forms of Agency in the Spanish Housing Crisis
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is concerned with the social mobilisation in Spain provoked by the financial crisis which started in 2008. Specifically, the thesis analyses the intersections of the housing movement with some political coalitions that won many municipalities in 2015. It does so to explain the dynamics that lead to the creation of a “space of activism” capable of opposing the capitalist organisation of space. Since the beginning of the crisis thousands of Spanish people have lost their homes because they were unable to pay their mortgages. The debt that these people have contracted for covering their housing needs has become such an unbearable burden that many see protest as the only way to avoid being thrown onto the streets. The consequent mobilisation has been canalised mainly through the Platform of People Affected by Mortgages (PAH). Created in Barcelona, this organisation has expanded all over the country, not due to a centralised strategy directed from Barcelona, but to a “contagious” shooting up of chapters that provokes a strong independence among the chapters and a focus on local mobilisation. Despite being able to stop evictions and to force the renegotiation of individual mortgages, PAH has failed to force legal or systemic changes. These difficulties animated many activists to promote the creation of multiple coalitions with diverse political organisations to run for the 2015 local elections. In interrogating what the dynamics that shape this mobilisation are and examining the transition between the movements, this thesis focuses on two definitory characteristics of these organisations. The first one is their high degrees of heterogeneity. This heterogeneity became evident in PAH due to the coexistence of different social classes, nationalities, perceptions or values. Whereas in the municipal platforms, the heterogeneity was mainly linked to the coalition of multiple political groups with diverse ideologies. The thesis explores the role and the influence of this heterogeneity, and the way the different groups handle it. The second definitory characteristic is the high levels of decentralisation and localism that mark the activism of these organisations. That said, the groups are not totally disconnected from each other and their localism is accompanied by certain forms of integration that raise questions about how these connections take place and articulate the different local struggles. In reflecting about these definitory characteristics, the thesis investigates the relation between heterogeneity and the production of space, as well as its relation to the development of certain forms of agency. The fieldwork was based on ethnocartographic research in two local chapters of PAH (PAH Barcelona and Stop Desahucios Coruña) and two municipal coalitions (Barcelona en Comú and Marea Atlántica) in order to research groups of different sizes, visibility and in different contexts. Ethnocartographic methods aim to map the affective relations between the activists that shape certain dynamics that influence the way the activism develops. To advance in this direction, the thesis excavates the possibility of combining Deleuze and Guattari’s conceptualisation of politics with that of Lefebvre’s theory concerning the production of space. Grounded in their common interest in relationality, everyday life and heterogeneity, the theoretical framework explores the potential of this combination to analyse the connections between the general dynamics that shape activism and the redefinition of agency so as to contest neoliberal urbanism. The analysis excavates how the contention developed by these local groups produces specific forms of space and the potential of these to become spaces of everyday life that confront capitalist representations which organise space. By focusing on this production of space, the thesis addresses the role of heterogeneity in those dynamics and the changes in the agency of the activists. The research reveals the importance of space as the product of the confrontation between the capitalist attempts to organise space and its resistances by the users. The activism, especially that of PAH, has implemented a change in the affective relationships of those subjected to debt. These people transform their passive subjection to the constraints imposed by a spatial organisation around debt into an active agency that mobilises an affective capability to challenge that indebtedness. The coming together of heterogeneous groups of people and their perceptions proved to be the key for this mobilisation, this is especially so concerning the central role of certain activists that incorporate their antagonist perceptions in those affective relations. Nevertheless, the cases demonstrated how, to challenge indebtedness and capitalist imposition, the heterogeneity has not only to be exposed and articulated, but also assembled. When the different perceptions are assembled new representations emerge. These favour the development of new perceptions that confront individual subjectification. The thesis argues that these new representations of everyday life do not develop a full confrontation of capitalist representations. They need the creation of other spaces to avoid jeopardising the cohesion of heterogeneity. It is in these terms that the coalitions must be understood. These coalitions fully develop the abstraction of demands hinted by the representations developed by PAH, by completing a transition from the performative politics that were predominant in PAH to the representational politics that become dominant in the coalitions. The thesis argues that the way in which this transition is made, by avoiding dynamics of rescaling, has favoured the cohesion of the groups, reduced the tensions linked to dynamics of abstraction and generated a “space of activism” based on horizontality that poses a considerable challenge for capitalism to reimpose subjection.
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19.
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20.
  • Reddy, Anuradha (författare)
  • Researching IoT through Design : An Inquiry into Being-At-Home
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Researching IoT through Design is a proposal for reworking how one might approach ubiquitous networked objects, or IoT, that no longer have stable and predictable uses – and to be-at-home with them in everyday life. This inquiry into being-at-home entails a shift from the idea of the home as a fixed, four-walled space for everyday routine separate from the outside world. It is instead replaced by a notion of the home as needing to be constantly re-sensitised to the wider world in which it is embedded. I argue the importance of securing a space for sensitisation, which forms the grounding of this study’s focus on participation, and the importance of referring to such spaces as ‘design’. Further, I show how delving into diverse participatory approaches in IoT can serve to make clear the conditions under which being-at-home can be explored. Derived from the practice of Research through Design, the notion of being-at-home is examined through critically-oriented design experimentation. It includes theoretical and methodological trajectories for ‘doing’ design, building on design anthropology, feminist technoscience, and posthuman discourses. The design experiments are conducted in three distinct design contexts, where each context gravitates towards one or more participatory approaches in IoT. Together, these experiments call into consideration the need for re-familiarising things as a way to reclaim the design space that has been lost to IoT’s optimising logics and values.
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21.
  • Ritasdatter, Linda Hilfling, 1976- (författare)
  • Unwrapping Cobol : Lessons in Crisis Computing
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • By engaging with COBOL, a detested and would-be obsolete programming language, the dark sides of automation are examined in this thesis: hidden workforces and computational infrastructures that are, in reality, central to the execution and maintenance of global economic and informational flows. Frictions within these flows are made more visible in moments of crisis when asymmetrical power structures are surfaced, as demonstrated in an analysis of the infamous Y2K Bug, its connection to the outsourcing boom in India and the legacy of COBOL. Further, Crisis Computing is proposed as a concept to develop a critical analytical tool focusing on the entangled manifestations of execution, crisis, and maintenance. With COBOL as a case in point for this entanglement, the thesis is structured in a series of lessons reflecting the author’s own method of artistic research as learning and reflecting on and in this neglected language. Ultimately, the lessons demand nothing less than a reconsideration of interaction design. Interaction design should encompass not only user interaction, but also the interactions taking place behind the scenes, at the back-ends and back-back-ends of automated systems. Automation is shown to have a continuous need to be maintained and sustained, an ongoing process of avoiding break-down or any cessation in automating. Hence “Crisis Computing.” The thesis “unwraps” COBOL as Crisis Computing by focusing on three intersecting concepts: execution, maintenance, and crisis. The analysis is necessarily intersectional because of the multi-level nature of the keeping up of appearances within Crisis Computing. Accordingly, rather than focusing on human labor in itself, there is a turn to intersecting and multidirectional power structures reflected in the entanglement of underlying material conditions, technological infrastructures, histories, socio-economic, geo-political, and cultural aspects in which such back-back-end human labor is embedded.
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22.
  • Rosengren, Mathilda (författare)
  • Wastelands of difference? Urban nature and more-than-human difference in Berlin and Gothenburg
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores more-than-human entanglements of contemporary urban environments in order to develop a rearticulation of urban landscapes as spaces decidedly beyond the exclusively human. Taking its cue from the question “How do we live with urban difference today?,” such spaces, the thesis argues, emerge through, as well as change with, a variety of socio-ecological entwinements. It proposes that alternative ways of living in urban landscapes may be detected, as well as potentially fostered, if we turn our attention to other-than-human being, becoming, and belonging in the city. Subsequently, it investigates how this, in practice as well as in theory, changes the ways in which human city dwellers consider other-than-human urban expressions. Based on twelve months fieldwork in Berlin, Germany, and Gothenburg, Sweden – following a mixed methods approach of participant observation and in-depth interviews with urban planners, park managers, local activists, and decision-makers, complemented by a visual anthropological practice – the thesis examines several urban green spaces (recreational areas, ecologically protected nature-parks, industrial wastelands and old cemeteries) where other-than- human bodies have been given space and time to develop without direct or invasive human interference. These spaces, the thesis shows, have also become sites of potential contestation and change, challenging who and what belong in the urban milieu. On the one hand, the cities currently face increased influxes of human residents as well as acute housing shortages, with calls for intensified densifications and developments of interstitial urban land growing ever louder. At the same time, with the monocultural shaping of the rural areas outside the cities, spontaneous urban green spaces are being touted by local experts as increasingly important sites of biodiversity. Interlacing these empirical examples with a series of theoretical approaches on how to conceive of the urban, diversity, matter, and vitality – ranging from the scientific (urban ecology and biology) and empirically-grounded, social scientific (urban political ecology, more-than-human ethnographies, human-plant and -animal studies and so forth), to the philosophical (such as posthumanist and neo-vitalist concepts) – the thesis discerns some disparities in this research canon: One concerns the separation of theoretical reasoning and empirical study, where, as Donna Haraway notes, the “mud” of the world of actual multispecies living never truly seems to reach, nor to be included in, the “sublime” of philosophical thought. Another one is the lack of overarching empirical accounts tracing the implications of recognising everyday urbanities as contingent, yet multifarious, wholes of more-than-human socialities, as defined by anthropologist Anna Tsing. The thesis shows that through the formulation of an expanded notion of more-than- human urban difference, and an intimate ethnographic engagement with the urban other-than- human, these disparities may be addressed. Thus, in bringing intricate parts of more-than-human urbanities to light, the thesis provides not only a thick description of the everyday politics of urban nature planning and conservation of two Northern European cities, but in particular works toward developing perspectives, beyond the singularly human, of what being a contemporary urban dweller (human or otherwise) in actuality entails.
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23.
  • Samzelius, Tove, 1974- (författare)
  • A vicious circle of silent exclusion : family homelessness and poverty in Sweden from a single mother perspective
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Within the confines of the receding Swedish welfare state, family homelessness and poverty are on the rise among one-parent families, in particular those headed by a single migrant mother. This development follows a trend that is noticeable across advanced welfare states, where female-headed households are facing an increased risk of being locked into vicious circles of low-paid work, inadequate income protection schemes and poor housing options. Contextualized against a wider global political-economic backdrop of rising inequalities and structural changes that take localized forms, this thesis investigates family homelessness and poverty in Sweden through what is referred to as a ‘singlemother perspective’. This is an approach where welfare policy and politicalinstitutional arrangements are analysed through the lens of everyday experiences and struggles conveyed by marginalized single mothers. By placing the ideas and experiences of single mothers at the centre of the analysis, the intention is to invoke a different epistemology concerning what type of knowledge is represented and recognised in public. Drawing on insights from critical social theory and feminist ethnographic research, the study uses an approach to the development of new poverty knowledge, found at the junction between lived experience, activism, empirical research and social theory. The thesis departs from the experiences of homelessness and poverty as articulated by the research participants rather than from official definitions and categories. The findings suggest that unwarranted pain and suffering are caused by insufficient incomes, inadequate housing options, and a failure of public authorities to recognise the degree to which policies in the areas of housing, social security, employment, migration and child welfare intersect in complex ways in the lives of disadvantaged single mothers. The narratives shared by the informants further put into question the image of Sweden as an inclusive ‘women- and child-friendly’ welfare state that protects vulnerable citizens from destitution. Instead, the study concludes that the misrecognition and misrepresentation of the living conditions and hardships facing vulnerable mothers and children, combined with a maldistribution of resources, contribute to a vicious circle of silent exclusion. Finally, the study suggests that although it is the women and children who bear the brunt of this crisis and who feel it the most, its causes and consequences infest the whole fabric of society. It also warrants a return to fundamental ethical questions with regard to how people in poverty are viewed and treated and with regard to the role of solidarity within the welfare state. In particular, it argues that there is an urgent need to re-consider the role of social work practice within the receding welfare state and to scrutinize the impact of conditional welfare on vulnerable clients. The thesis ends by proposing a framework for a ‘politics of the heart’ that encompasses the pursuit of social justice and an ethics of care that recognises that the empowerment of mothering and motherhood needs to be at the centre of policy and practice that engage with single mothers suffering from poverty and homelessness, as this also tends to be ‘in the best interest of the child’.
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24.
  • Sjöberg, Marina (författare)
  • Existentiell ensamhet hos sköra äldre personer : äldre personers upplevelser samt dokumentation i patientjournalen
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate the meanings of existential loneliness(EL) and describe how it was eased, as narrated by frail older people, as well as toexamine existential aspects documented in patient records in specialised palliative care.Two of the constituent studies of this thesis were qualitative with an explorative anddescriptive design (i.e., studies I and II), and two studies were based on a retrospectivepatient record review, of which one was quantitative with an exploratory design (StudyIII) and the other was qualitative with a descriptive design (Study IV). The datacollection for studies I and II was based on individual interviews with frail older people75 or more years old. Studies III and IV were based on a randomly selected sample ofpatient records of frail older people who died in specialised palliative care during 2017.The data were collected using a pilot-tested review template to identify aspects of thedocumentation relating to the aims of the studies.The findings of Study I indicated that EL was a negative experience. Four themeswere identified related to meanings of EL: being trapped in a frail and deterioratingbody, being met with indifference, having nobody to share life with, and lacking purposeand meaning. The first theme was considered an overarching theme due to its closeinterrelatedness with the other three themes. The comprehensive understanding of ELamong frail older people was ‘being disconnected from life’, an experience of at leastmomentary abandonment, being left to one’s fate, and living a meaningless life. Study IIshowed that existential loneliness was eased when being acknowledged by others, beingthe focus of others’ concern, encountering intimacy, and having meaningful exchangesof thoughts and feelings. It was further eased when the participants could bracketnegative thoughts and feelings, that is, when they could adjust and accept the presentsituation, view life in the ‘rear-view mirror’, be in contact with spiritual dimensions, andwithdraw and distract themselves. Existential loneliness could be either in the forefront(i.e., feelings of ill-being) (Study I) or in the background (i.e., feelings of well-being)(Study II). The findings of Study III indicated that performed interventions were the14most common subject of documented clinical notes, mostly related to pharmacologicalinterventions. Pain was the most common documented problem, followed by circulatoryproblems, nutrition problems, and anxiety. Clinical notes concerning wishes and wellbeing-related details were documented, but not frequently. Overall symptom assessmenttools, especially multi-dimensional tools, were used to a small extent. More people whoreceived care in palliative in-patient wards died alone than did people who received carein their own homes. Study IV was based on notes extracted from 84 patient records.The results indicated that documented existential aspects had both negative and positiveconnotations and were related to the patients’ loss of freedom and self-determination,loneliness and community, anxiety and inner peace, and despair and hope. The notesconcerning existential aspects were, however, not recorded in a structured way and nocare plans relating to existential aspects were found.According to the studies, both ill-being and well-being were evident, and the livedbody occupied a central position in all studies. The frail body increased the patients’vulnerability and limited their living space. Meaningful activities and meaningfulcommunity and exchange with others eased the existential loneliness. Existentialloneliness remains invisible to others as long as nobody talks about it, and it remainsinvisible in the documentation as long as it is not documented in a structured way.This thesis demonstrates the importance of making existential loneliness and existentialaspects visible in encounters with frail older people and in the clinical documentation.
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25.
  • Sundström, Malin (författare)
  • Existentiell ensamhet hos sköra äldre personer : vårdpersonals och volontärers erfarenheter och behov av stöd
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of the thesis was to explore healthcare professionals’ and volunteers’ experiences of encountering older persons’ existential loneliness, the significance of the care context, and first-line managers’ view of support. Three of the studies were qualitative with a descriptive design (studies I–III) and the fourth was quantitative with a cross-sectional design (Study IV). The data collection for studies I and II was based on focus group interviews with healthcare professionals (i.e., nurse assistant, registered nurse, physician, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, social counsellor, and social worker) in home care, residential care, hospital care, palliative care, primary care, and pre-hospital care. The data collection for Study III was based on focus group interviews and individual interviews with volunteers from various organisations. Study IV was based on a questionnaire sent to first-line managers in municipal care, examining their views of support for staff and volunteers encountering existential issues among older persons.   The findings of Study I indicated that, during the everyday care of older people, healthcare professionals experienced existential loneliness in various ways and situations related to ageing, illness, and end of life. The professionals’ stories about encountering older persons’ existential loneliness revealed that they often felt insecure about how to talk about existential issues. They also felt inadequate and frustrated when encountering barriers such as the older person’s bodily limitations, demands and needs (perceived as insatiable), personal privacy, or fear and difficulty in encountering existential issues. Study II was a multiple case study of the care contexts of home care, residential care, hospital care, and palliative care. The findings indicated that the care context matters regarding professionals’ views and interpretations of the origin of existential loneliness. In home care and residential care, these views and interpretations concerned life, the present, and the past. In hospital and palliative care, existential loneliness mainly concerned the older person’s forthcoming death. Professionals considered creating relationships an important part of their role in all care contexts, although the meanings, purposes, and conditions of these relationships differed (Study II). Study III showed that being a volunteer meant being a fellow human being, alleviating others’ and one’s own loneliness. Becoming a volunteer was 11  12 a way of finding meaning, and volunteering made the volunteers feel rewarded and simultaneously emotionally challenged. Encountering loneliness, including existential loneliness, required sensitivity to others’ needs for both closeness and distance. The findings of Study IV, based on a questionnaire, indicated that 88% of the first-line managers found that older persons sometimes or often expressed existential loneliness. They also reported that staff insecurity was the major obstacle to talking about existential issues with the older persons. Support was provided in the form of structured reflection, but provision of systematic supervision was reported by only 6% of first-line managers. The managers reported that most support was provided by themselves or by registered nurses. Almost half of the managers (44%) reported that, at their units, volunteers were engaged in activities such as everyday conversations and/or music/entertainment. In addition, they also reported a desire for volunteers to be more involved in both everyday and existential conversations. In conclusion, one of the most important findings of this thesis was the insecurity of the professionals, manifested in a fear of discussing existential issues. This was revealed in the interviews with the professionals and confirmed by the first-line managers. According to both professionals and volunteers, the relationship with the older person was important when encountering existential issues. The thesis demonstrates the importance of helping professionals focus on existential issues about life and death and of the potential of volunteers as an important complement in the care of older people.
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26.
  • Toia, Marco (författare)
  • On Clinical and Mechanical Aspects in Implant Supported Screw Retained Multi-unit CAD-CAM Metal Framework
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Conventionally casted frameworks have been considered the preferredsolutions for complete and partial restorations since the beginningof implantology. However, following technological development, thecomputer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM)with milling the frameworks has been introduced as an alternativeoption with the potential of minimising inaccuracies, reducing theoperator dependence and offering a homogeneous structure with highmechanical properties. The CAD-CAM multi-unit reconstructionvaries with fixation type, implant framework connection, andprostheses material. However, the materials developed for theuse of CAD-CAM, may have different technical and biologicalcomplications with time.The present thesis aims to provide insights into the risk ofcomplications in screw-retained multi-unit frameworks manufacturedusing the CAD-CAM technique. An in vitro test (Study I) was performed to assess the effectsof misfit at implant-level FPDs and supporting bone levels on thegeneration of implant cracks. Three clinical studies were conducted:in Study II, partially edentulous patients were rehabilitated with eitheran abutment or implant level multi-unit Cobalt-Chromium metalceramicframework; in Study III, patients, edentulous in the maxilla,were treated with either four or six implants and rehabilitated witha fixed titanium metal-acrylic framework; in Study IV edentulouspatients were treated with removable overdentures retained bytitanium milled bars. In Study III and IV, Oral Health Related Qualityof Life was evaluated.The marginal bone level change was clinically not significantregardless of fixation type (Study II), retention (Study III-IV), andmaterial used (Study II-III-IV). No framework complications wereregistered. Patients reported a high level of satisfaction after thetreatment (Study III-IV).Based on the studies included in this thesis, the followingconclusions can be made: (i) the risk of implant cracks in screwretainedImplant Level (IL) Fixed Partial Denture (FPD) is low, evenwith a misfit; (ii) according to the 1-year data presented in Study II,abutment level (AL) retention is recommended for FPDs; (iii) the costeffectivefor a maxillary Fixed Complete Denture (FCD) supported byfour implants can be considered predictable and comparable to siximplants; (iv) implant-supported FCDs and Implant supported Over-Dentures (IOD) are associated with high rates of patient satisfaction,related to aesthetics and mastication function mainly resulting fromthe high stability of the prostheses; (v) the technical and biologicalcomplications reported in FPDs, FCDs and IODs were limited.However, a considerable percentage of prosthetic fractures andchippings were reported for FCDs at 1-year and 3-year follow-ups.Clinicians have to be aware that additional visits may be required formaintaining the prostheses.
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27.
  • Waldie, Sarah (författare)
  • Model Membranes and Their Interactions with Native and Artificial Lipoproteins
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Atherosclerosis arises from build-up of plaque in the blood, can result in cardiovascular disease and is the largest killer in the west. Low- and high-density lipoproteins are involved in the disease development by depositing and removing lipids to and from artery walls. These processes are complex and not fully understood however, therefore determining the specific roles of the components involved is of fundamental importance in the treatment of the disease.The work presented in this thesis investigates the production of recombinant tailor-deuterated cholesterol, the structure of cholesterol-containing model membranes and interactions of both native and reconstituted lipoproteins with model membranes. Deuteration is commonly used in neutron scattering for biological samples to provide highly important contrast and the complexity of the native lipoproteins leads to the use of more simple model systems where the compositions can be altered and investigated systematically.A protocol was developed to produce matchout-deuterated cholesterol for use in neutron scattering studies, as cholesterol is a hugely important component in membranes. The verification of the matchpoint of cholesterol was determined by small-angle neutron scattering and the localisation of cholesterol in model membranes was determined through the use of neutron reflectometry. The interactions of the native and reconstituted lipoproteins with model membranes were also followed by neutron reflectometry, while the structural characterisation of the reconstituted lipoproteins was carried out by small-angle scattering.
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28.
  • Westerlaken, Michelle, 1989- (författare)
  • Imagining Multispecies Worlds
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • It can be considered the most systemic, deadly, and all-encompassing form of institutional violence that currently exists: speciesism, the oppression and exploitation of other animals. For most people on our planet, speciesism is something completely normalized, justified, and encouraged through many facets of dominant cultures. The field of critical/political animal studies, and other fields that challenge anthropocentrism, have already thoroughly problematized, questioned, and analyzed speciesist practices, but one topic receives little academic attention: what can a counter-concept to speciesism contain, without saying what it is not?This thesis is concerned with imagining ‘multispecies worldings’, with the goal to construct positive rather than negative aspects of a counter-concept to speciesism. Instead of offering a single answer, this work illustrates how additive knowledges regarding the possible meanings of ‘multispecies worlding’ make worlds richer. These knowledges emerge through a repertoire of world-making practices with other animals in which we recognize and engage with the ability to respond to each other.Thereby, this thesis answers to – and builds on – various scholarly and activist discourses, including posthumanism, welfarism, animal liberationism, and is theoretically grounded in feminist epistemologies. With a focus on negotiating possibilities, this dissertation is also a work of interaction design. The design practice involves tracing and negotiating multispecies responses with other animals and expressing those narratives as a design research program. These responses are presented as a Multispecies Bestiary, in which ten protagonist animals guide the reader through a collection of big-enough multispecies stories. The thesis thereby illustrates how humans can – together with other animals – find possible meanings of ‘multispecies worlding’ not as a single (broken) solution, but as ever-expanding directions that can permanently unsettle and unmake the established speciesist order.
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