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1.
  • Agebjörn, Anders, 1984- (författare)
  • Learning of definiteness in Belarusian students of Swedish as a foreign language
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Through a series of studies, this thesis investigates the learning of definiteness in Russian-speaking students of Swedish. A communicative oral-production task elicited modified and non-modified noun phrases in indefinite and definite contexts. Study I describes the development of the morphosyntactic structure through which Swedish encodes definiteness, the association between this structure and its meaning, and the relationship between those two tasks over time. Using an English version of the elicitation task and a test of metalinguistic knowledge, Study II examines the relationship between the learners’ explicit knowledge of article semantics and their actual use of English articles. Adding a test of language-learning aptitude, Study III then explores both the influence of second-language English and that of aptitude on the development of Swedish. Finally, Study IV discusses the role of complexity and input frequency. The main findings include that, at the onset of Swedish study, the learners had minimal knowledge of the morphosyntactic structure but were generally sensitive to the meaning of definiteness. However, knowledge of form developed over time while knowledge of meaning did not, and the two learning tasks did not appear to be directly related to each other. In addition, the learners were seldom aware that choosing between indefinite and definite articles requires the speaker to take the hearer’s perspective, but this lack of metalinguistic understanding did not seem to affect their use of articles. Further, previous knowledge of English appeared to facilitate the development of a Swedish morpheme that is structurally similar to its English counterpart, while aptitude was associated with the development of a morpheme whose English counterpart is structurally different. Finally, the learners used high-frequency morphemes more consistently than low-frequency ones, and morphemes were more likely to be supplied in frequent constructions than in infrequent ones. These findings are discussed in relation to a modular, cognitive framework for language learning and use. 
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2.
  • Aghazadeh, Ahmad (författare)
  • Peri-implantitis : risk factors and outcome of reconstructive therapy
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is focused on (I) the outcome of reconstructive treatment of peri-implant defects and (II) risk factors for the development of peri-implantitis.BackgroundAn increasing number of individuals have dental implant-supported reconstructions. The long-time survival rate of dental implants is good, but complications do occur. Accumulation of bacteria on oral implants and the development of a pathogenic biofilm at the mucosal margin will result in inflammatory responses diagnosed as peri-implant mucositis(PiM). Furthermore, PiM may progress to peri-implantitis (Pi) involving the implant-supporting bone and potentially result in a severe inflammatory process resulting in alveolar bone destruction and consequently implantloss. Currently, Pi is a common clinical complication following implant therapy.The prevalence of peri-implantitis has been reported to be around 20 %. Susceptibility to infections and a history of periodontitis are considered as important risk indicators for peri-implantitis. It seems logical that a past history of periodontitis is linked to an increased risk of peri-implantitis. It is possible that other patient-associated factors such as a smoking habit, and presence of general diseases may also be linked to a higher risk for developing peri-implantitis.Treatment of peri-implantitis is difficult. Non-surgical treatment modalities may not be sufficient to resolve the inflammatory process to obtain healthy conditions.Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis has commonly been employed in clinical practice to obtain access to the implant surface thereby increasing the possibility to effectively decontaminate the implant surfaces.The effectiveness and long-term outcomes of reconstructive surgical treatments of peri-implantitis has been debated. The scientific evidence suggests that regular supportive care is an essential component in order to maintain and secure long-term results following treatment of peri-implantitis.Aims1. To assess the short-term efficacy of reconstructive surgical treatmentof peri-implantitis  (Study I).2. To analyse risk factors related to the occurrence of peri-implantitis(Study II).3. To assess the importance of defect configuration on the healing response after reconstructive surgical therapy of peri-implantitis (Study III).4. To assess the long-term efficacy of reconstructive surgical treatmentof peri-implantitis (Study IV).MethodsFour studies were designed to fulfil the aims:- A single-blinded prospective randomised controlled longitudinal human clinical trial evaluating the clinical and radiographic results of reconstructive surgical treatment of peri-implantitis defects usingeither AB or BDX.- A retrospective analysis of individuals with either peri-implantitis, or presenting with either peri-implant health, or peri-implant mucositis assessing the likelihood that peri-implantitis was associated with a history of systemic disease, a history of periodontitis, and smoking.- A prospective study evaluating if the alveolar bone defect configuration at dental implants diagnosed with peri-implantitisis related to clinical parameters at the time of surgical intervention and if the short- and long-term outcome of surgical intervention of peri-implantitis is dependent on defect configuration at the time of treatment.- A prospective 5-year follow-up of patients treated either with AB or BDX.Results- The success for both surgical reconstructive procedures was limited. Nevertheless, bovine xenograft provided evidence of more radiographic bone fill than AB. Improvements in PD, BOP, and SUP were observed for both treatment modalities-In relation to a diagnosis of peri-implantitis, a high likelihood of comorbidity was expressed in the presence of a history of periodontitis and a medical history of cardiovascular disease- The buccal-lingual width of the alveolar bone crest was explanatory to defect configuration- 4-wall defects and deeper defects demonstrated more radiographic evidence of defect fill- Reconstructive surgical treatment of peri-implant defects may result in successful clinical outcomes, that can be maintained over at least five years- The use of BDX is more predictable than use of harvested bone from the patient (AB)ConclusionsThe study results suggest that a bovine xenograft provides better radiographic evidence of defect fill than the use of autogenous bone harvested from cortical autologous bone grafts.Treatment with bone grafts to obtain radiographic evidence of defect fill is more predictable at 3- and 4-wall defects than at peri-implantitis bone defects with fewer bone walls.In relation to a diagnosis of peri-implantitis, a high likelihood of comorbidity was found for a history of periodontitis and a history of cardiovascular disease.
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3.
  • Ali, Abdullah, 1985- (författare)
  • Topical  formulations, design and drug delivery : "A dive into water"
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Water is a vital component regulating the properties of topical formulations and their interaction with biological barriers, such as skin and mucosa. Changing the watercontent within the frame of the pharmaceutical triangle will have a huge impact on which type of formulation, such as a cream, ointment, gel, or lotion, is formed, as well as the physical properties of the formulation. The composition of a formulation, and the subsequent reformulation after application, will govern the features of the residual film. This will in turn affect the barrier properties of the underlying tissue and consequently the penetration of various substances across skin or mucosa.The primary aim of this thesis has been to provide further understanding on differences between traditional surfactant-based formulations and particle-stabilized, Pickering, formulations and how specific excipients, like alcohols, emollients, and thickeners can affect their physical and/or sensorial properties. The secondary aim has been to gain more knowledge on the role of water in topical formulations and how it affects the properties of the underlaying tissue on application.By combining a portfolio of physicochemical techniques combined with sensory science, we have been able to identify differences between Pickering and surfactantstabilized formulations. Starch-based Pickering emulsions were perceived as less greasy and sticky than traditional creams, even at high oil content. Moreover, we were able develop a novel type of alcohol-based Pickering emulsion with combined moisturizing and antiseptic properties. We have also been able to link sensory attributes, evaluated by human volunteers, with physicochemical characterizations. Furthermore, the in vitro ForceBoard™ method was developed further and we evaluated its potential to be used as an ex vivo method using excised skin. In addition, we have shown that that the water gradient over a biological barrier has a general relevance with respect to drug absorption and should be considered not only in dermaldrug delivery but also for buccal and nasal drug delivery.
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4.
  • Andersson, Lisa (författare)
  • Problematisk opioidanvändning : om opioidrelaterade dödsfall och LARO i södra Sverige
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Problematic opioid use constitutes an extensive global problem. Correspondingly, opioid-related mortality is high and has increased in several Western countries, including Sweden, during the 2000s. In Sweden, the most effective treatment method, opioid substitution treatment (OST), was for a long time limited with respect to the number of patients. The treatment was also characterized by strict rules and conducted in a high-threshold manner, which has meant that it has not been fully appealing to people with problematic opioid use. Therefore, in Skåne County in southern Sweden, patient choice of treatment provider was introduced for OST in 2014 with the intention to increase the number of treatment places and strengthen patient empowerment. The overall aims of this thesis are (1) to investigate opioid-related deaths in Skåne with a focus on contact with care-providing authorities and in relation to increased access to OST, and (2) to examine patients’ and clinic managers’ attitudes towards the introduction of the patient choice reform for OST and their views of the reform's objectives of increased accessibility to OST and strengthening patients' empowerment and influence over their treatment.The four papers in this thesis are based on two research projects with various empiric material. Paper I and II are based on data on opioid overdose deaths from a period of two years before and two years following the introduction of the patient choice reform. Forensic data regarding the presence of various substances and which opioid caused the death, as well as demographic data and information on contact with care-providing authorities (health care, social services, and the Prison and Probation Service), were collected. Paper I examines clinical background and contact with care-providing authorities of opioid-related fatalities, as well as differences with regard to which opioid caused the death. Paper II examines the possible impact of the intervention on the development of opioid-related deaths in the region. National mortality data were also used in this study to investigate the development in Skåne compared to the rest of Sweden. The second research project focused on stakeholders’ views on the implementation of the patient choice reform. Paper III includes interviews with 33 OST patients, and paper IV consists of interviews with the managers of all OST clinics in Skåne. The results from paper I show that of the 180 deceased in opioid overdose included in the study, almost 90 per cent had been in contact with one of the examined care-providing authorities during the year prior to death. Few differences appeared with regard to which opioid contributed to the death. Paper II indicates that there has been no significant change in opioid-related deaths in Skåne after the patient choice reform and increased access to OST. An analysis on national mortality data however showed a significant yearly decrease in drug-related deaths in Skåne compared to other Swedish counties in the years following the reform (2015–2017). No change was noted in deaths related to methadone or buprenorphine in Skåne. The proportion of deaths among patients in OST increased after the introduction of the reform. The third paper indicates that patients in OST in Skåne have gained increased empowerment and influence over their treatment since the patient choice reform was introduced. Patients especially appreciated the knowledge that they could make an exit and change clinics if they so wished, even if they so far had chosen not to. In paper IV, the clinic managers were largely positive to the trend towards increased influence for patients over their treatment situation. They were more critical of the fact that there was no major differentiation between treatment providers, and that the competition that arose after the patient choice reform mainly was related to prescribing benzodiazepines.Conclusions drawn from the papers in this thesis include that patient choice of treatment provider can be viewed as a means of empowerment for patients in OST, which was regarded as positive by both patients and treatment providers. The limitations of such a system for providing OST that emerged were lack of diversity between clinics and that the competition between treatment providers largely comprised of differing views on the prescription of benzodiazepines. Further, improved access to low-threshold OST in Skåne was not associated with an increased overdose death-rate. The result that people who died from opioid overdose to a very large extent are known to society’s care-providing authorities suggests that there are considerable opportunities to reach people with problematic opioid use for therapeutic and harm reducing measures such as low-threshold OST and take-home naloxone.
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5.
  • Bergman, Magnus, 1985- (författare)
  • Att höra det förflutna till : Adlig minneskultur och kollektiv identitet efter ståndssamhällets upplösning, 1869-1976
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Den här avhandlingen utgår från följande problemställning. Hur kunde adeln, en grupp i sådan hög grad påverkad av det äldre samhällets värld avprivilegier, börd och ståndsuppdelning, fortsätta att existera även under ochefter 1800- och 1900-talets moderna genombrott? Detta nya, framväxandesamhälles vägledande principer utgjordes ju snarare av sådant som jämlikhet, personlig förtjänst och tanken om medborgarskap, i mångt och mycket motsatsen till de ideal som tidigare varit förhärskande. I avhandlingenanläggs ett kulturhistoriskt perspektiv för att studera detta historiska problem, med utgångspunkten att det förflutna var av avgörande betydelse för att denadliga identiteten kunde upprätthållas efter ståndssamhällets upplösning. Dess syfte är att undersöka hur den svenska adelns kollektiva identitetupprätthölls och förändrades under perioden från det första adelsmötet, år 1869, till Riddarhusets 350-årsjubileeum, år 1976, genom att analysera denadliga minneskulturen. Källmaterialet som analyseras är huvudsakligenhämtat från adelns kollektiva verksamhet, i form av protokoll från periodensadelsmöten och medlemstidningen Arte et Marte. Avhandlingens teoretiska utgångspunkter är hämtade från memory studies-fältet. Avhandlingen består av tre delar, som studerar varsin aspektav den adliga minneskulturen: den performativa, den kommunikativa,respektive minneskulturens fixpunkter. Genom att analysera en rad olikafenomen relaterade till adeln, under mer än 100 år: statyer, historieböcker, jubileumsfester, privilegier, namnskyddslagar, herrgården och utdöendet avadliga ätter, undersöks gruppens minneskultur och den föränderliga adliga kollektiva identiteten
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6.
  • Boyd, Hannah, 1994- (författare)
  • On the structure and mechanical properties of in vitro salivary pellicles
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Salivary pellicles display exceptional hydration and lubrication performance. At present, there are still gaps in the understanding of how this is achieved. The aim of this thesis was therefore to increase our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying these properties and deepen the understanding of how they are related to the composition and structure of pellicles, with a focus on those formed under in vitro conditions. This has applications ranging from the development of artificial saliva and lubricating coatings for biomedical applications to methodological approaches for initial testing of oral healthcare products. For this, we also focused on developing suitable methodological approaches for these studies, centering on atomic force microscopy, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, ellipsometry and neutron reflectometry techniques, to investigate in vitro and model salivary pellicles.First, we confirmed a two-layer structure for in vitro salivary pellicles and showed that the outer layer is mainly composed by the oral mucin MUC5B, but that it also contains other salivary components that enhance swelling and hydration. In the presence of bulk saliva, the outer layer also contains a reversibly and loosely bound fraction. This fraction increases the adhesiveness of the pellicle but unexpectedly has no significant effect on its lubrication performance. We also investigated the effect of mechanical confinement on model salivary pellicles by means of Neutron Reflectometry, revealing that at a pressure of 1 bar they are already completely compressed and dehydrated. Finally, with the aim to advance towards better oral healthcare products, we investigated the effect of nonionic and amphoteric surfactants on salivary pellicles, showing that they have a gentler effect on pellicle structure than the commonly employed anionic surfactants.
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7.
  • Bugeja, Joseph (författare)
  • On Privacy and Security in Smart Connected Homes
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The growth and presence of heterogeneous sensor-equipped Internet-connected devices inside the home can increase efficiency and quality of life for the residents. Simultaneously, these devices continuously collect, process, and transmit data about the residents and their daily lifestyle activities to unknown parties outside the home. Such data can be sensitive and personal, leading to increasingly intimate insights into private lives. This data allows for the implementation of services, personalization support, and benefits offered by smart home technologies. Alas, there has been a surge of cyberattacks on connected home devices that essentially compromise privacy and security of the residents.Providing privacy and security is a critical issue in smart connected homes. Many residents are concerned about unauthorized access into their homes and about the privacy of their data. However, it is typically challenging to implement privacy and security in a smart connected home because of its heterogeneity of devices, the dynamic nature of the home network, and the fact that it is always connected to the Internet, amongst other things. As the numbers and types of smart home devices are increasing rapidly, so are the risks with these devices. Concurrently, it is also becoming increasingly challenging to gain a deeper understand- ing of the smart home. Such understanding is necessary to build a more privacy-preserving and secure smart connected home. Likewise, it is needed as a precursor to perform a comprehensive privacy and security analysis of the smart home.In this dissertation, we render a comprehensive description and account of the smart connected home that can be used for conducting risk analysis. In doing so, we organize the underlying smart home devices ac- cording to their functionality, identify their data-collecting capabilities, and survey the data types being collected by them. Such is done using the technical specification of commercial devices, including their privacy policies. This description is then leveraged for identifying threats and for analyzing risks present in smart connected homes. Such is done by analyzing both scholarly literature and examples from the industry, and leveraging formal modeling. Additionally, we identify malicious threat agents and mitigations that are relevant to smart connected homes. This is performed without limiting the research and results to a particular configuration and type of smart home.This research led to three main findings. First, the majority of the surveyed commercial devices are collecting instances of sensitive and personal data but are prone to critical vulnerabilities. Second, there is a shortage of scientific models that capture the complexity and heterogeneity of real-world smart home deployments, especially those intended for privacy risk analysis. Finally, despite the increasing regulations and attention to privacy and security, there is a lack of proactive and integrative approaches intended to safeguard privacy and security of the residents. We contributed to addressing these three findings by developing a framework and models that enable early identification of threats, better planning for risk management scenarios, and mitigation of potential impacts caused by attacks before they reach the homes and compromise the lives of the residents.Overall, the scientific contributions presented in this dissertation help deepen the understanding and reasoning about privacy and security concerns affecting smart connected homes, and contributes to advancing the research in the area of risk analysis as applied to such systems.
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8.
  • Doerr, Katherine (författare)
  • Is College Science Teaching Women's Work? : Gender Inequity in the Physical Sciences
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • After decades of virtual exclusion from participation in STEM, women have majored in, earned graduate degrees in, and forged careers in male-dominated fields such as the physical sciences in increasing numbers. At each step of the way, however, women’s participation diminishes, and this is especially apparent in the workforce. Moreover, these women are likely to be doing different work than men; that is, STEM workplaces are vertically segregated by gender, and women’s work, while important, is often lower-paid and lower-prestige than men’s work. The purpose of this research was to characterize one example of vertical segregation, teaching-intensive faculty positions in a university physical science department, and to explore how and why gender matters for the women, and men, who are on the teaching faculty. Using ethnographic methodology to trace, through their social interactions, how individuals’ experiences are shaped by institutional viii norms and ideologies, the analysis was shaped by theories of gender as a social system that works to perpetuate inequality. The teaching track is an alternative job track that allows participants to have work-life balance, which is commonly explained to be more suitable than the research track for women in science who want to have children. Concerningly, there are significant negative consequences for pursuing this track, at least for the women. Fundamental aspects of fulfilling and equitable work, such as fair pay, respect, and advancement pathways, are elusive. When women do resist or challenge their marginalization, they are met with unfair treatment and even harassment. The experience of men on teaching faculty is a sharp contrast; as men, they belong in science and this brings a default of respect as well as elevation to higher pay. Thus, the teaching faculty has an internal gender hierarchy. As such, this inquiry offers the conclusion that college science teaching is women’s work not because it offers a safe and fair space to have a career and a family, but because the neoliberal academy requires low-cost and flexible labor to carry out its teaching mission, and women are easily exploited to provide this labor. 
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9.
  • Engström, Alexander (författare)
  • Everyday life, crime, and fear of crime among adolescents and young adults
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Drawing on lifestyle-routine activity theory, this dissertation explores associations between everyday life, crime, and fear of crime among adolescents and young adults. It also examines the operationalisation of the concepts of lifestyle and routine activities, and explores the use of experience methods, via a smartphone application named STUNDA, to collect data about everyday life. Of the four studies conducted, Study I shows that different specific lifestyle measures are of varying relevance for victims, offenders, and victim-offenders, which indicates that no single universal lifestyle feature is of relevance for all outcomes studied. The findings from Study II reveal that spending time with friends in the city-centre is associated with lower levels of fear of crime across months, days, and moments. However, other associations between everyday life variables and fear of crime are inconsistent across these reference periods. Study III, a systematic review of the literature, shows that measures of lifestyle and routine activities differ in the frequency with which they are used in studies on interpersonal victimisation and offending. Illegal activities are often used as lifestyle/routine activity measures in studies on victimisation while unstructured and peer-oriented activities dominate in studies on offending. However, the measures used in the included studies are diverse, which indicates that researchers use a wide range of activities that are intended to measure lifestyle/routine activities. The final paper, Study IV, explores fear of crime in relation to moments of everyday life and finds that specific features of settings, such as being in semi-public and public spaces and on public transport, increase the odds for experiencing fear of crime.The overall conclusions of the studies point to methodological and theoretical directions for future research. First, research in the field of lifestyle-routine activity theory needs to consider specific and potentially different activities when examining victimisation, offending, and the overlap between these two outcomes. Further, fear of crime research must consider different reference periods, such as months, days and moments, since fear may not only be defined as a more stable trait-like phenomenon but also as a momentary and transitory experience in everyday life. The types of measures used to represent everyday life also require consideration, particularly in terms of the inclusion of lifestyle/routine activity measures that are actually related to criminogenic exposure. For theory more specifically, the implications of the findings point to an overall confirmation of the view that exposure to various environmental circumstances is associated with crime and fear of crime. However, across all of the studies conducted, the findings point to potential weaknesses of the theory. In particular, the lack of an elaborated perspective on individual traits and characteristics limits the explanatory scope of lifestyle-routine activity theory. For instance, people with similar lifestyles still vary in terms of their victimisation, offending, and fear of crime, which necessitates the inclusion of additional individual-level factors that could explain these variations. Future research must thus either modify lifestyle-routine activity theory or open up for other theoretical perspectives that provide a more holistic approach to understanding the role of both environ-mental and individual factors when studying everyday life, crime, and fear of crime.
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11.
  • Gunnemyr, Per (författare)
  • Den fjärde kvadrantens dilemma : Kunskapsbedömning i en föränderlig historiekultur
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this dissertation is to explore how history teachers in Swedish upper-secondary school perceive voluntary external tests in history. The study focuses on history teachers' perceptions of 1) the design of the tests, 2) the implementation of the tests, 3) the use of the tests and 4) the impact of the tests on their assessment practice. The overall aim is to investigate how historical culture, as it is expressed in the school subject of history, changes over time. The analytical focus for the study has been to explore the significance of knowledge assessment in general, and voluntary external tests in particular, for this change. The temporal focus for the study has been the 2011 Swedish school policy reforms manifested in the curriculum for upper-secondary school (Gy11).The theoretical framework combines theory of history didactics and theory of assessment. Historical culture and assessment culture are the central concepts of the study. The overall hypothesis of the study is that the relationship between the school's historical-cultural dimension and the assessment-cultural dimension contains a latent tension referred to as the dilemma of the fourth quadrant.The empirical material was collected from qualitative interviews with eight history teachers. The first sub-study included four teachers during the year 2009 who had used a voluntary external test named the History Teachers' Test (HLP). The second sub study included four teachers during the year 2016 who had used a voluntary external test named the Course Test in History (KP).The results show that history teachers perceive and handle the external tests in different ways. One possible interpretation of this difference is that the tests respond to different needs or problems. In the study, two such problem areas have emerged, the equivalence problem and the alignment problem. A conclusion based on the empirical results is that the HLP-teachers use the test results for a summative purpose to deal with an equivalence problem, while the KP-teachers use the test tools for a formative purpose to deal with an alignment problem. The results also show that there is strong a connection between the school's historical-cultural dimension and assessment-cultural dimension, manifested in the history teachers' different ways of perceiving and using voluntary external tests.
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12.
  • Hylén, Mia, 1975- (författare)
  • Pain in intensive care : assessments and patients’ experience
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the thesis was to translate, psychometrically test, and further develop the Behavioral Pain Scale for pain assessment in intensive care and to analyze if any other variables (besides the behavioral domains) could affect the pain assessments. Furthermore, the aim was to explore the patients’ experience of pain within the intensive care.The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS), consisting of the domains “facial expression,” “upper limbs,” and “compliance with ventilator/vocalization,” was translated andculturally adapted into Swedish and psychometrically tested in a sample of 20 patients(study I). The instrument was then further developed within one of the domains and tested for inter-rater reliability, discriminant validity, and criterion validity (study II). The method for analysis in both study I and II was a method specifically developed for paired, ordered, and categorical data. To describe and analyze the process of pain assessment, a General Linear Mixed Model was used to investigate what variables, besides the behaviors, could be associated with the observers’ own assessment of the patients’ pain (study III). Further, the patients’ experiences of pain when being cared for in intensive care were explored (study IV) through interviews with 16 participants post intensive care. Qualitative thematic analysis with an inductive approach was used for the analysis.The first psychometric tests of the BPS (study I) showed inter-rater reliability with agreement of 85%. For the discriminant validity, all domains, except “compliance with ventilator,” indicated discriminant validity.Therefore, in study II, a developed domain of “breathing pattern” was tested alongside the original version. The BPS showed discriminant validity for both the original and the developed version and an inter-rater reliability with agreement of 76-80%. Wheninspecting the respective domains there was a difference in discriminant validity between the original domain of “compliance with ventilation” and the developed domain of “breathing pattern,” showing higher values on the scale for the developed domain during turning. For criterion validity, the BPS showed a higher sensitivity than the observers, who on the contrary had a higher specificity.The General Linear Mix Model (study III) showed that heart rate could be associated with the observers’ assessments of pain. For the behavioral signs, the result indicated that breathing pattern was most associated with the observers’ pain assessment, whilst facial expression did not show any impact on the observers’ assessments.The patients’ experiences of pain (study IV) in intensive care were described as generating a need for control; they experienced a lack of control when pain was present and continuously struggled to regain control. The experience of pain was not only related to the physical sensation but also to psychological and social aspects, along with the balance in the care given, which was important to the participants.In conclusion, the translated and developed version of the Swedish BPS showed promising psychometric results in assessing pain in the adult intensive care patients. Still, other signs, besides behavioral, is possibly used when pain assessing and therefore information about and training in pain assessment are needed to enhance the assessments that are made. Also, the patients’ own experiences highlight the importance of individualizing and adapting pain assessment and treatment to the needs of each patient. Making them a part of the team could enhance their feeling of control, thereby supporting them in facing the experience of pain.
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13.
  • Incel, Anil (författare)
  • Amino acid sequence and side chain specific synthetic receptors targeting protein phosphorylation
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Antibodies have become a critical component of many diagnostic assays and are used for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless they often fail to meet the strict performance demands raised in industry and in the clinic (e.g. stability, reproducibility, selectivity, affinity). These issues are especially notable for assays targeting post translational modifications (PTM) of proteins (phosphorylation, glycosylation, sulfation etc.). Antibody-based technologies suffer from problems of a more general nature associated with the analytical use of biological receptors i.e.: i) limited stability requiring cold chain logistics, ii) high production costs, iii) batch to batch variability. The above emphasizes the need for alternative robust, reproducible and low cost “binders” and assays. The aim in this thesis is to design, develop and test molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) which were synthesized epitope and stoichiometric imprinting approaches targeting phosphorylation as a PTM. Protein phosphorylationis one of the most common PTM, which is based on covalent attachment of phosphate group to particular amino acids. Misregulation of phosphorylation process is found related with diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. MIPs are synthesized through copolymerization of functional monomers and crosslinkers in the presence of N- and C- terminal protected templates. The key recognition element employed in developed synthetic receptors was 1,3-diaryl urea functionalmonomer 1. This monomer is a potent hydrogen bond donor forming strong cyclichydrogen bonds with oxyanions. Amino acid sequence specific and side chain imprinted binders were prepared targeting phosphorylation on tyrosine (pTyr) and on histidine (pHis). pHis MIP-based approach is proposed as a solution to enrich pHis peptides in the presence of other phosphoesters such as phosphoserine (pSer) in complex mixture without pre-treatment like β-elimination. In pTyr, ZAP-70 (zeta associated 70 kDa protein), which is prognosticator for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and pTyr-sequence specific motif Src-SH2 domain were chosen as targets to evaluate regio- or stoichiometric selectivity performance of imprinted polymers. The synthesized polymers are used as effective enrichment tools for target phosphorylated peptides from complex mixture prior to mass spectrometry. Overall, the results demonstrate unique proteomics enrichment tools that link with personalized medicine relying on diagnostic coupled cancer treatment strategies based on kinase inhibitors.
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14.
  • Jankovskaja, Skaidre (författare)
  • Non-invasive monitoring of low molecular weight biomarkers relevant to skin inflammation and cancer
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Development of skin inflammation and cancer in viable epidermis and dermis involve slow molecular weight (LMW) metabolites. We hypothesize that these LMW compounds can be collected on the surface of the skin and used for non-invasive diagnostics of skin disorders. Keeping in mind that substantial transdermal penetrationis achieved only for molecules of < 500 Da, we focused on topical monitoring of LMW biomarkers. In this thesis we investigated non-invasive, topical methods for monitoring LMW biomarkers by relevant in vitro and in vivo experiments. The LMW biomarkers were:- reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically, hydrogen peroxide, H2O2- amino acids and their derivatives, i.e., tryptophan (Trp), kynurenine (Kyn; a Trpderivative), phenylalanine (Phe), and tyrosine (Tyr; a Phe derivative).Initially, we have carried out in vitro experiments using dermatomed porcine skin and cell cultures. We characterized permeability of the biomarkers through skin and assessed methods of their monitoring. By using Prussian white particles, deposited on porcine skin, we demonstrated that hydrophilic biomarkers, such as H2O2, permeate the skin mainly through hair follicle pathways (Paper I). In paper II, we have showed that the enzymes transforming Trp to the inflammation and cancer biomarker Kyn, are expressed in the basal layer of epidermis. The magnitude of changes of the Trp/Kyn ratio in the cell culture model was assessed. In paper III, we have characterized Trp and Kyn permeability through skin in vitro, concluding that their permeabilities through stratum corneum are comparable. By in vivo experiments outlined in Paper IV, we have demonstrated the feasibility of topical, non-invasive sampling of Trp and Kyn, in relation to other amino acids. Kyn detection was compromised by its low abundance on the skin. In paper V, we performed a proof-of-concept study in vivo and confirmed that non-invasive sampling of Trp and amino acids of similar abundance, such as Phe and Tyr, is more robust. We concluded that Phe/Trp ratio might be equally good biomarker of skin disorders as a predicted Trp/Kyn ratio. Summarizing, the results of this thesis provide basic knowledge for deeper clinical studies of non-invasive, topical sampling of hydrophilic LMW biomarkers of skin inflammation and cancer.
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15.
  • Kallunki, Jenny, 1978- (författare)
  • Early Treatment of Class II Malocclusion With Excessive Overjet : evaluating oral health-related quality of life, randomised controlled trials on headgear activator treatment and costs
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Class II malocclusion with excessive overjet is one of the most common malocclusions among children and adolescents. In addition to increasing the risk for dental trauma, the malocclusion can also be related to bullying due to the prominent maxillary incisors. The treatment for a Class II malocclusion can be initiated at different ages and with different treatment strategies, but the treatment timing has often been, and still is, discussed within the orthodontic profession and literature. Research reports that an early treatment approach, initiated in mixed dentition and often including an additional phase of treatment in permanent dentition, reduces the incidence of dental trauma. Otherwise, no differences in treatment effects have yet been seen between treatment that is started early in mixed dentition or treatment initiated later in permanent dentition. During the last decades, there has been an increased focus on patient-reported outcomes within orthodontic research. The patient perspective and economic evaluations of performed treatment are areas where knowledge gaps can be found in the available research. This thesis is based on four studies. The studies were designed with high level of methodology and validity as a priority and with the objective to identify and address knowledge gaps related to the impact of Class II malocclusion with excessive overjet and a subsequent early treatment with headgear activator. Firstly, a systematic review addressing treatment effects was performed. This was followed by the implementation of two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with the aims to evaluate treatment effects and self-perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as well as the cost associated with treatment. In addition, a clinical controlled trial was performed to assess the self-perceived OHRQoL for children with Class II malocclusion with excessive overjet, and compare to children with unilateral posterior crossbite or normal occlusion with no or mild orthodontic treatment need.  The papers referred to in this thesis:  Paper I. A systematic literature review performed to evaluate the evidence supporting early treatment (before the age of 10) of Class II malocclusion. The search included four data bases and spanned from January 1960 to October 2017.  Paper II. A clinical controlled multicenter trial with the objective to investigate the OHRQoL among 9-year-old children in mixed dentition and to compare the self-perceived OHRQoL by the use of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ). Evaluation and comparisons were made for children with Class II malocclusion with excessive overjet (EO), children with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPC), and children with normal occlusion (NO) presenting with no or mild orthodontic treatment need.  The sample consisted of 229 children, sourced from 19 Public Dental Service Clinics in Sweden and covering a range of demographic areas.A single centre RCT designed to evaluate the effects of headgear activator treatment and the associated costs forms the basis of the final two papers: Paper III. The effects of early headgear activator treatment was compared to an untreated control group. The sample consisted of 60 children presenting with a Class II malocclusion with excessive overjet. Primary outcome was the reduction of overjet and overbite as well as effects regarding oral health-related quality of life, lip closure, incidence of trauma, and skeletal changes.Paper IV. The costs and treatment effects of headgear activator treatment started in the mixed or late mixed dentition was registered and compared. The sample consisted of 51 children starting treatment at 9 or 11 years of age. The primary outcome measure was comparison of the treatment costs between the two groups. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of oral health-related quality of life, dental and skeletal treatment effects, lip closure, and trauma incidence. The following conclusions were drawn: There is medium to high level of evidence, depending on treatment appliance, that early treatment reduces overjet and improves antero-posterior skeletal relationship, but currently, insufficient evidence is available regarding the effects of early treatment on OHRQoL, incidence of trauma, soft tissue profile, or treatment-related costs. There is a knowledge gap with respect to long-term outcome and the stability of early treatment.Children with Class II malocclusion with excessive overjet report significantly lower self-perceived OHRQoL compared to children with unilateral posterior crossbite or normal occlusion, with the domains of social and emotional well-being being most affected. The children in all three groups reported generally low CPQ scores, which implies an overall fairly good self-perceived OHRQoL.Early treatment with headgear activator was successful in reducing overjet and correcting molar relationship. Early treatment did not result in any significant difference regarding self-reported OHRQoL, lip closure, or incidence of trauma when compared to the untreated control group.The costs associated with headgear activator treatment, as well as the treatment effects, were equivalent regardless of whether treatment was started at 9 or 11 years of age. The most pronounced treatment effects were reduction of overjet and correction of molar relationship, whereas the treatment effects regarding OHRQoL, lip closure, and trauma incidences were found to be modest.With costs and treatment effects being equivalent, an early treatment approach can be advocated to enhance trauma prevention.
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16.
  • Lembrér, Dorota, 1979- (författare)
  • Sociocultural influences on parents’ views about mathematics education for young children
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis investigates parents’ views on mathematics education for young children at home and in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) institutions in Sweden and Norway. The curricula documents for ECEC highlight the importance of collaboration between teachers and parents for children’s learning and development. However, the views of parents on the education of young children are seldom explored in research. The assumption that parents and other family members can contribute to children’s mathematics education is a fundamental assumption in the current project. The narratives of parents of their experiences with young children in mathematics education were analysed to identify answers to the following overarching research questions. how can parents’ views on mathematics activities for young children be identified? what do parents’ value in mathematics education for young children? and what might influence parents’ views on mathematics education? Parents’ views were investigated by collecting data from online surveys of Polish parents living in Sweden and through photo-elicitation focus group interviews with Norwegian parents. The narratives that were produced from these two data collections provided different insights into parents’ views on mathematics education for young children which have to do with the relationship between parents’ individual views and wider societal views. The findings indicate that counting was viewed as important for young children, and everyday life experiences were considered an appropriate means of introducing them to mathematical ideas. Many of the parents emphasised their role in children’s mathematics learning and its impact on how the children engaged with mathematics at home. The findings also indicate that parents’ views on mathematics education are influenced by wider societal expectations connected to ECEC pedagogical practices in mathematics education. The implications of this research include an understanding of the kinds of opportunities there are for parents to contribute to the introduction of mathematics education to ECEC. Nevertheless, the research results also show that collaboration vibetween parents and teachers can be challenging because of the different nature of their roles. Consequently, one outcome of this research is the identification of a need for further research into the complexity of collaboration as this relates to the negotiation of different understandings of pedagogy, mathematics and roles and responsibilities in children’s learning of mathematics.
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17.
  • Lidström, Isak, 1988- (författare)
  • På skidor i kulturella gränsland : Samiska spår i skidsportens historia
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this compilation thesis is to shed light on the Sámi history of ski sport in Sweden from an organizational and cultural history perspective where concepts like nation and ethnicity fill an important function. The Sámi are an indigenous people living in Sápmi, a land area extending across the North Calotte region and including parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. The thesis contains six separate articles which together comprise a research period extending between 1879 and 1990.  The articles have been studied from different points of view with the focus on how skis as sport equipment have been historically charged with cultural expressions created by the individual skiers as well as by the general public’s interest in skiing. These cultural expressions have also been internalized as collective identification objects positioning the mutual relations between groups and collectives. By historical links to kings, heroic myths and polar expeditions, the sport of skiing has, for example, become associated with a national Swedish identity. By pinpointing its Sámi origins in the light of history, the ski sport is in this thesis instead viewed as a culturally heterogeneous phenomenon.    In three of the articles of the thesis, the Sámi history of Swedish ski sport is studied. The focus of these studies lies on how ”Sáminess” and ”Swedishness”, viewed as cultural identities, were constructed in connection with the early rise and development of ski sport from the late 19th century to the interwar period (Articles I and II) as well as with the sporting career of downhill skier Bengt-Erik Grahn in the 1960s (Article V). The studies illustrate that, at its rise and early development, cross-country skiing in Sweden was regarded as a Sámi sport. In the early 20th century, however, an ethnic borderline was created between what was Sámi and what was Swedish, which gradually invisibilized the Sámi link to ski sport. Instead, cross-country skiing acquired the inofficial character of being the Swedish national sport. The three remaining studies investigate the separately organized Sámi sport movement from its rise in 1948 through the year 1990 (Articles III, IV and VI). The origin of this movement derives from the Sámi Championships, a winter event whose original contests include skiing and other sports with a background in reindeer husbandry.  The articles clarify the importance of ski sport in creating contrastive ethnic identities between Sáminess and Swedishness (Articles I–V). Similarly, these constructed cultural markers of Sáminess and Swedishness have been interwoven to symbolize an overarching ethnic national identity (Articles IV–V). In addition, the way ski sport has been operated within the separately organized Sámi sport movement has carried weight in the creation of Sápmi as a crossborder nation (Article VI).  
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18.
  • Mashreghi, Sepandarmaz (författare)
  • Decolonial re-existence and sports : stories of Afghan youth in Sweden
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the context of sports and migration, research within policy-driven themes (i.e., integration) have consistently flattened out the migrants’ experiences, meanings and understandings of sports and physical activity to make sense for and from Euro-centric perspectives and framings. Thus, muting other relevant, alternative and already existing ways of living sports and physical activity. Critical sports studies, on the other hand, have demonstrated that sports (and physical activity) remain a contested domain where various human experiences are negotiated and remade along the intersecting lines of class, gender, sexuality, race, ethnicity, legal status and (dis)ability. The aim in this study has been to work within a decolonial framework to demonstrate how migrant youth in Sweden navigate, experience, challenge and generate knowledge in relation to physical activity and sports.Doing decolonial research in sports studies means delinking from Eurocentric thought and epistemology in order to uncover alternative forms of physical culture and practice that generate different meanings to that of the (Western) hegemonic discourse. To do this, we, the youth and I, have worked and researched together within the framework of participatory art-based action research and our shared Khorasani epistemology. This means that the coresearchers have been active participants in generating research material, analysing the material and disseminating the generated knowledge.  Grounded in Indigenous, borderland, Chicana and Black feminist knowldeges as well decolonial thought, this thesis contributes both theoretically and methodologically to the field of sport and exercise in relation to young asylum seekers and migration research. The participatory analysis demonstrates that for the Afghan youth in this study sport and physical activity was not a distinct entity, rather it was intertwined with various aspects of their lives, such as their experiences of child labour, pleasures, hopes for the future, leisure, social and mental aspects, and migration experiences. Furthermore, the youth revealed that despite various forms of oppression, trauma and hardship, they constantly returned, or rather, reclaimed life and future in their acts of self-reflection, friendship, love and hope within the context of sport and life. They, thus, moved beyond the mere resistance of the precarities in their lives to bring about a re-existence. The findings of this thesis also highlight the affordances and limitations of participatory methods, art-based research and decolonising work. Although the participatory methods grounded in the epistemology of the youth (and myself), allowed us to reclaim and tell our stories in our ways, they fell short in making lasting systemic transformations. These limitations also give rise to new questions and possibilities for future research in relation to how change and transformation are defined and researched; and whether these definitions are somewhat limiting and influenced by the colonial rhetoric of salvation underlining participatory action research basic principles of empowerment and critical consciousness. 
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19.
  • Mavliutova, Liliia (författare)
  • Moleculary imprinted micro- and nanoparticles for cancer associated glycan motifs
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sialic acids are an important family of monosaccharides that are typically found as terminal moieties of glycans. Aberrant sialylation has been proven to correlate with various diseases including cancer. Glycosylation analysis is complex due to high diversityof the glycan isomers and their low abundance. Antibodies and lectins are commonly used in glycan purification and enrichment. However, high cost, poor availability, and limitation in storage/testing conditions hinders their application on a broader scale. This thesis is focused on the development of alternative glycan specific receptors with their potential applications in glycomics and cell imaging. The underlying technique for producing the synthetic receptors is molecular imprinting. Highly complementary binding sites are formed by fixing pre-ordered template/functional monomer complexes into a highly crosslinked polymer matrix. Fundamental investigation of this intermolecular imprinting approach in the imprinting of glycosylated targets is reported here. The core of this study focuses on the elucidation of relative contribution of orthogonally interacting functional monomers, their structural tuning and the importance of monomer, solvent and counterion choice on the imprinting. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are developed as particles of different sizes for glycan/glycopeptide enrichment applications or combined with fluorescent reportergroups for use as glycan imaging nanolabels. Special attention is given to the improvement of sialic acid MIP selectivities toward particular structures associated with cancer biomarkers. Development of MIPs against such complex targets includes design of linkage selective MIPs with comprehensive studies of the affinities and selectivities of the final glycan specific materials.
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20.
  • Morin, Maxim (författare)
  • Biophysical aspects of the skin barrier : towards increased non-invasive extraction and optimized biomarker sampling
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The skin provides a link to the body’s health via its rich variety of high and low molecular weight biomarkers, reflecting both systemic diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes) and local skin disorders (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis). Non-invasive monitoring of disease-specific biomarkers on the skin surface provides a highly attractive diagnostic procedure as alternative to current practices that normally are biopsy-based and invasive. In order to succeed with non-invasive topical diagnostics, the sampling of biomarkers should proceed in a highly accurate and reproducible manner. Further, a major challenge to achieve this goal is to overcome the outermost skin layer (the stratum corneum, SC) that acts as a remarkable permeability barrier, restricting molecular diffusion in and out of our body, including diffusion of potential biomarkers.The primary aim of this thesis is to achieve an optimized and reproducible noninvasive sampling of endogenous biomarkers from the skin surface. Here, water plays a crucial role as the hydration degree of the SC has a strong influence on the diffusion of molecules across the skin barrier. In particular, fully hydrated skin is expected to be optimal for increased diffusion of biomarkers in the skin tissue, favoring efficient extraction.Considering this, to develop a suitable sampling matrix for non-invasive extraction, it is very important to optimize the matrix so that it has a good ability to hydrate the skin as well as a high capacity to absorb the biomarker and finally allow for analytic quantification. The main questions in this thesis are as follows. (i) How long time does it take to reach a stable level of skin hydration? (ii) How do the intrinsic properties of sampling matrices influence the extraction of biomarkers? (iii) What are the effects of the sampling matrices on the biophysical properties of the skin barrier?(iv) Are hydrogels and bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals suitable matrices for noninvasive sampling of endogenous biomarkers? (v) Is reverse iontophoresis a suitable technique to further enhance the extraction endogenous biomarkers?The hydration of the skin is investigated in vivo and in vitro in order to estimate the time to reach stable hydration level. We show that skin hydration proceeds in two distinct stages with different rates of change of the electrical impedance response and conclude that stable conditions are obtained approximately after 60 min of hydration. We explore the novel approach of using lipid-based bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phases as matrices for non-invasive sampling of biomarkers in vivo and invitro and compare them with hydrogel-based materials.From these investigations, we conclude that both kind of materials show promising capacity of hydrating the skin and collect skin-derived biomarkers. However, the cubic phases are shown to havea bout twice as high extraction capacity, as compared to hydrogels. Further, we show that reverse iontophoresis enhances extraction of a potential cancer biomarker in vitro by at least an order of magnitude, as compared to passive diffusion. Taken together, the results obtained in this thesis can serve as a point-of-departure for future applications based on non-invasive sampling of disease-related biomarkers from skinin clinical diagnostics.
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21.
  • Möller, Per, 1978- (författare)
  • Kulturstad/Stadskultur : Idéer om kulturens värden i Malmös stadsomvandling 1990–2012
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation critically explores ideas about values of culture within the context of Malmö’s urban renewal (1990–2012). The story of Malmö’s development is typical of narratives about contemporary urban regeneration processes: Malmö is depicted as a crisis-ridden former industrial town which, through private and public efforts, is transformed into a dynamic urban centre within a knowledge-based, creative economy. This dissertation’s analytical framework focuses on how municipal texts and policy documents are imbricated in ideological meaning-production, particularly regarding the role of culture within the context of urban development. The analysis therefore approaches the field of cultural policy, where two complementary understandings of this field are utilized: the traditional, nominal sense, in which cultural affairs are explicitly addressed on the (local) state level; and a broadened sense, as an arena where implicit cultural policy-making happens via debates about the social and developmental value of culture. This holistic framework is developed through an analysis of rich empirical material (including texts and policy documents originating from both the explicit and implicit conceptualizations of cultural policy) emphasizing its role in the ideological meaning-production around Malmö’s redevelopment.The dissertation demonstrates that the ideas about values of culture within this context have not only been myriad, but have also been largely ambiguous. While some ideas took shape via consensus between different agents and political fields, other ideas were more contradictory, and instead expressed conflicting notions about what culture is, why it is valuable, and in which ways it might function as a resource in the city’s regeneration. This can be seen particularly in the shifting ways culture is characterized as valuable for both increased social welfare and for increased economic growth, which in the analysis is highlighted as part of wider-reaching patterns of ideological consensus as well as conflict within the urban regeneration process.
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22.
  • Naraghi, Sasan (författare)
  • Stability of aligned maxillary anterior teeth after orthodontic treatment : amount of changes with different retention methods and without retention
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Well-aligned anterior teeth are the major reason for the patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and keeping teeth aligned and stable afterwards is a goal for the orthodontist and the patient. Relapse after treatment is a common problem, and it is defined as when teeth go back to their previous positions. Removable or fixed retainers have been used to avoid relapse after treatment. It has been common practice to use removable retention to retain anterior teeth in the maxilla. However, in recent decades, it has become increasingly common to retain with bonded retainers.Almost all previous studies on retention devices in the maxilla were based on removable retainers. Consequently, there existed knowledge gaps and lack of short-term and long-term studies on the capability to maintain the stability of the maxillary anterior teeth with bonded retainers. Hence, the reason for the papers in this study. In addition, it is not known if retentionis needed in all orthodontic patients or if there are patients, based on their initial malocclusion and individual variations, who may not need retention after treatment.The research questions addressed in this thesis thus originate from knowledgegaps and clinical needs concerning retention strategies after orthodontic treatments. To provide strong clinical evidence, randomised controlled trials (RCT) as well as intention to treat (ITT) methodology has been assessed. The results are expected to be beneficial for the patients who will be offered the most effective retention strategy for maxillary anterior teeth based on patients’ preferences.In Paper I and II, 45 and 27 adolescents’ patients were collected from the Orthodontic Clinic in Mariestad, Sweden. At the time when Paper Iand II were conducted, there were no studies that had evaluated the longterm effect of bonded retainers in the maxilla. In two RCTs, Paper III and IV, 90 and 63 adolescents’ patients were collected from the Orthodontic Clinic in Växjö, Region Kronoberg, Sweden.Paper I: The aim was to investigate the amount and pattern of relapse of maxillary anterior teeth previously retained with a bonded retainer.Paper II: The aim was to investigate the amount and pattern of changes of maxillary anterior teeth seven years post-retention, which previously were retained with a bonded retainer.Paper III: The aim was to evaluate post-treatment changes in the irregularity of the maxillary six anterior teeth and single tooth Contact Point Discrepancy (CPD) of three different retention methods.Paper IV: The aim was to evaluate whether retention is needed after orthodontic treatment for impacted maxillary canines and with moderate pre-treatment irregularity in the maxilla.Key findings in Paper I• The contact relationship between the laterals and the centrals is the most unstable   contact. Canines are the most stable teeth.• There was no difference in the relapse pattern between rotational displacements and labiolingual displacement.Key findings in Paper II• There was a strong correlation between irregularity at one- and seven-years post-retention. Stable cases one-year post-retention were stable and unstable cases deteriorated with time.Key findings in Paper III• All three retention methods showed equally effective retention capacity and all the changes found in the three groups were small and considered clinically insignificant. Thus, the null hypothesis was confirmed. All three methods can be recommended.Key findings in Paper IV• Changes between the retention and the non-retention group were statistically but not clinically significant. Since satisfactory clinical results one-year post-treatment were found in the non-retention group, retention does not appear always to be needed.• Most of the changes occur within the first 10-week period after treatment with no retention.Key conclusions and clinical implicationsBoth removable and bonded retainers are effective for holding teeth inposition and can be used for preventing the relapse. It can be enough toretain with bonded retainer 12-22 instead of 13-23. It might be possibleto avoid retention in selected cases in the short-term, but a longer evaluationperiod is needed.
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23.
  • Weber, Magnus (författare)
  • Religion as a lifeworld : an alternative to secularist concept of religion in social work
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The discourse on religious extremism and jihadism has stimulated deep interest in religion as a factor in social problems. So have other religion-related issues such as honour-related violence, migration and integration, and female circumcision. Given that social workers are often mentioned as pivotal actors when it comes to preventing and working long-term with extremism, radicalisation, and related issues, religion has acquired increased visibility in social work. This has reinvigorated discourse on religion within social work practice, policy and research.This dissertation attempts to grapple with and theorise about the implications of this new visibility of religion in social work. Its starting point is an analysis of the tacit assumptions about religion revealed in interviews with practitioners in the field of preventing violent extremism and promoting democracy. Genealogical analysis then contextualises these tacit, secular assumptions in a historical, philosophical and theological setting, so denaturalising them. This work clears the way for developing a new and innovative path that holds promise for more productive work in relation to religious social problems.The main argument in this dissertation is that a secularist concept of religion falls short when doing social work with religious citizens. This is because a secularist concept of religion regards religion either as a set of doctrines or teachings or as purely subjective and emotional. Practitioners who take the former position often try to disprove specific doctrines, as if doctrines produce religious extremists. Practitioners who adopt the latter position try to change the inner inclinations of the subjects from, say, an extremist disposition to a democratic one, or from radical Islam to ‘mainstream’ Islam. Both approaches are inadequate because by depriving religion of its bodily and institutional setting, religion is reduced solely to its intellectual or emotional elements, while overlooking its practical, social, institutional and embodied aspects.The alternative conceptualisation of religion proposed in this dissertation is rooted in phenomenology. If religion is conceived of as a horizon of meaning that precedes and supersedes individual choice and preference, while simultaneously being construed as contextual and open to reinterpretation, encounters between social workers and religious clients can be guided by openness, interest and curiosity, even reconciliation. Change could, then, be achieved from within the clients’ lifeworld, rather than through confrontation and the advocating of drastic alternatives to their present lifeworld. Such an approach to social work with religious clients is likely to be more successful than one rooted in a much narrower understandings of religion.
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24.
  • Wilinger, Henriikka, 1974- (författare)
  • Att bli en på svenska läsande människa? : Flerspråkiga högutbildade vuxnas skönlitterära läspraktiker
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation explores how and why adult migrants with academic backgrounds read literature. Two connected studies investigate second language learners' fiction reading practices in an advanced Swedish course at two universities, as well as in free time, several years after such a course. The method is qualitative, and the data consists of syllabuses, observations of an oral exam, as well as interviews with teachers, students, and multilingual individuals living in Sweden permanently. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the thesis, the data is analyzed with a  broad variety of theoretical tools, based on three cornerstones: literary education, second language learning and sociolinguistics.The study shows that the individuals possess a great deal of resources in terms of cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1977) and literature reading. This is especially true for Eastern European students, who carry a lot of literary performance competence (Torell, 2002), including knowledge of literary canon. Overall, the multilingual academics have been socialized into fiction reading from a young age. Part I, concerning the educational context, shows that reading in Swedish, however, has been insufficient prior to the course. Therefore, the course seems to play an important role in increasing the habit of reading in Swedish, not to mention increasing linguistic self-esteem.Reading is often legititnized by sociocultural reasons, mainly as a source of cultural knowledge (Felsk.i, 2008), but there is alsoa desire to experience the Swedish culture from the inside. The students suggest that literature can be experienced as a fonn of integration, since it makes you a part of the Swedish population that reads. However, this has more to do with social and cultural practices than being assimilated to become a "Swede". The migrants read in Swedish, or want to read in Swedish, because they already are "readers". The results indicate that the main contribution of fiction reading in advanced Swedish courses is to introduce the option of becoming a person who (also) reads in Swedish. According to me, becoming a "Swedish reader", a person that reads in Swedish that is, means being yourself, with maintained cultural capital and literary identity, even in the new cultural and linguistic context.ln addition, language learning is considered important, when reading literature in a foreign language. The students tend to stress explicit language skills such as vocabulary learning, whereas the teachers emphasize metalinguistic skills and abstract second language use. The results imply that the multilinguals find it easier to use CALP, cognitive and academic language proficiency (Cummins, 1981) than BICS, basic  interpersonal communication skills. This supports the idea that CUP, common underlaying proficiency (Cummins, 2000), as well as critical literacy (Janks, 2013), can be transferred from one language to another. Thus, most of the highly educated students use abstract and metacognitive skills in literature discussions at an advanced level. This leads to the conclusion that advanced skills in literature reading, language learning strategies, and metacognition are not a result of this course but originate from previous contexts. Moreover, interviews show that the highly educated readers do not only combine analytical and emotional reading, but often read with a focus on language matters, without disturbing the creative reading (Persson, 2007).Part Il shows that the multilingual readers' literary practices in their free time are as dynamic and diverse as adult multilingualism itself (Cenoz, 2017). Some of the migrants have grown up with two languages, some speak three or four languages, and one speaks - and reads in -five languages. The infonnants carry cultural capital but also a literary identity that they bring into the new linguistic and cultural context They do not read in Swedish exclusively; as a matter of fact, they often alternate between different reading languages in their repertoire. Sometimes Swedish is not included among their reading languages, due to the number of other possible reading languages. In some cases, the identity positioning as a reader does not correspond with their present reading  habits. Still, the cultural capital from former contexts is supplemented  by knowledge and experience of Swedish  literature. I claim that this could be called having a literary multilingual  identity. An essential  result of the study is that most  of the  migrants consider  reading in Swedish an  opportunity for wider options of social and cultural practices. These practices are not imposed by society (Pavlenko & Blackledge, 2004) but negotiable. Suggested further research topics are related to different perspectives on underused resources of multilingual adults, especially those who carry a high cultural capital. This applies to the literature education field as well as to sociolinguistics, and includes topics such as integration, identity, and language use.
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25.
  • Yarova, Aliona (författare)
  • Narrating Humanity : Children's Literature and Global Citizenship Education
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to explore how children’s magic realist fiction contributes to critical Global Citizenship Education (GCE). This study argues that children’s magic realist literature can facilitate young readers’ knowledge and understanding of human rights issues and promote environmental awareness in a non-didactic manner by representing global issues from non-human perspectives. The thesis comprises four articles.The first study explores the non-human perspective of an animalhuman ‘cyborg’ protagonist in Peter Dickinson’s novel Eva (1988). The study shows how the non-human perspective allows the reader to go beyond anthropocentric boundaries in order to explore the issue of treating the other.The second study investigates an animal perspective on the Roma genocide along with the mistreatment of animals in the Second World War in Sonya Hartnett’s The Midnight Zoo (2010). The animal perspective shows human intolerance of other humans (the Roma) intertwined with human actions towards animals and encourages the reader in a non-didactic way to adopt an eco-philosophical standpoint.The third study is concerned with the representation of the Holocaust from the point of view of a supernatural narrator, Death, in Marcus Zusak’s The Book Thief (2005). Death’s inverted magic realist narrative facilitates the young reader’s understanding of human rights issues and represents the history of the genocide in a non-didactic manner.The fourth study examines the relationships between humans and the natural environment shown from the non-human perspective of a tree. Taking the lens of holistic ecology, this study explores the representation of human – nature relationships in Patrick Ness’s A Monster Calls (2011) and how the novel guides the child-reader towards an awareness of environmental issues.
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26.
  • Zhang, Yuecheng (författare)
  • Glycosylation in cancer and infection : the role of sialic acid
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sialic acids (SA), a group of nine-carbon backbone monosaccharides are abundantly expressed in vertebrates. They are usually linked to the terminal of glycan chains and play crucial roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell interactions, immune modulation, cancer cell migration and invasion, as well as viral infections. To analyze and monitor SA expression, antibodies and glycan-binding lectins are typically used. However, high costs and poor stability limit the application in SA analysis. To overcome these drawbacks, an imprinting technique was used to synthesize an alternative SA receptor – SA molecularly imprinted polymers (SA-MIPs). Fluorescent molecules are embedded into the MIPs, facilitating the detection of MIPs binding to cells by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Firstly, core-shell SA imprinted MIPs were used to analyze SA expression in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. The SA expression of these cell lines was also tested by using the two glycan-binding lectins, MAL andSNA, which recognize α2,3 and α2,6 SA, respectively. Our results show that breast cancer cell lines express α2,3 and α2,6 SA dissimilarly, and hence present different SA-MIP binding patterns. The specificity of SA-MIPs was further verified by an inhibition assay using two pentavalent SA conjugates that interfere with the SAMIPs.Furthermore, the SA-MIP synthesis protocol has been improved by using silica-coated polystyrene particles. The polystyrene core particles are lighter and smaller, increasing MIP suspensibility and augmenting MIP-cancer cell interactions. The cancer cell binding properties and the specificity have been verified by using thirteen different cancer cell lines, showing that the SA-MIPs can be used as effective tools for SA expression analysis. The SA-MIPs were used to analyze the SA expression of in vitro cultured cells treated with soluble cytokines to mimic the tumor microenvironment. The SA expression of two cancer cell lines stimulated with soluble cytokines was analyzed by using lectins and SA-MIPs. The MIPbinding data correlated well with lectin staining results, demonstrating the potential of SA-MIPs to be used in the analysis of overexpressed SA in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, the involvement of SA in the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was assessed. The viral surface receptor-binding domain (RBD) recognizes and conjugates with receptors on host cells, triggering the infection. Although the interaction between the RBD and host cells has been extensively studied, the mechanism behind this reaction is not fully determined. In this study, the interaction between the viral RBD and a panel of human cell lines from tissues susceptible to viral infection was tested. Moreover, the role of SA in this interaction has also been tested and evaluated.
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