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Sökning: mat:dok lärosäte:mau år:(2022)

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1.
  • Alvarez, Alberto, 1992- (författare)
  • Exploring Game Design through Human-AI Collaboration
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Game design is a hard and multi-faceted task that intertwines different gameplay mechanics, audio, level, graphic, and narrative facets. Games' facets are developed in conjunction with others with a common goal that makes games coherent and interesting. These combinations result in plenty of games in diverse genres, which usually require a collaboration of a diverse group of designers. Collaborators can take different roles and support each other with their strengths resulting in games with unique characteristics. The multi-faceted nature of games and their collaborative properties and requirements make it an exciting task to use Artificial Intelligence (AI). The generation of these facets together requires a holistic approach, which is one of the most challenging tasks within computational creativity. Given the collaborative aspect of games, this thesis approaches their generation through Human-AI collaboration, specifically using a mixed-initiative co-creative (MI-CC) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive and collaborative scenario that leverages AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges, such as Human and AI goal alignment or competing properties.In this thesis, game design and the generation of game facets by themselves and intertwined are explored through Human-AI collaboration. The AI takes a colleague's role with the designer, arising multiple dynamics, challenges, and opportunities. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated into systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, and reducing workload. The challenges and opportunities that arise from this are explored, discussed, and approached throughout the thesis. As a result, multiple approaches and methods such as quality-diversity algorithms and designer modeling are proposed to generate game facets in tandem with humans, create a better workflow, enhance the interaction, and establish adaptive experiences.
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2.
  • Berg, John, 1989- (författare)
  • Den utställda idrotten : idrott som kulturarv på idrottsmuseer i Sverige
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the heritagisation of Swedish sports, which is examined through studies of five Swedish sports museums of today. Additionally, the disseration explores the heritagisation of Swedish sports in a wider historical perspective, mainly focusing on the years between 1900 and 2000. There are plenty of sports museums in Sweden today, most of them run by amateurs related to sports history associations. The number of sports museums seem to have increased from the 1980’s, a development that can be seen in relation to a wider interest in heritage, especially heritage produced by amateurs and enthusiasts rather than experts. In the study, this tendency is referred to as “the heritage boom”, a term coined by archeologist Rodney Harrison. Heritage is seen as a both social and material construction which on one hand is determined by language, on the other hand by structural circumstances. When analysing heritage making on sports museums of today, categories such as gender, class, nation and generation have been used. Methodologically, archive studies have been conducted in order to study the heritagisation from a historical perspective, and ethnographic methods such as descriptions and interviews have been used to collect material in sports museums of today. All material have mainly been interpreted through discourse analysis. The results show that the heritagisation of Swedish sports is as old as the organized sports in Sweden, since the first attempts to collect and exhibit the heritage was conducted in the early 1900s. However, despite numerous attempts, the sports heritage have had problems finding ways to be consistent until the very last few decades when the amateur-based heritage production have had its glory days. According to changes within museology and visitor interactment, the future for the Swedish sports heritage is difficult to predict. In the sports museums of today, exhibitions are generally focused on men’s sports, although changes seem to be in the making. Apart from that, there are several differences in how the sports museums constructs generation, class and nation, often depending on how the museums are managed.
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3.
  • Bogdanova, Ekaterina, 1989- (författare)
  • Effect of water on the glass transition and properties of solid-state pharmaceutical formulations
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis was to increase our knowledge of the glassy state and the glass transition phenomenon and to evaluate the effect of water on the glassy state. To accomplish this, investigations were focused on the amorphous sucrose-water (paper I, II, III), trehalose-water (paper I), maltodextrin-water (paper I), and lysozyme-sucrose-water (paper IV) systems.We studied temperature-induced and isothermal glass transition (I, II, III, IV), as well as the impact of water on the activation energy of the relaxation process (II). It has been shown that water undergoes glass transition with disaccharides, but in polysaccharides water dynamics is uncoupled from the polymer matrix. This results in differences in the water diffusion coefficient: water moves several orders of magnitude faster in the polymers than in disaccharides (I). Water reduces the activation energy of the relaxation process in the sucrose-water system (II). Attenuated water diffusion at sub-zero temperatures leads to a delay in water crystallization/melting in the sucrose-water system, which does not happen in a polysaccharide - water system (III). The Tg of the lysozyme-sucrose system increases with increasing lysozyme concentration, i.e., the DCp of the mixtures does not follow the prediction based on the properties of the pure components. Consequently, lysozyme does not modulate the glass transition of the sucrose matrix and the increase of the Tg of the mixtures is a result of the confinement of amorphous sucrose in the space between lysozyme molecules. The amorphous structure and unfolding of lysozyme in the presence of sucrose was investigated by DSC and SAXS. These data revealed an increase of the protein-protein distance upon addition of sucrose and upon heating, as a result of lysozyme unfolding (IV).
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4.
  • Brodén, Joséphine, 1979- (författare)
  • Uncertainty in Endodontics : Strategies for Understanding and Management
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dentists often experience uncertainty when deciding on the most effective treatment for a particular patient. There are various sources of uncertainty and different strategies for coping with it, such as reducing or accepting it and learning how to make decisions despite feeling uncertain.The overall objectives of the thesis are to contribute with information that reduces uncertainty regarding the treatment of cariously exposed pulps in young permanent teeth and to improve dental education to ensure that future dental students manage well despite uncertainty.By means of a systematic review and a model analysis, the thesis evaluates the available evidence and cost-effectiveness of a pulp capping procedure compared to a root canal treatment to reduce the uncertainty regarding the cost-effectiveness of treatments for young permanent teeth with vital pulps exposed by caries.The thesis also addresses the acceptance of uncertainty. A reflection exercise was developed and tested in a group of dental students. Prompts from an established model were used to stimulate the students to write reflections during the risk assessment of a root-filled tooth. The effect of the reflections on the student’s awareness of and comfort with uncertainty was explored with a repeated questionnaire. The written reflections were analyzed with a qualitative method to explore how dental students reflected on clinical experience in relation to uncertainty.In the systematic review, the success rate for pulp capping in children and adolescents varied between 64 and 100 percent in the included studies. The model indicated that pulp capping procedures are cost-effective compared to root canal treatment in teeth with pulp exposure due to caries. Fewer teeth were extracted after a pulp capping during the 9 years the patients were followed in the model and the cost for the initial treatment and follow-up treatments during this time period was lower compared to a root canal treatment.The reflection exercise had an effect on the students’ responses to the questions regarding how certain they believed an experienced colleague would feel, and how certain they felt of their capacity to handle the case. Most students did not state that they felt certain about assessing the risk for exacerbation of apical periodontitis in root-filled teeth but felt certain of their own capacity to handle the case, as well as comfortable with their ability to handle the situation and do their best for the patient.Three themes about experience and lack of experience were identified in the reflections: “the meaning of clinical experience”, “assumed differences regarding assessment” and “relating to the same risk factors”.The following conclusions were drawn from the four studies:For children and adolescents with pulp exposure due to caries, pulp capping procedures are cost-effective compared to root canal treatment, but there is a lack of prospective studies concerning root canal treatment. Moreover, the existing studies on pulp capping procedures are of low quality.Most final-year dental students participating in a reflection exercise did not feel certain of their risk assessment of root-filled teeth but still felt certain of their capacity to handle the situation, as well as comfortable with their ability to do the best for the patient. The students believed that clinical experience leads to certainty even when the scientific evidence is lacking and experts who meet students have a great responsibility to be transparent with their own uncertainty.
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5.
  • Chrysoulakis, Alberto P., 1987- (författare)
  • Situational sources of rule-breaking acts : an analytic criminology approach
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Criminology has long been divided by mainly focusing on people’s propensities to commit crimes, on the one hand, and environmental characteristics conducive to crime, on the other. Such a division must be bridged to advance knowledge about why some people, but not others, commit rule-breaking acts in some environments but not in others. Furthermore, explanations require causal mechanisms explaining how the outcome, a rule-breaking act, is produced. Analytic Criminology offers a general framework for how to theoretically and empirically structure the study of crime. It does so by connecting macro- and micro-levels – structuring the convergence of certain people in certain places – through a mechanistic account. Within this framework, the situational action theory (SAT) proposes a causal mechanism explaining how said convergence triggers the perception-choice process: a rule-breaking act must first be perceived to be subsequently chosen. The main drivers during this process are the person’s crime propensity and the criminogeneity of the behaviour setting. Identifying the central components also enables the theorising of changes in crime involvement, which is the subject of the developmental ecological action (DEA) model of SAT. Drawing on data from the longitudinal project Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study, this thesis aimed to test SAT and its DEA model, thus bridging said division. It did so through four studies with specific reference to adolescents’ crime propensity, exposure to criminogenic settings, their convergence, and finally, change over time. Study I and study II investigated adolescents’ time use and connections to rule-breaking. The former examined how adolescents spend time in unsupervised and unstructured socialising with peers, during which hours of the day, in which neighbourhoods, and what level of collective efficacy the neighbourhoods have. Study II focused on adolescents’ routine activities and how they differentially place adolescents in unstructured socialising. Furthermore, it tested whether adolescents with higher crime propensity run a higher probability of reporting a rule-breaking act during unstructured socialising irrespective of their routine activities. Study III extended the situational analysis by investigating how adolescents form rule-breaking intentions in randomised scenarios depending on their morality, self-control, and the setting characteristics (varying in level of motivation and deterrence). Study IV applied a developmental perspective to key theoretical constructs derived from the DEA model, focusing on how morality, peer delinquency, and unstructured socialising change, and how the change in each is related to change in the others. Together, the studies found that adolescents with different levels of crime propensity are differently exposed to criminogenic settings but that such exposure simultaneously increases the probability of rule-breaking more for adolescents with higher crime propensity. In sum, the studies have bridged the person–place division in different ways by being rooted in a mechanistic account of rule-breaking, which is proposed as a way forward for criminology as a discipline. 
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7.
  • Edin, Fredrik, 1967- (författare)
  • Kronopolis : tid, makt och medialisering i Malmö
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet med den här etnografin är att undersöka hur medialiseringen påverkar stadslivet i Malmö, särskilt ur ett tidsligt perspektiv. Föremål för studien är de tidsliga maktrelationer och linjära rytmer – som arbete och konsumtion – som medialiseringen ger upphov till i det urbana rummet. Fältarbetet har genomförts i stadsdelarna Seved, Centrum, Frihamnen och Möllevången i Malmö. Studien innehåller också en reflexiv del om erfarenheterna av att bära smart klocka under fyra år. Etnografins viktigaste upptäckt är att medialiseringen gör rumsligheter och tidsligheter abstrakta och föremål för konflikt. Det här skapar en nu typ av linjära rytmer: spekulativa rytmer. Det är en ny typ av linjära rytmer som är instabila, saknar kronologisk ordning och befinner sig i ständig förändring. Potentiellt kan vilken plats som helst vara vilken annan plats som helst och vilken tid som helst, vilken annan tid som helst. Utgången av de här konflikterna är en konsekvens att de inblandade parternas respektive styrkeförhållande i varje situation. Etnografin bidrar med ett tidsligt perspektiv på medialisering och ett ökat tidsligt förstående av samhället vi lever i.
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8.
  • Frölich, Emilia, 1982- (författare)
  • Från Kingston till Göinge : autencitet, identitet och representationer av det förflutna i svensk reggaekultur
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the role of history in popular culture with a particular focus on the Swedish reggae scene. It examines how cultural meaning applied to music bears strong connections to historical representations, and how individuals understand, communicate, and reproduce selective notions of the past in relationship to popular music. History is viewed as an essential cultural component in this thesis, a component equipped with the ability to articulate political resistance, and express a sense of identity and belonging. The overall purpose is to examine how history is constructed, represented and used in the Swedish reggae scene, and how notions of origin and authenticity are expressed. The empirical chapters examine how different representations of the past in Swedish reggae relates to notions of origin, place and authenticity. These representations are constructed through social interactions, but also through interaction with texts, objects, and cultural practices.As the thesis shows, different representations of pasts and notions of origins exists in Swedish reggae, connecting to various geographical, cultural, and historical contexts. The hybridization of reggae becomes an important factor that contributes to making Swedish reggae something special and unique. In the Swedish reggae scene, which is predominatly white, the hybridization can be understood as an attempt to free oneself from aspects of reggae associated with Black experiences of white oppression. The use of local, regional, and national cultural expressions and representations of the past creates a distance to the Jamaican reggae traditions, and the historical narratives of slavery, colonialism and racial discrimination that reinforces the Black identification in Jamaican reggae. Instead, by relating to Swedish historical milieus, traditions and events, a closer and more relatable understanding of reggae is created. However, the thesis also shows that not all actors who consume and produce reggae in Sweden identify with the Swedish hybrid version. In such cases, its typical Swedishness is seen as an undesirable departure from the history and traditions of Jamaican reggae. Jamaican reggae is then perceived as a cultural heritage that should be preserved and respected in its original form - not in a copied or remodelled version.
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9.
  • Ghiasi, Peyman (författare)
  • Studies on maxillary overdentures : implant- and prosthesis survival, cost analysis and patient-reported outcomes
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Edentulism is a debilitating condition which may negatively affect quality of life, particularly in relation to nutritional and social health, speech, and poor facial appearance. Prosthetic options available range from conventional complete dentures to implant-supported overdentures (ISODs) and implant-supported full arch fixed partial dentures (ISFAFDPs). The choice of treatment is connected to the patient's general health, oral status, preferences and financial means. From the point of view of the treatment provider, there is a lack of evidence to support choice of treatment, as information from randomised clinical trials is sparse. This is particularly true when it comes to cost analysis and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). There is consensus today that an implant-supported overdenture is a valid treatment option for the edentulous mandible, but the same recommendation cannot be made for maxillary overdentures due to a lack of evidence.The present study investigates implant-supported maxillary overdentures regarding implant and prosthesis survival, costs and PROMs in comparison to fixed implant-supported prostheses.The thesis comprises four studies.Study I analysed implant and prosthesis failure rates with implant-supported maxillary overdentures in a systematic review. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) for the implants and the prostheses was 70.4% and 79.8%, respectively. The main finding was that patients with few implants presented higher prosthesis failure rates than patients with more implants per prosthesis.Of the most commonly used attachment systems, the ball/O-ring and the Ceka were the ones with the highest rates of patients with at least one implant failure. Most of the failures happened within the first year after installation for both implants (52.1%) and prostheses (41.8%).Study II, a retrospective analysis, compared the clinical outcomes of implantsupported overdentures (ISODs) with either bar-clip or ball attachments. The results showed that all ISOD failures resulted from loss of implants. The bar-clip system resulted in more complications than the ball attachment system, suggesting that ISODs with the bar-clip system may necessitate a greater number of appointments and chair time for adjustments, thus increasing the maintenance costs for the patient.Studies III and IV were based on a prospective clinical trial comparing different implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitations for the edentulous maxilla: implantsupported full-arch fixed partial dentures on 4 or 6 implants (ISFAFDP 4 orISFAFDP 6) versus maxillary overdentures on 2 implants.Study III is a comparative cost analysis, the results of which showed that all implants and restorations were in function at follow-up after the first year, i.e., the survival rate was 100%. Initial costs, i.e., cost of prostheses at delivery, were higher for ISFAFDP 6 and ISFAFDP 4 due to the higher number of implants and higher cost of materials and fees. There were no statistically significant differences in post-treatment costs between the groups.In study IV, patient-reported outcomes regarding aesthetics and function were compared. The results showed that all patients, irrespective of group, showed improved patient-reported outcomes from before treatment to the one-year follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups regarding functional status of the masticatory system (Jaw Functional Limitation Scale -JFLS parameters) or how patients perceive their dental and Orofacial Aesthetic Scale (OAS), and only minor differences between the two groups with fixed restorations regarding patients’ perception of the social impact of oral disorders on their well-being (Oral Health Impact Profile - OHIP).
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10.
  • Hellberg, Therese, 1981- (författare)
  • Vanära, fattigdom och dubbelarbete : om kvinnors platser och värden i folkhemmet i romaner och krönikor 1940–1955
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • My doctoral project aims to provide new knowledge about Swedish women’s writing between 1940 and 1955. I ask questions about how novels, short stories and chronicles depict women’s citizenship and produce ideas about the Swedish national community. I also ask questions about what conditions are required for women to be writers and in what ways a selection of texts written by working-class and middle-class women can contribute to new perspectives on the history of Swedish literature.With an understanding that the mass media plays a major role in the production of the imagined Swedish community, I study the production of women’s literature in relation to the dominant culture and the public (literary) sphere. By reading the texts both as mass media and as literature, I analyse the ways in which the texts (re)produce and negotiate the dominant national culture, and I highlight tensions and conflicts in and between the texts. Furthermore, I deploy a critical perspective when discussing the (re)production of myths about Sweden and citizen ideals. Another core point of departure is my understanding of how history is made and how the meanings of time and space are created through the selection, interpretation and valuation of texts. Additionally, the dominant culture becomes visible when marginalized texts, such as those written by female writers from 1940 to 1955, are read and the voices of these writers are heard.Various notions of Swedish women and their citizenship are produced in my selection of texts found in the archives. Overall, these texts challenge the myth of the Swedish welfare society, where all citizens can live without discrimination and poverty. Women’s citizenship is portrayed as circumvented, and brutal insights are provided into what a limited right to abortion and limited rape legislation mean for women, as well as what a society planned from a gender-complementary viewpoint means for women’s social and economic rights. The texts make visible both the patriarchy and the class society’s naturalised defence of inequality. They show that the struggle for (more) equal citizenship requires that it be waged against discrimination and against unequal material conditions.Furthermore, the texts also tell us that the myth of the Swedish community as homogenous, requires that conflicting narratives – like women’s novels and chronicles – be sorted out of the historiography.
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11.
  • Klefbeck, Kamilla (författare)
  • Att få tillträde till lärprocesser : professionell utveckling för lärare som undervisar elever med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning och autism i grundsärskolan
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis aims to contribute to knowledge about how teachers can develop their practice to enable students with intellectual disability (ID) and autism to participate in education. Pragmatism, situated learning, and variation theory have been guiding the studies. The research program follows an iterative design with an exploratory sequential design. The initial phase synthesized findings from practice-based research in the educational context of children with ID and co-occurring autism. In the next step, an intervention using Lesson Study, inspired by identified gaps in the research, targeting teachers' professional development and students' learning, was explored through quantitative and qualitative analyses of pre-and post-test data. After the initial examination, the intervention was adjusted and implemented in compulsory schooling for pupils with learning disabilities (CSPLD), for pupils with ID and autism. The main research question was: What, in a professional development program, contributes to enhancing teachers' abilities to develop teaching to increase educational participation for pupils with ID and autism?The narrative synthesis discerned six factors of importance to developing teaching practices in the Swedish CSPLD and thereby promoting contextualized inclusion for pupils with ID and autism. Namely, a. the inportance of collaborative work, b. focus on the pupils' participation in learning situations, c. distance to own teaching by video-based reflections, d. structured observations, e. analyses of how the design of lessons affects pupils' learning, f. changed focus from pupils' behavior to teaching and learning, and more generally, continuity regarding professional development over time. In conclusion, to gain further knowledge of teaching and learning in the context of CSPLD and achieve sustainability in the community where teachers share knowledge and curiosity about teaching and learning, Lesson Study is recomended as part of the SEND teacher commitment.
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12.
  • Kronkvist, Karl, 1987- (författare)
  • Locating place, crime and the fear of crime : methodological and theoretical considerations
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Much previous research on the fear of crime has focused on why some individuals, with certain characteristics, experience more or less fear of crime than others. However, there is also a growing body of research examining the role that the neighbourhood context in which individuals reside plays in shaping such feelings and perceptions. At the same time, less research has been directed at understanding why certain small-scale micro-places evoke feelings of unsafety and fear of crime.The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to improving the current state ofthe research focused on place, the fear of crime, and related methodological issues. The dissertation includes four original empirical research papers. Study I is based on a case study evaluating the impact of camera surveillance and examines what role the operationalization of place may play for the results and interpretation of a given study.The findings show that different operationalizations may indeed produce different results, and that the choice of operationalization must be carefully considered in the context of study design. Study II uses responses to an open-ended survey question from three waves of the Malmö Community Survey (2012, 2015, 2018) to chart the spatial concentration and temporal stability of unsafe locations.The findings show that locations perceived as unsafe by city inhabitants are concentrated to a very small proportion of the urban space, and that there is a temporal stability in unsafe locations over time. Study III further explores unsafe locations by examining the spatial risk factors associated with these unsafe locations and the role played by neighbourhood collective efficacy and disorder. The results show that a number of spatial risk factors are correlated with the outcome, suggesting that the physical environment has a role to play in shaping people’s perceptions of unsafety at a given location. The findings also show that there are major between neighbourhood variations in unsafe locations, but that neighbourhood collective efficacy and disorder play only a limited role in the explanation of this variance. The final paper, Study IV, is a methodological study focused on the feasibility of using an alternative approach to studying fear of crime, as a momentary event, and uses an experience research framework implemented using a smart phone application (STUNDA). The general conclusion is that it is feasible to conduct research on the fear of crime using a smartphone application, but that emerging methods may also involve new methodological issues and challenges.The four studies have both methodological and theoretical implications, suggesting that the way place is defined and operationalized may have important impacts on the results and interpretations of research studies. In addition, the findings suggest that there is more to be learned about the fear of crime as a context-specific experience that is dependent on the immediate environment, and that alternative methodological approaches focused on surveying momentary experiences of fear of crime using smartphone applications seem to be feasible. A place-based approach to the fear of crime, supported by alternative measures and methods, may also be important in developing a broader understanding of how perceptions of fear of crime and unsafety are shaped. Such an understanding may in turn assist policymakers and practitioners to design knowledge-based interventions to reduce fear of crime and feelings of unsafety.
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13.
  • Lelinge, Balli (författare)
  • Kollaborativ professionell utveckling för innehållsinkluderande undervisning : praktikutvecklande klassrumsforskning
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the present thesis, four studies are included within the scientific discipline of pedagogy and collaborative professional development research field—the thesis is based on a practice-based research approach. This thesis addresses identified problems in previous research and large-scale studies such as the OECD study Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and school leaders’ and teachers’ attitudes. Furthermore, the need to design teaching that is content-inclusive and accessible to all students. The study’s overall question is: What factors of importance for promoting content-inclusive teaching emerge in the studies? Since the thesis aims to contribute with knowledge of how collaborative professional efforts can support teachers’ understanding of developing inclusive teaching in the classroom regarding the accessibility of teaching content for all students, the theoretical perspective is motivated by a cultural-historical perspective as an overall theoretical framework. Within the cultural-historical perspective, situated learning and communities of practice (CoP) are in the foreground. The framework of variation theory has been chosen to analyse which teaching content the students are offered to distinguish. The articles used both specific subject content to show how conditions for inclusive teaching can contribute to increased availability of the content knowledge and more comprehensive studies of how teachers’ collaborative competence can contribute to increased accessibility. Finally, teachers’ perspectives and experiences are in the foreground. The design of the four studies is based on a mixed-methods approach. That means the design of the thesis used qualitative and quantitative methods, both individually and in combination, in the different studies. Since two-year time perspective, it is defined as a longitudinal process. The synthesis describes the factors necessary for promoting content inclusion that has been highlighted in the dissertation studies. Three factors have been identified in the dissertation’s results of significance for how collaborative professional efforts can support teachers’ understanding of developing inclusive teaching in the classroom regarding the teaching content’s accessibility for all students: 1. Development of CoP with a focus on content-inclusive teaching 2. Collaborative professional development that challenges teachers’ views on inclusive teaching 3. Analysis of intentional and enacted teaching to identify what is inclusive Within the framework of the studies the dissertation consists of, the results show that the cyclical classroom models, Lesson and Learning study, have contributed to the teachers gaining an in-depth understanding of which aspects have been particularly successful in developing their teaching design. The studies show factors that are important for promoting content-inclusive teachings, such as when the entire teaching team takes collective responsibility for content-focused teaching and is given time for collaborative professional development. Another factor is that teachers are given the opportunity to develop their ability to analyse how teaching can be planned and implemented to identify what contributes to inclusive teaching, where the content and learning situation is put in the foreground. This change has meant a higher focus on the availability of teaching content to all students, compared to a previous focus on individual students’ need for special support. The present dissertation results can be seen as a contribution to practicebased professional development research where researchers’ and teachers’ joint competence is the basis for systematically and structurally approaching the object of learning, thereby reducing the gap between theory and practice.
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14.
  • Magnusson, Mia-Maria (författare)
  • Open drug scenes and the merging of policing practice and research : a pracademic approach
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Policing research has had an upswing as the evidence-based policing movement has grown stronger and entered police practises worldwide. Within the evidence-based policing (EBP) approach, practically and academically skilled individuals, pracademics, have attracted attention as facilitating the merging of policing practice and research.Using principles from EBP, and with a special focus on translating between policing practice, policy and research, this thesis aims to explore the characteristics of illicit drug markets with a place-based focus and to link this to the enhancement of EBP in Sweden. The theoretical base of the thesis is drawn from disorganization theory, routine activity theory and situational action theory, and these theories are combined with empirical studies from the research field of drug markets.Drug markets are defined as open drug scenes (ODSs) in this pracademic thesis, which includes two empirical studies of patterns that characterize ODSs, one randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a law enforcement tactic at an ODS, and one case study of the impact of the pracademic research approach. The findings show that there are almost 50 ODSs in Stockholm County, which are characterized by patterns of crime concentration, a gun violence overlap, and associations with perceptions of unsafety. Three types of ODSs were identified, providing a basis for the tailoring of future interventions based on area characteristics, ODS stability, levels of violence, and gang activity. Micro places associated with ODSs and gun violence were found to be characterized by harsh social conditions and high levels of crime. A predictive index was created to forecast micro places at which gun violence may occur, and the prediction was enhanced when ODSs were included as predictive locations. The RCT, which was completed at a well-known ODS in the inner city of Stockholm, showed a slight but non-significant effect of the police conducting motivational talks with offenders, which gave rise to questions regarding the method’s effectiveness. The case study of the RCT process found frustration in police departments to be a possible door-opener for research. Ease of implementation was associated with the research having credibility among police officers, which was achieved by including the needs of practice in research questions and through the role played by the pracademic researcher.This thesis argues for making use of pracademics to bridge the research-practice gap, a focus on ODSs, and the testing and tracking of methods such as hot spots policing, with an emphasis on properly implemented evidence-based methods and on the goals of enforcement strategies as a means of improving the effectiveness of drug-market policing.
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15.
  • Matsson, Anneli (författare)
  • Handslaget : att organisera tystnad : en fallstudie om pragmatisk särbehandling i arbetslivet
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Det finns ett påtagligt behov att synliggöra problemet med särbehandling i arbetslivet som ett socialpolitiskt problem. Social utsatthet i arbetslivet har ökat och särbehandling är ett rättsligt reglerat fenomen. Rättsskyddet och arbetsskadeförsäkringsskyddet för dem som hamnar utanför arbetsmarknaden på grund av särbehandlingär dock svagt, vilket gör att problemet behöver synliggöras som en socialpolitisk fråga, vilket inte görs idag. Förståelsen för särbehandling som fenomen i arbetslivet rymmer en stor kunskapslucka inom forskningsfältet, avseende praktiken och logiken bakom social exkludering och utmanövrering. Det finns idag en växande kritik mot individualiseringen av särbehandling som problem, såväl i praktik som forskning. Kritiken framhåller att det saknas strukturell kontextualisering till fenomenet särbehandling och att fokus inom den traditionella forskningen, alltför ensidigt, sökt förklaringar på individnivå. Behovet av teoretisk utveckling på organisationsnivå efterfrågas som kan öka förståelsen för problemet med social utsatthet i arbetslivet. Syftet med denna avhandling är att utforska hur särbehandling i form av ostracism, det vill säga ignorering, avvisande, exkludering och utmanövrering, praktiseras och uppstår i den organisatoriska arbetsmiljön med fokus på organisering av arbete, organisationskultur, organisatoriskt klimat samt beslutsprocessen kring utmanövrering. Metoden är organisationsetnografi vilket tillämpas på ett fall inom ett större sjukhus i Sverige, där det pågår utmanövrering på olika nivåer i organisationen. Utgångspunkten för fallet är att ge röst åt en profession inom sjukvården som sällan är i fokus: steriltekniker. Analysen har en abduktiv ansats och sker inom ramen för ett organisationspolitiskt perspektiv. Resultatet presenteras i fyra empiriska kapitel som visar A/Rumslig organisering, professionell diskurs och teknologisk övervakning fungerar som politiska verktyg för ostracism av medarbetare. B/ Organisationskulturen cirklar kring perfektionsideal och varumärkets överordnade plats i kommunikationen, vilket legitimerar särbehandling. C/ En reduktionistisk syn på särbehandling i styrdokument möjliggör döljande av strukturell särbehandling av medarbetare. D/ Beslutet att utmanövrera medarbetare baseras på en form av fabricering som har stöd i organisationens politik och kan ses som en forcerad politisk överenskommelse för att reducera osäkerhet. Tillsammans visas att den organisatoriska arbetsmiljön leder till att strukturell särbehandling reproducerar riktad särbehandling. Resultatet teoretiseras vilket mynnar ut i en definition av pragmatisk särbehandling. Pragmatisk särbehandling kan beskrivas i fyra dimensioner som jag kallar sociala föreställningar, hierarkisk gisslanpolitik, politisk uppmärksamhet och forcerade handslag. Tillsammans förklarar begreppen hur utmanövrering orkestreras som en följd av att medarbetare bedöms utgöra någon form av risk, baserad på sociala föreställningar, för organisationens strategiska intresse och/eller för de aktörer som drar nytta av dessa intressen. Avhandlingen kan ses som en dissonans till den traditionella synen på särbehandling som bygger på antagandet om en eskalerad konflikt mellan ”offer” och ”förövare”. Istället argumenteras för att individualiseringen i arbetslivet driver fram exkluderingspraktik och en reduktionistisk syn på särbehandling, vilket behöver problematiseras inom socialpolitiken.
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16.
  • Norefalk, Christian, 1977- (författare)
  • What the Right to Eduation Is, and What It Ought to Be : Towards a Social Ontology of Eduction as a Human Right
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the second half of the 20th century education has been recognized as a human right in several international conventions, and the UN also holds that “Education shall be free” and that “Elementary education shall be compulsory” (UN, 1948, Article 26).The education-as-a-human right-project could be viewed as a good intention of global inclusion in recognizing that all individuals have a right to education in virtue of being humans, and the idea of education as a human right thus has a tremendous global significance. However, if we look at this more critically, the education-as-a-human right-project, may not only be grounded in altruistic good intensions for the disadvantaged. The term “elementary education”, or sometimes “primary education”, which is used in several human rights-documents seems to suggest that it is some sort of formalized education. It would be useful however to make a distinction between formal and informal education, as well as between teaching, learning, education and schooling, in the discussion of the right to education and specifically in the discussion concerning education as a “human right”. There is obviously a difference between the right to teach, the right to learn, the right to education and the right to schooling. And how are these rights related to compulsory schooling, compulsory education and the supposed duty to teach and duty to learn? A further concern is what makes this a human right rather than for example a juridical right as a citizen.By addressing these questions within a theoretical framework of social ontology and ameliorative conceptual analysis I believe that we can find new ways of dealing with fundamental problems within philosophy of education such as the nature, purpose and aims of education as well as the right to education.
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17.
  • Petersson Bloom, Linda (författare)
  • Equity in education for autistic students : professional learning to accommodate inclusive education
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Purpose: This thesis aims to explore if and how professionals’ participation in professional development enhances the quality of education for autistic students, including the perspectives of autistic students, their parents, and professionals in pre- and primary school. Furthermore, the thesis directs attention to how professional development may lead to the development of accommodations in the learning environment to support autistic students. Four studies have been conducted to fulfil the aim, which in combination answer the research questions addressed in this thesis. The four studies comprise one systematic review and three empirical studies. Study I, the systematic research review, explored adaptations and modification strategies. Study II investigated how a professional development intervention designed as a lesson study changed attitudes and practices amongst preschool professionals. Studies III–IV were developed from study II, and used professional development to explore changes in the preschool (study III) and primaryschool (study IV) practice. In these studies, multiple stakeholders were included; professionals (teachers, pre- and school management), autistic students, and their parents.Theoretical frameworks: Pragmatism is used as the umbrella framework capturing the methodology and methods, in combination with Communities of Practice (CoP) and Landscapes of Practice (LoP), are used to explain and discuss the results of the thesis.Design/Approach/Methods: A multilevel mixed methods research design was applied in this thesis. Following the concept of mixed methods, the integration was applied in three phases: research design, methods, interpretation and reporting. In the three empirical sub-studies, variants of mixed methods were alsoused in the designs. The results of the sub-studies are synthesized with a narrative synthesis.Findings: The results from the synthesized sub-studies indicate that professional development contributes to changes in professionals’ attitudes, increased knowledge, and strategies to accommodate, the latter more vaguely. Professionals could identify more changes than parents and autistic students. Barriers to implementation were found, such as lack of resources and physical environment. Enabling factors were identified as participation (collaborative aspects). Discrepancies were detected across participants and contexts.Conclusions: Based on the results of the included studies and the synthesized result, it is possible to conclude that professional development can contribute to changes, most prominent when exploring professionals’ views. The more distinct changes resided in changes and development in attitudes contributing to changes in mindset and increased knowledge. Furthermore, a lack of prerequisites, such as resources, may hinder the sustainability of professional development and, on a larger scale, inclusive education, which needs to be addressed further. To conclude equity for autistic students is a challenging issue for the Swedish school context, and is not yet fulfilled for this student group.Originality/Value: This thesis offers insights into a complex area, includes multiple stakeholders and provides a comprehensive understanding of the phenomena. Including young autistic students as active participants could be considered to be of great value. The findings could be of interest to both the research community and school practice.
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18.
  • Plantin Ewe, Linda (författare)
  • Lärares relationskompetens i möte med elever med ADHD
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to knowledge of teachers’ relational competence with respect to students with ADHD. In addition, a specific focus is investigating whether teachers’ understanding of relational competence, regarding the targeted student group, can be developed using video-based interventions. Moreover, a focus is to examine whether - and if so how - the intervention contributes to changes in teachers as well as their students’ perceptions of their teacher-student relationshipin practice. Sub-studies: This dissertation contains four sub-studies, each of them aiming to answer a part of the overall research question. The first study is a systematic literature review aiming to systematically identify, critically review and synthesize existing research in the focused area. The second study is a pilot study investigating if teachers’ relational competence can be developed using video-based interventions. In study three, the aim was to investigate how teachers’ understanding of relational competence with respect to students with ADHD were developed using video-based interventions. Finally, the fourth study investigated if the video-based intervention (Study 3) contributed to changes in teachers’ and students’ (with and without NPS) perceptions of their teacher-student relationship. Theory: This dissertation takes its point of departure from a relational framework using Scheff’s (1997) theory of social bond together with Aspelin’s (2018) and Aspelin and Jönsson’s (2019) Relational Competence Model (RCM). The relational framework is supplemented by Laveand Wenger’s (1991) sociocultural theory of situated learning. Method: The overall design of this dissertation is based on mixed methods. An exploratory multi-stage evaluation design has been used. Characteristic of such a design is that each sub-study contains a study of its own which is iteratively following from the previous in order to evaluate the effect of the intervention made, and by extension, answering the overall research question. Knowledge contributions: The overall knowledge contribution of this dissertation concerns teachers’ perceptions of relational competence regarding students with ADHD, and how such perceptions can be developed. One of the dissertation’s scientific knowledge contributions is its testing ofthe RCM model for students with ADHD. The results indicate that the model can be successfully used to develop teachers’ relational competence towards these students. The dissertation also suggests that teachers need to have a “relational preparedness” - a readiness - for the unforeseen. This implies an ability to observe student behavior and reflect on what it suggests regarding students’ thoughts and feelings, together with the teacher’s ability to self-reflect with the intention to identify and acknowledge their own emotional reactions to student signals. Limitation: The lack of a randomized sample affects the credibility of the study. The lack of qualitative student interviews can be seen as a limitation as the information collected exposes changes in students’ perceptions but does not provide a deeper understanding of what the changes consisted of. Practical implications: The results are relevant for teacher education by providing a clear focus on teachers’ relational competence regarding students with ADHD, which, in turn, can help future teachers to be better equipped to meet the diversity of students in each classroom. Furthermore, the results should be relevant for teachers as well as school leaders, through its focus is on relational competence as a situated activity, and on how this competence can be developed through a small and limited intervention.
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19.
  • Ramji, Rathi (författare)
  • Health promotional interventions informed by community-based participatory research in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood : development, exploration and evaluation
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis was to understand the impact of community-based participatory research-informed health promotional initiatives on the health of communities living in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Southern Sweden. The thesis was part of a larger program, Health promotion, Innovation in Collaboration which was a community-based participatory research program aiming to create novel ways to improve health through participatory and collaborative strategies. The thesis embraces one mixed-method study, a quantitative study, a qualitative study and finally a participatory action research study with a qualitative approach. A total of 49 citizens and 10 families with children aged 7-14 years from a disadvantaged neighbourhood in Southern Sweden participated in the different studies. The mixed-method study (Study I) described the development of initial evaluation of a Community-based participatory research(CBPR) informed physical activity intervention, which showed the need for the intervention to be offered cost-free and exclusively for women. In line with the results of the first study, the CBPR physical activity intervention was offered to 35 women in the neighbourhood and the effect of the intervention was assessed over time both quantitatively (Study II) and qualitatively (Study III), including a perspective on the pandemic. The last study (Study IV) focused on diet and oral health among families, particularly mothers and children. In this study, the children were initially engaged in a photovoice interview which was followed by a focus group with parents. The pre-study revealed that children disliked school lunch and did not eat breakfast regularly owing to time constraints and family situations. Furthermore, children also consumed a high amount of sugar. To this, the parents expressed that they were not able to guide their children appropriately and needed help with aspects such as diet focusing on breakfast, lunch and dinner, as well as knowledge on oral hygiene habits. The quantitative part of Study I and Study II were repeated measures data at different time points before and after the intervention. The qualitative data in studies I and III were collected in form of focus group interviews in parallel to the quantitative data. The mode of data collection in Study IV was Multi-staged focus groups where the same families met at different time points and engaged in dialogue and reflection on different topics at each meeting. The results of the first three studies show that a CBPR informed physical activity intervention when offered in groups improved health-related quality of life, physical health, induced behavioural change and potentially builds resilience to withstand the psychosocial and physical effects of the pandemic. The last study shows that a CBPR informed oral health promotion through reflection and dialogue among families together with other stakeholders, influences behavioural change and perceived changes in health among parents and children living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood. In conclusion, this thesis highlights that social support is key to improved perceived health, empowerment, and sustainable behavioural change among citizens in the neighbourhood. Although women are most in need of support, they are also gateways to the families and thereby their communities. And finally, health promoters have had a vital role in engaging communities in health promotional efforts and bringing them closer to other societal actors, strengthening their social bonds and helping build community resilience in the face of adversity.
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20.
  • Raoof, Dawan (författare)
  • I väntan på integration : en etnografisk studie om en institutionellt återskapad vardagsverklighet
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Även om man inte känner till pjäsen eller till dess författare vet man antagligen att väntan på Godot anspelar på ett hopplöst tillstånd som hålls flytande genom illusionen av något hoppfullt. Studien handlar om en institutionellt återskapad vardagsverklighet på ett HVB-hem för ensamkommande barn och unga. Det övergripande syftet med denna fenomenologiskt orienterade studie är att åskådlig- och begripliggöra de institutionella villkor under vilka personalen förväntas realisera sitt integrerande samhällsuppdrag. Boendet är en institutionell scen. Ett antal individer – med vittskilda livshistorier – blir inkastade på denna scen för att tillsammans rekonstruera ett vardagligt meningssammanhang som i sig själv ska främja barnen och ungdomarnas integration i det svenska samhället. Allegoriskt uttryckt kan (föreställningen om) denna integration likställas med Godot. Ingen vet riktigt vem denna Godot är, om han kommer eller om han ens existerar. I sin frånvaro fyller Godot likväl en allsmäktig och messiansk roll för de inblandade aktörerna. Det är föreställningen om barnen och ungdomarnas integration som ger den institutionella tillvaron mening. Denna tillvaro koloniseras dock ständigt av olika institutionella faktorer som förvrider det mellanmänskliga meningsskapandet till något absurt. Denna avhandling är en etnografisk berättelse om det absurda i de institutionella villkor under vilka denna integrationsfrämjande vardagsverklighet återskapas
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21.
  • Sjöblom, Marie (författare)
  • Promoting mathematical dialogue : students’ and teachers’ listening, questioning and participation
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In Swedish mathematics classrooms, students have different opportunities to participate in mathematical dialogue, and therefore also different opportunities to learn. This is a problem not only for students, but also for teachers, school developers, and researchers. By moving back and forth between two settings – the upper secondary mathematics classroom and the professional development group – this thesis aims to explore how questioning and listening can promote participation in mathematical dialogue. The following three research questions are in focus: What aspects of students’ questioning and listening do teachers need to pay attention to when promoting students’ participation in mathematical dialogue? What aspects of teachers’ questioning and listening are important when teachers promote students’ participation in mathematical dialogue? How can teachers, in cooperation with researchers, develop an awareness and refine their teaching in relation to students’ listening, questioning, and participation in mathematical dialogue?By using educational design research, two sub-studies were conducted – one with a focus on students and one with a focus on teachers – and the results were described in four articles. Theories on three different levels were used and coordinated to understand mathematical dialogue: sociocultural theory to situate the research study on an overall level where interaction and communication are essential; the concept of mathematical dialogue by Alro and Skovsmose (2004), including their Inquiry Co-operation model to understand quality in mathematical dialogue; and local theories to study facets of mathematical dialogue concerning questioning, listening, and participation.The results point to how important both students’ and teachers’ questions are for creating equitable participation opportunities, and how teachers can promote mathematical dialogue by using pre-thought specific mathematical why-questions that invite all students to participate in small groupproblem-solving work. The results also point to the importance of working with productive listening, a process that requires both requests for listening and willingness to listen to others. For teachers to develop an awareness and to refine their teaching in relation to mathematical dialogue, the cyclic structure of EDR, working with teacher noticing and moving back and forth between the two settings, help visualize their development processes.The main contributions of the thesis are (1) the framework for productive listening, (2) the empirical results concerning how mathematical questioning is used to promote students’ participation in mathematical dialogue, and (3) the learnings of how mathematics education theories can be used and coordinated to increace understandings on mathematical dialogue. At the end of the thesis, a meta-reflection is made on how collaboration between different actors – students, teachers, school developers and researchers – can build bridges and deepen the understandings of the complexity of mathematical dialogue.
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22.
  • Smedberg, Alicia, 1989- (författare)
  • The labour of infrastructuring : An inquiry into participatory design in the public sector
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Every organisation, cooperation, project or social movement is quintessentially a cluster of alignments between people, places and things. Through these alignments, networks are made, and through these networks action can be made possible or be constricted. These socio-material alignments, clusters and/or networks are understood within this thesis as infrastructures, and this thesis is an inquiry into how to mobilise infrastructures. Mobilising socio-material infrastructures over time is what I refer to as infrastructuring.Situated within the discipline of participatory design and the theoretical traditions of science and technology studies and feminist technoscience, this thesis investigates the issue of agency within the infrastructuring processes. The thesis departs from the notion that all agency is relational and made through relations. These relations may be material, power or affective. This concept poses a political imperative to those infrastructuring practitioners—the individuals who labour to create new alignments and move the infrastructure forward—to consider the marginalised voices within the infrastructure. The labour performed to do this is not, the thesis argues, a prestigious, artisan work but rather a slow, caring and repetitive maintenance labour. Informed by the theories of Hannah Arendt, this thesis differentiates between this kind of labour and work. Arendt showed work, labour and action as three interictally intertwined yet distinct notions that define ways of being in the world—ways of acting politically. The th- ree notions reinforce and complement each other; however, this thesis places particular emphasis on labour. Labour is often made invisible, feminised and undervalued, and this thesis investigates labour within the infrastructuring processes and suggests methods to illuminate and support it.The thesis draws upon three case studies located in Malmö and Lund, Sweden. All three projects were situated within public se- ctor work and within projects that emphasised citizen engagement and dialogue. The case studies have the commonality of infrastructuring: they are present both as a subject of study and as a method for both participants and researchers. Methodologically, the Ph.D. project has been conducted through practice-based, participatory, programmatic design research, which draws together the case studies into an enquiry. Finally, this thesis proposes three ‘programmatic answers’ that address the issue of agency within the infrastructuring processes.The first programmatic answer, feral infrastructures, re-formulates the initial worldview of the programme and articulates infra- structures as messy and unyielding to the organisers’ attempts to cate- gorise them. The boundaries of the infrastructures stretch way beyond the socio-material borders of a defined project or organisation. The thesis argues that this poses an imperative to the infrastructuring prac- titioner to become sensitised to her terrain and to develop a reflexive praxis to interact with it.The second programmatic answer, affective infrastructuring, recognises affect as a matter of concern within the infrastructuring labour. Emotional labour and affective economies are raised here as factors that can make or break collaborative doings. This is discussed in an argument for ethics-of-care.The third and final programmatic answer, collaborative anecdotalization, is a proposed method for interacting with the messy, af- fective terrain of infrastructures. Anecdotalization is presented here as a reciprocal practice beyond mere descriptions: holding within it the ability of defining social realities, re-telling and challenging them and furthering and re-aligning them. The notion of collaborative anecdo- talization suggests that no one actor can hold a complete overview of an infrastructure, and without collaborative descriptions, it is impos- sible to identify, understand and create those alignments that infra- structuring practitioners seek. This thesis uses anecdotes as situated, embodied accounts of empirical data. The stories re-told in this book have been selected to invite the reader into the practical work, which underpins the concepts presented above, and, in congruence with the project’s methodology, calls into consideration that any event or interaction can be viewed from multiple perspectives and tell multiple tales.
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23.
  • Sternbæk, Louise (författare)
  • Connecting sialic acid expression to cancer cell characteristics : Novel tools for detection, imaging, and analysis
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sialic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in many biological processes. Cell surface SA expression is usually analyzed with antibodies or lectins; however, they are costly and with poor stability. We have used a molecular imprinting technique to synthesize an alternative SA receptor – SA molecularly imprinted polymers(SA-MIPs) with an embedded fluorophore for fluorescent detection of theSA-MIPs. The binding behavior and specificity of SA-MIPs were verified by using lectins and SA conjugates on cancer cell lines, showing that SA-MIPs can be used as an effective tool for SA expression analysis of cancer cells. Digital holographic cytometry (DHC) is a non-phototoxic quantitative phase imaging technique that facilitates the monitoring of living cells over time. We have demonstrated the potential of DHC by mapping cellular parameters, such as cell number, area, thickness, and volume. In addition, cellular parameters possibly depending on sialylation, were evaluated using DHC. Furthermore, the uptake over time of SA-MIPs by macrophages was investigated for any inflammatory and/or cytotoxic responses when administered to phagocytosing cells. Our results indicate that SA-MIPs caused low induction and sparse secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and that reduced cell proliferation was not due to cytotoxicity, but to attenuated cell cycles. These results suggest that SA-MIPs will contribute to the further understanding of cancer cell behavior and can be an asset for in vivo studies.
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24.
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25.
  • Svensson, Christina (författare)
  • Undervisningsutvecklande professionsutbildning för blivande och verksamma matematiklärare : en studie med utgångspunkt i ett variationsteoretiskt perspektiv
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Den här avhandlingen studerar professionsutvecklande matematikundervisning i förskola och skola samt inom lärarutbildningen.Det är utifrån ett behov av att utveckla kunskap om hur blivande och verksamma lärare kan utveckla sin kompetens att undervisa i matematik i de tidiga åren, som den här avhandlingens problemområde avgränsats, med intentionen att bidra till god matematikundervisning i förskola och skola genom att utveckla kunskap om lärares professionsutbildning. I denna avhandling är det både lärarutbildare och verksamma lärare som kollaborativt utvecklar sin förståelse för matematikundervisning och lärande i sina respektive verksamheter, genom kollaborativa insatser. I avhandlingen ingår fyra studier, och det som är gemensamt för samtliga ingående fyra studier är ett fokus på professionsutveckling för blivande och verksamma lärare som ska undervisa matematik i de yngre åren. Avhandlingens syfte är att bidra med kunskap om hur kollaborativ undervisningsutvecklande professionsutbildning kan utveckla blivande och verksamma lärares syn på och förståelse för yngre elevers/barns lärande i matematik och undervisningens betydelse för att stödja deras lärande. Kappans övergripande frågeställning är: Vilka inslag i professionsutveckling för blivande och verksamma lärare i matematik bidrar till att de utvecklar en förändrad syn på och förståelse för elevers kunnande och lärande genom matematikundervisning? Avhandlingens kunskapsbidrag utgörs av insikter i hur undervisning, kollaborativt planerad och iscensatt av lärarutbildare, i sin tur påverkar blivande och verksamma lärares syn på matematikundervisningens utformning samt barn och elevers matematikkunnande. För att se om det finns likheter och skillnader mellan olika utbildningskontexter har fyra studier valts ut, varav två lärarutbildningskontexter (förskollärar- och grundskollärarutbildning) och två kontexter för verksamma lärare (förskola och grundskola). Det teoretiska ramverk som använts som ansats, variationsteorin, bidrar till att lyfta fram det som haft betydelse för lärares förmåga att upptäcka och synliggöra aspekter som är avgörande för att iscensätta undervisning i relation till elevernas matematikkunnande. De kritiska aspekter som urskilts genom ett variationsteoretiskt perspektiv i syntetiseringen av de ingående fyra studierna är: För det första betydelsen av ämnesteoretiska innehållskunskaper. För det andra betydelsen av förståelse i hur innehållskunskapen behandlas och förstås i undervisningssammanhang. Såväl lärare som lärarstudenter i förskolan visade i större utsträckning svårigheter att identifiera barns informella kunskapsutveckling, samt svårighet att identifiera lärandets innehåll. Avseende lärarstudenter och lärare i grundskolans årskurs 4–6 hade de mindre svårigheter att identifiera innehållet, däremot fanns samma svårigheter med att identifiera barns och elevers förståelse av innehållet för lärarstudenterna. Det blir särskilt betydelsefullt inom lärarutbildning för blivande förskollärare eftersom det matematiska innehållet inte är lika framträdande inom denna kontext, och inte heller förståelsen för barns och elevers kunskapsutveckling i ämnet. Barns förmågor behöver både identifieras och utvecklas tidigt när de formellt inte räknar eller opererar med tal såsom CK (content knowledge) oftast presenteras inom matematikundervisning. Det innebär att MKT (Mathematical knowledge for teaching) utifrån den här studiens resultat behöver beaktas i större utsträckning inom olika utbildningssammanhang och mer specifikt inom lärarutbildningen mot de yngre åldrarna.
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26.
  • Tegen, Agnes (författare)
  • Interactive Online Machine Learning
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • With the Internet of Things paradigm, the data generated by the rapidly increasing number of connected devices lead to new possibilities, such as using machine learning for activity recognition in smart environments. However, it also introduces several challenges. The sensors of different devices might be mobile and of different types, i.e. there is a need to handle streaming data from a dynamic and heterogeneous set of sensors. In machine learning, the performance is often linked to the availability and quality of annotated data. Annotating data is in general costly, but it can be even more challenging if there is not any, or a very small amount of, annotated data to train the model on at the start of learning. To handle these issues, we implement interactive and adaptive systems. By including human-in-the-loop, which we refer to as interactive machine learning, the input from users can be utilized to build the model. The type of input used in interactive machine learning is typically annotations of the data, i.e. correctly labelled data points. Generally, it is assumed that the user always provides correct labels in accordance with the chosen interactive learning strategy. In many real-world applications these assumptions are not realistic however, as users might provide incorrect labels or not provide labels at all in line with the chosen strategy.In this thesis we explore which interactive learning strategy types are possible in the given scenario and how they affect performance, as well as the effect of machine learning algorithms on the performance. We also study how a user who is not always reliable, i.e. who does not always provide a correct label when expected to, can affect performance. We propose a taxonomy of interactive online machine learning strategies and test how the different strategies affect performance through experiments on multiple datasets. Simulated experiments are compared to experiments with human participants, to verify the results. The findings show that the overall best performing interactive learning strategy is one where the user provides labels when current estimations are incorrect, but that the best performing machine learning algorithm depends on the problem scenario. The experiments also show that a decreased reliability of the user leads to decreased performance, especially when there is a limited amount of labelled data. The robustness of the machine learning algorithms differs, where e.g. Naïve Bayes classifier is better at handling a lower reliability of the user. We also present a systematic literature review on machine teaching, a subfield of interactive machine learning where the human is proactive in the interaction. The study shows that the area of machine teaching is rapidly evolving with an increased number of publications in recent years. However, as it is still maturing, there exists several open challenges that would benefit from further exploration, e.g. how human factors can affect performance.
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