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Träfflista för sökning "L773:0264 6021 ;srt2:(1980-1989)"

Sökning: L773:0264 6021 > (1980-1989)

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1.
  • Andersson, C, et al. (författare)
  • Activation and inhibition of microsomal glutathione transferase from mouse liver.
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 249:3, s. 819-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouse liver microsomal glutathione transferase was purified in an N-ethylmaleimide-activated as well as an unactivated form. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 17 kDa and a pI of 8.8. It showed cross-reactivity with antibodies raised against rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase, but not with any of the available antisera raised against cytosolic glutathione transferases. The fully N-ethylmaleimide-activated enzyme could be further activated 1.5-fold by inclusion of 1 microM-bromosulphophthalein in the assay system. The latter effect was reversible, which was not the case for the N-ethylmaleimide activation. At 20 microM-bromosulphophthalein the activated microsomal glutathione transferase was strongly inhibited, while the unactivated form was activated 2.5-fold. Inhibitors of the microsomal glutathione transferase from mouse liver showed either about the same I50 values for the activated and the unactivated form of the enzyme, or significantly lower I50 values for the activated form compared with the unactivated form. The low I50 values and the steep slope of the activity-versus-inhibitor-concentration curves for the latter group of inhibitors tested on the activated enzyme indicate a co-operative effect involving conversion of activated enzyme into the unactivated form, as well as conventional inhibition of the enzyme.
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2.
  • Danielson, U Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Kinetic independence of the subunits of cytosolic glutathione transferase from the rat
  • 1985
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 231:2, s. 263-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The steady-state kinetics of the dimeric glutathione transferases deviate from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, but have hyperbolic binding isotherms for substrates and products of the enzymic reaction. The possibility of subunit interactions during catalysis as an explanation for the rate behaviour was investigated by use of rat isoenzymes composed of subunits 1, 2, 3 and 4, which have distinct substrate specificities. The kinetic parameter kcat./Km was determined with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 4-hydroxyalk-2-enals, ethacrynic acid and trans-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one as electrophilic substrates for six isoenzymes: rat glutathione transferases 1-1, 1-2, 2-2, 3-3, 3-4 and 4-4. It was found that the kcat./Km values for the heterodimeric transferases 1-2 and 3-4 could be predicted from the kcat./Km values of the corresponding homodimers. Likewise, the initial velocities determined with transferases 3-3, 3-4 and 4-4 at different degrees of saturation with glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene demonstrated that the kinetic properties of the subunits are additive. These results show that the subunits of glutathione transferase are kinetically independent.
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3.
  • Danielson, U Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Paradoxical inhibition of rat glutathione transferase 4-4 by indomethacin explained by substrate-inhibitor-enzyme complexes in a random-order sequential mechanism
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 250:3, s. 705-711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Under standard assay conditions, with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as electrophilic substrate, rat glutathione transferase 4-4 is strongly inhibited (I50 = 1 microM) by indomethacin. No other glutathione transferase investigated is significantly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of indomethacin. Paradoxically, the strong inhibition of glutathione transferase 4-4 was dependent on high (millimolar) concentrations of CDNB; at low concentrations of this substrate or with other substrates the effect of indomethacin on the enzyme was similar to the moderate inhibition noted for other glutathione transferases. In general, the inhibition of glutathione transferases can be explained by a random-order sequential mechanism, in which indomethacin acts as a competitive inhibitor with respect to the electrophilic substrate. In the specific case of glutathione transferase 4-4 with CDNB as substrate, indomethacin binds to enzyme-CDNB and enzyme-CDNB-GSH complexes with an even greater affinity than to the corresponding complexes lacking CDNB. Under presumed physiological conditions with low concentrations of electrophilic substrates, indomethacin is not specific for glutathione transferase 4-4 and may inhibit all forms of glutathione transferase.
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4.
  • Danielson, U Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Structure-activity relationships of 4-hydroxyalkenals in the conjugation catalysed by mammalian glutathione transferases
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 247:3, s. 707-713
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The substrate specificities of 15 cytosolic glutathione transferases from rat, mouse and man have been explored by use of a homologous series of 4-hydroxyalkenals, extending from 4-hydroxypentenal to 4-hydroxypentadecenal. Rat glutathione transferase 8-8 is exceptionally active with the whole range of 4-hydroxyalkenals, from C5 to C15. Rat transferase 1-1, although more than 10-fold less efficient than transferase 8-8, is the second most active transferase with the longest chain length substrates. Other enzyme forms showing high activities with these substrates are rat transferase 4-4 and human transferase mu. The specificity constants, kcat./Km, for the various enzymes have been determined with the 4-hydroxyalkenals. From these constants the incremental Gibbs free energy of binding to the enzyme has been calculated for the homologous substrates. The enzymes responded differently to changes in the length of the hydrocarbon side chain and could be divided into three groups. All glutathione transferases displayed increased binding energy in response to increased hydrophobicity of the substrate. For some of the enzymes, steric limitations of the active site appear to counteract the increase in binding strength afforded by increased chain length of the substrate. Comparison of the activities with 4-hydroxyalkenals and other activated alkenes provides information about the active-site properties of certain glutathione transferases. The results show that the ensemble of glutathione transferases in a given species may serve an important physiological role in the conjugation of the whole range of 4-hydroxyalkenals. In view of its high catalytic efficiency with all the homologues, rat glutathione transferase 8-8 appears to have evolved specifically to serve in the detoxication of these reactive compounds of oxidative metabolism.
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5.
  • Gierow, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heterogeneity of smooth endoplasmic reticulum from rat liver studied by two-phase partitioning
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 262:1, s. 55-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smooth microsomal membranes, prepared from rat liver by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, were subfractionated by counter-current distribution in an aqueous two-phase system consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and Dextran T500. A comparison of the distribution curves of marker enzymes, together with theoretically calculated curves, indicated the presence of at least five membrane subfractions, differing in the ratios of the marker enzymes. Glucose-6-phosphatase and arylesterase distributed in one manner, and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADH-ferricyanide reductase in another. Evidence for further heterogeneities in the distribution of marker enzymes in smooth microsomes was obtained by analysing the membrane domain structure using a recently described method [Albertsson (1988) Q. Rev. Biophys. 21, 61-98]. Phenobarbital treatment did not influence the behaviour of the marker enzymes. 
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6.
  • Gierow, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Lateral heterogeneity of rat liver plasma membranes analysed by counter-current distribution
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 249, s. 369-375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The lateral heterogeneity of rat liver plasma membranes was examined by fragmentation and fractionation by counter-current distribution in an aqueous two-phase polymer system. The distribution pattern was analysed by plotting the relative specific activities of marker components against each other. By this analysis asialo-orosomucoid receptors were found in a domain separated from domains containing 5'-nucleotidase and leucine aminopeptidase by another domain devoid of these markers. 5'Nucleotidase and leucine aminopeptidase resided in adjacent but separate domains. The experimental data were compared with corresponding plots of markers in model membranes. The model membranes yielded plots of different shapes depending on marker distribution and fragment size. This method of analysis should be useful for examining the lateral heterogeneity also of other membranes. 
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7.
  • Hederstedt, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • New properties of Bacillus subtilis succinate dehydrogenase altered at the active site
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 260:2, s. 491-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mammalian and Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and E. coli fumarate reductase apparentlycontain an essential cysteine residue at the active site, as shown by substrate-protectable inactivation withthiol-specific reagents. Bacillus subtilis SDH was found to be resistant to this type of reagent and containsan alanine residue at the amino acid position equivalent to the only invariant cysteine in the flavoproteinsubunit of E. coli succinate oxidoreductases. Substitution of this alanine, at position 252 in the flavoprotein subunit of B. subtilis SDH, by cysteine resulted in an enzyme sensitive to thiol-specific reagents and protectable by substrate. Other biochemical properties of the redesigned SDH were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. It is concluded that the invariant cysteine in the flavoprotein of E. coli succinate oxidoreductases corresponds to the active site thiol. However, this cysteine is most likely not essential for succinate oxidation and seemingly lacks an assignable specific function. An invariant arginine in juxtaposition to Ala-252 in the flavoprotein of B. subtilis SDH, and to the invariant cysteine in the E. coli homologous enzymes, is probably essential for substrate binding.
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8.
  • Lidholt, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Biosynthesis of heparin : Modulation of polysaccharide chain length in a cell-free system
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 254:2, s. 571-578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The formation of heparin-precursor polysaccharide (N-acetylheparosan) was studied with a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. Incubation of this fraction with UDP-[3H]GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc yielded labelled macromolecules that could be depolymerized, apparently to single polysaccharide chains, by alkali treatment, and thus were assumed to be proteoglycans. Label from UDP-[3H]GlcA (approx. 3 microM) is transiently incorporated into microsomal polysaccharide even in the absence of added UDP-GlcNAc, probably owing to the presence of endogenous sugar nucleotide. When the concentration of exogenous UDP-GlcNAc was increased to 25 microM the rate of incorporation of 3H increased and proteoglycans carrying polysaccharide chains with an Mr of approx. 110,000 were produced. Increasing the UDP-GlcNAc concentration to 5 mM led to an approx. 4-fold decrease in the rate of 3H incorporation and a decrease in the Mr of the resulting polysaccharide chains to approx. 6000 (predominant component). When both UDP-GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc were present at high concentrations (5 mM) the rate of polymerization and the polysaccharide chain size were again increased. The results suggest that the inhibition of polymerization observed at grossly different concentrations of the two sugar nucleotides, UDP-GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc, may be due either to interference with the transport of one of these precursors across the Golgi membrane or to competitive inhibition of one of the glycosyltransferases. The maximal rate of chain elongation obtained, under the conditions employed, was about 40 disaccharide units/min. The final length of the polysaccharide chains was directly related to the rate of the polymerization reaction.
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9.
  • Salvesen, Guy, et al. (författare)
  • Human low-Mr kininogen contains three copies of a cystatin sequence that are divergent in structure and in inhibitory activity for cysteine proteinases.
  • 1986
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 234:2, s. 429-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We point out that human low-Mr kininogen contains three cystatin-like sequences, rather than two, as had previously been thought. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl-papain-Sepharose, and subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin and chymotrypsin. Fragments were isolated, and three corresponding to the individual cystatin-like domains were identified. By comparison with the known amino acid sequence of the protein they were numbered 1 to 3 from the N-terminus. Domain 1 was not found to have any inhibitory activity for cysteine proteinases, which is consistent with the absence of residues that are highly conserved in inhibitors of the cystatin superfamily, and have previously been suggested to be essential for activity. Domain 2 was a good inhibitor of chicken calpain, and also papain and cathepsin L. Domain 3 showed negligible inhibition of calpain, but inhibited papain and cathepsin L strongly. The probable arrangement of disulphide bonds in the heavy chain of low-Mr kininogen is deduced from the homology with the cystatins and other evidence contained in the present paper.
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10.
  • Söderström, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Leukotriene C synthase in mouse mastocytoma cells. An enzyme distinct from cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferases
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 250:3, s. 713-718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leukotriene C4 synthesis was studied in preparations from mouse mastocytoma cells. Enzymic conjugation of leukotriene A4 with glutathione was catalysed by both the cytosol and the microsomal fraction. The specific activity of the microsomal fraction (7.8 nmol/min per mg of protein) was 17 times that of the cytosol fraction. The cytosol fraction of the mastocytoma cells contained two glutathione transferases, which were purified to homogeneity and characterized. A microsomal glutathione transferase was purified from mouse liver; this enzyme was shown by immunoblot analysis to be present in the mastocytoma microsomal fraction at a concentration one-tenth or less of that in the liver microsomal fraction. Both the cytosolic and the microsomal glutathione transferases in the mastocytoma cells were identified with enzymes previously characterized, by determining specific activities with various substrates, sensitivities to inhibitors, reactions with antibodies, and physical properties. The purified microsomal glutathione transferase from liver was inactive with leukotriene A4 or its methyl ester as substrate. The cytosolic enzymes displayed activity with leukotriene A4, but their specific activities and intracellular concentrations were too low to account for the leukotriene C4 formation in the mastocytoma cells. The microsomal fraction of the cells contained an enzyme distinguishable by various criteria from the previously studied glutathione transferases. This membrane-bound enzyme, leukotriene C synthase (leukotriene A4:glutathione S-leukotrienyltransferase), appears to carry the main responsibility for the biosynthesis of leukotriene C4.
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