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  • Pennington, D. W., et al. (författare)
  • Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 30:5, s. 721-739
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA).
  • Dave, Göran, 1945, et al. (författare)
  • Toxicity of copper in sewage sludge
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL. - 0160-4120. ; 28:8, s. 761-769
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sewage sludge is a source of organic matter and nutrients, but a major obstacle for its recycling is that the municipal wastewater sludge has low but significant levels of contaminants. This investigation, on the acute toxicity of copper in sewage sludge, was conducted with three organisms, Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Raphanus sativus (seeds). The toxicity of the leakage water from sewage sludge spiked with CuSO4 was studied for 64 days. The toxicity increased during the first 8-16 days and then started to decrease. The first increase in toxicity was due to ammonia, but after 32 days, a dose-related effect of copper was found. After 64 days, L. minor had an EC50 of 3800 mg Cu/kg dw for 7 days growth inhibition, a LOEC of 3200 mg Cu/kg dw and a NOEC of 1600 mg Cu/kg dw. D. magna had an EC50 of 18 100 mg Cu/kg dw (24-h immobility) and a NOEC of 12 800 mg Cu/kg dw. Root elongation of R. sativus was reduced at 25 600 mg Cu/kg dw. Both for Daphnia and Lemna, the pH of the leakage water had an effect of the toxicity. This means that chemical speciation and bioavailability is very important for the hazard assessment of copper in sludge and soil.
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