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  • Alic, I., et al. (författare)
  • Patient-specific Alzheimer-like pathology in trisomy 21 cerebral organoids reveals BACE2 as a gene dose-sensitive AD suppressor in human brain
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10, s. 5766-5788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A population of more than six million people worldwide at high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are those with Down Syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy 21 (T21)), 70% of whom develop dementia during lifetime, caused by an extra copy of beta-amyloid-(A beta)-precursor-protein gene. We report AD-like pathology in cerebral organoids grown in vitro from non-invasively sampled strands of hair from 71% of DS donors. The pathology consisted of extracellular diffuse and fibrillar A beta deposits, hyperphosphorylated/pathologically conformed Tau, and premature neuronal loss. Presence/absence of AD-like pathology was donor-specific (reproducible between individual organoids/iPSC lines/experiments). Pathology could be triggered in pathology-negative T21 organoids by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated elimination of the third copy of chromosome 21 gene BACE2, but prevented by combined chemical beta and gamma-secretase inhibition. We found that T21 organoids secrete increased proportions of A beta-preventing (A beta 1-19) and A beta-degradation products (A beta 1-20 and A beta 1-34). We show these profiles mirror in cerebrospinal fluid of people with DS. We demonstrate that this protective mechanism is mediated by BACE2-trisomy and cross-inhibited by clinically trialled BACE1 inhibitors. Combined, our data prove the physiological role of BACE2 as a dose-sensitive AD-suppressor gene, potentially explaining the dementia delay in similar to 30% of people with DS. We also show that DS cerebral organoids could be explored as pre-morbid AD-risk population detector and a system for hypothesis-free drug screens as well as identification of natural suppressor genes for neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Amare, A. T., et al. (författare)
  • Association of polygenic score for major depression with response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 2457-2470
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lithium is a first-line medication for bipolar disorder (BD), but only one in three patients respond optimally to the drug. Since evidence shows a strong clinical and genetic overlap between depression and bipolar disorder, we investigated whether a polygenic susceptibility to major depression is associated with response to lithium treatment in patients with BD. Weighted polygenic scores (PGSs) were computed for major depression (MD) at different GWAS p value thresholds using genetic data obtained from 2586 bipolar patients who received lithium treatment and took part in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi(+)Gen) study. Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies in MD (135,458 cases and 344,901 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) were used for PGS weighting. Response to lithium treatment was defined by continuous scores and categorical outcome (responders versus non-responders) using measurements on the Alda scale. Associations between PGSs of MD and lithium treatment response were assessed using a linear and binary logistic regression modeling for the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The analysis was performed for the entire cohort, and for European and Asian sub-samples. The PGSs for MD were significantly associated with lithium treatment response in multi-ethnic, European or Asian populations, at various p value thresholds. Bipolar patients with a low polygenic load for MD were more likely to respond well to lithium, compared to those patients with high polygenic load [lowest vs highest PGS quartiles, multi-ethnic sample: OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01) and European sample: OR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.30-2.36)]. While our analysis in the Asian sample found equivalent effect size in the same direction: OR = 1.71 (95% CI: 0.61-4.90), this was not statistically significant. Using PGS decile comparison, we found a similar trend of association between a high genetic loading for MD and lower response to lithium. Our findings underscore the genetic contribution to lithium response in BD and support the emerging concept of a lithium-responsive biotype in BD.
  • , amudyata, et al. (författare)
  • SARS-CoV-2 promotes microglial synapse elimination in human brain organoids
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 27:10, s. 3939-3950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in both the acute and post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. In a newly established brain organoid model with innately developing microglia, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection initiate neuronal cell death and cause a loss of post-synaptic termini. Despite limited neurotropism and a decelerating viral replication, we observe a threefold increase in microglial engulfment of postsynaptic termini after SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We define the microglial responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection by single cell transcriptomic profiling and observe an upregulation of interferon-responsive genes as well as genes promoting migration and synapse engulfment. To a large extent, SARS-CoV-2 exposed microglia adopt a transcriptomic profile overlapping with neurodegenerative disorders that display an early synapse loss as well as an increased incident risk after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our results reveal that brain organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2 display disruption in circuit integrity via microglia-mediated synapse elimination and identifies a potential novel mechanism contributing to cognitive impairments in patients recovering from COVID-19.
  • Andersson, M, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter availability in adults with autism-a positron emission tomography study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:5, s. 1647-1658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impairments in social interaction and communication, in combination with restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests, define the neurodevelopmental diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The biological underpinnings of ASD are not well known, but the hypothesis of serotonin (5-HT) involvement in the neurodevelopment of ASD is one of the longest standing. Reuptake through the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is the main pathway decreasing extracellular 5-HT in the brain and a marker for the 5-HT system, but in vivo investigations of the 5-HTT and the 5-HT system in ASD are scarce and so far inconclusive. To quantify possible alterations in the 5-HT system in ASD, we used positron emission tomography and the radioligand [11C]MADAM to measure 5-HTT availability in the brain of 15 adults with ASD and 15 controls. Moreover, we examined correlations between regional 5-HTT availability and behavioral phenotype assessments regarding ASD core symptoms. In the ASD group, we found significantly lower 5-HTT availability in total gray matter, brainstem, and 9 of 18 examined subregions of gray matter. In addition, several correlations between regional 5-HTT availability and social cognitive test performance were found. The results confirm the hypothesis that 5-HTT availability is lower in the brain of adult individuals with ASD, and are consistent with the theory of 5-HT involvement in ASD neurodevelopment. The findings endorse the central role of 5-HT in the physiology of ASD, and confirm the need for a continued investigation of the 5-HT system in order to disentangle the biology of ASD.
  • Andlauer, TFM, et al. (författare)
  • Bipolar multiplex families have an increased burden of common risk variants for psychiatric disorders
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:4, s. 1286-1298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiplex families with a high prevalence of a psychiatric disorder are often examined to identify rare genetic variants with large effect sizes. In the present study, we analysed whether the risk for bipolar disorder (BD) in BD multiplex families is influenced by common genetic variants. Furthermore, we investigated whether this risk is conferred mainly by BD-specific risk variants or by variants also associated with the susceptibility to schizophrenia or major depression. In total, 395 individuals from 33 Andalusian BD multiplex families (166 BD, 78 major depressive disorder, 151 unaffected) as well as 438 subjects from an independent, BD case/control cohort (161 unrelated BD, 277 unrelated controls) were analysed. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for BD, schizophrenia (SCZ), and major depression were calculated and compared between the cohorts. Both the familial BD cases and unaffected family members had higher PRS for all three psychiatric disorders than the independent controls, with BD and SCZ being significant after correction for multiple testing, suggesting a high baseline risk for several psychiatric disorders in the families. Moreover, familial BD cases showed significantly higher BD PRS than unaffected family members and unrelated BD cases. A plausible hypothesis is that, in multiplex families with a general increase in risk for psychiatric disease, BD development is attributable to a high burden of common variants that confer a specific risk for BD. The present analyses demonstrated that common genetic risk variants for psychiatric disorders are likely to contribute to the high incidence of affective psychiatric disorders in the multiplex families. However, the PRS explained only part of the observed phenotypic variance, and rare variants might have also contributed to disease development.
  • Arber, C., et al. (författare)
  • Familial Alzheimer’s disease patient-derived neurons reveal distinct mutation-specific effects on amyloid beta
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 25:11, s. 2919-2931
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD) mutations alter amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by γ-secretase, increasing the proportion of longer amyloidogenic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Using five control induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines and seven iPSC lines generated from fAD patients, we investigated the effects of mutations on the Aβ secretome in human neurons generated in 2D and 3D. We also analysed matched CSF, post-mortem brain tissue, and iPSCs from the same participant with the APP V717I mutation. All fAD mutation lines demonstrated an increased Aβ42:40 ratio relative to controls, yet displayed varied signatures for Aβ43, Aβ38, and short Aβ fragments. We propose four qualitatively distinct mechanisms behind raised Aβ42:40. (1) APP V717I mutations alter γ-secretase cleavage site preference. Whereas, distinct presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations lead to either (2) reduced γ-secretase activity, (3) altered protein stability or (4) reduced PSEN1 maturation, all culminating in reduced γ-secretase carboxypeptidase-like activity. These data support Aβ mechanistic tenets in a human physiological model and substantiate iPSC-neurons for modelling fAD. © 2019, Springer Nature Limited.
  • Arroyo-Garcia, LE, et al. (författare)
  • Impaired spike-gamma coupling of area CA3 fast-spiking interneurons as the earliest functional impairment in the AppNL-G-F mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:10, s. 5557-5567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) correlates with degradation of cognition-relevant gamma oscillations. The gamma rhythm relies on proper neuronal spike-gamma coupling, specifically of fast-spiking interneurons (FSN). Here we tested the hypothesis that decrease in gamma power and FSN synchrony precede amyloid plaque deposition and cognitive impairment in AppNL-G-F knock-in mice (AppNL-G-F). The aim of the study was to evaluate the amyloidogenic pathology progression in the novel AppNL-G-F mouse model using in vitro electrophysiological network analysis. Using patch clamp of FSNs and pyramidal cells (PCs) with simultaneous gamma oscillation recordings, we compared the activity of the hippocampal network of wild-type mice (WT) and the AppNL-G-F mice at four disease stages (1, 2, 4, and 6 months of age). We found a severe degradation of gamma oscillation power that is independent of, and precedes Aβ plaque formation, and the cognitive impairment reported previously in this animal model. The degradation correlates with increased Aβ1-42 concentration in the brain. Analysis on the cellular level showed an impaired spike-gamma coupling of FSN from 2 months of age that correlates with the degradation of gamma oscillations. From 6 months of age PC firing becomes desynchronized also, correlating with reports in the literature of robust Aβ plaque pathology and cognitive impairment in the AppNL-G-F mice. This study provides evidence that impaired FSN spike-gamma coupling is one of the earliest functional impairment caused by the amyloidogenic pathology progression likely is the main cause for the degradation of gamma oscillations and consequent cognitive impairment. Our data suggests that therapeutic approaches should be aimed at restoring normal FSN spike-gamma coupling and not just removal of Aβ.
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