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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2020-2022)

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  • Alsved, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • SARS-CoV-2 in exhaled aerosol particles from covid-19 cases and its association to household transmission
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 75:1, s. 50-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Covid-19 transmission via exhaled aerosol particles has been considered an important route for the spread of infection, especially during super-spreading events involving loud talking or singing. However, no study has previously linked measurements of viral aerosol emissions to transmission rates.METHODS: During Feb-Mar 2021, covid-19 cases that were close to symptom onset were visited with a mobile laboratory for collection of exhaled aerosol particles during breathing, talking and singing, respectively, and of nasopharyngeal and saliva samples. Aerosol samples were collected using a BioSpot-VIVAS and a NIOSH bc-251 two-stage cyclone, and all samples were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. We compared transmission rates between households with aerosol-positive and aerosol-negative index cases.RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in at least one aerosol sample from 19 of 38 (50%) included cases. The odds ratio of finding positive aerosol samples decreased with each day from symptom onset (OR 0.55, 95CI 0.30-1.0, p=0.049). The highest number of positive aerosol samples were from singing, 16 (42%), followed by talking, 11 (30%), and the least from breathing, 3 (8%). Index cases were identified for 13 households with 31 exposed contacts. Higher transmission rates were observed in households with aerosol-positive index cases, 10/16 infected (63%), compared to households with aerosol-negative index cases, 4/15 infected (27%) (Chi-square test, p=0.045).CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 cases were more likely to exhale SARS-CoV-2-containing aerosol particles close to symptom onset and during singing or talking as compared to breathing. This study supports that individuals with SARS-CoV-2 in exhaled aerosols are more likely to transmit covid-19.
  • Alsved, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Sources of Airborne Norovirus in Hospital Outbreaks
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591 .- 1058-4838. ; 70:10, s. 2023-2028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the major cause of viral gastroenteritis. Disease transmission is difficult to prevent and outbreaks in healthcare facilities commonly occur. Contact with infected persons and contaminated environments are believed to be the main routes of transmission. However, noroviruses have recently been found in aerosols and airborne transmission has been suggested. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between symptoms of gastroenteritis and presence of airborne norovirus, and to investigate the size of norovirus carrying particles.METHODS: Air sampling was repeatedly performed close to 26 patients with norovirus infections. Samples were analysed for norovirus RNA by RT-qPCR. The times since the patients' last episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea were recorded. Size separating aerosol particle collection was also performed in ward corridors.RESULTS: Norovirus RNA was found in 21 (24%) of 86 air samples from 10 different patients. Only air samples during outbreaks, or before a succeeding outbreak, tested positive for norovirus RNA. Airborne norovirus RNA was also strongly associated with a shorter time period since the last vomiting episode (odds ratio 8.1, p=0.04 within 3 hours since the last vomiting episode). The concentration of airborne norovirus ranged from 5-215 copies/m3, and detectable amounts of norovirus RNA were found in particles <0.95 µm and >4.51 µm.CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that recent vomiting is the major source of airborne norovirus and imply a connection between airborne norovirus and outbreaks. The presence of norovirus RNA in submicrometre particles indicates that airborne transmission can be an important transmission route.
  • Avellan, Sanna, 1990, et al. (författare)
  • Adjunctive Corticosteroids for Lyme Neuroborreliosis Peripheral Facial Palsy-A Prospective Study With Historical Controls
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:7, s. 1211-1215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Lyme neuroborreliosis peripheral facial palsy (LNB PFP) and idiopathic PFP, Bell's palsy (BP), are the most common causes of facial palsy in borrelia-endemic areas and are clinically similar. Early treatment with corticosteroids has been shown to be effective in Bell's palsy, and antibiotics improve the outcome in LNB. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how the addition of corticosteroids to standard antibiotic treatment affects the outcome in LNB PFP. Methods. This prospective, open trial with historical controls was conducted at 2 large hospitals in western Sweden between 2011 and 2018. Adults who presented with LNB PFP were included in the study group and were treated with oral doxycycline 200 mg twice daily for 10 days and prednisolone 60 mg once daily for 5 days, then tapered over 5 days. The historical controls were adult patients with LNB PFP included in previous studies and treated with oral doxycycline. Both groups underwent a follow-up lumbar puncture and were followed until complete recovery or for 12 months. Results. Fifty-seven patients were included, 27 in the study group and 30 in the control group. Two patients (7%) in the study group and 6 patients (20%) in the control group suffered from sequelae at the end follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups, either in the proportion of patients with sequelae or in the decline in cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cell count. Conclusions. Adjunctive corticosteroids neither improve nor impair the outcome for patients with LNB PFP treated with doxycycline.
  • Babich, T, et al. (författare)
  • Ceftazidime, Carbapenems, or Piperacillin-tazobactam as Single Definitive Therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bloodstream Infection: A Multisite Retrospective Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 70:11, s. 2270-2280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe optimal antibiotic regimen for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia is controversial. Although β-lactam monotherapy is common, data to guide the choice between antibiotics are scarce. We aimed to compare ceftazidime, carbapenems, and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive monotherapy.MethodsA multinational retrospective study (9 countries, 25 centers) including 767 hospitalized patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia treated with β-lactam monotherapy during 2009–2015. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Univariate and multivariate, including propensity-adjusted, analyses were conducted introducing monotherapy type as an independent variable.ResultsThirty-day mortality was 37/213 (17.4%), 42/210 (20%), and 55/344 (16%) in the ceftazidime, carbapenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam groups, respectively. Type of monotherapy was not significantly associated with mortality in either univariate, multivariate, or propensity-adjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52–2.46, for ceftazidime; OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.67–2.51, for piperacillin-tazobactam, with carbapenems as reference in propensity adjusted multivariate analysis; 542 patients). No significant difference between antibiotics was demonstrated for clinical failure, microbiological failure, or adverse events. Isolation of P. aeruginosa with new resistance to antipseudomonal drugs was significantly more frequent with carbapenems (36/206 [17.5%]) versus ceftazidime (25/201 [12.4%]) and piperacillin-tazobactam (28/332 [8.4%] (P = .007).ConclusionsNo significant difference in mortality, clinical, and microbiological outcomes or adverse events was demonstrated between ceftazidime, carbapenems, and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive treatment of P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Higher rates of resistant P. aeruginosa after patients were treated with carbapenems, along with the general preference for carbapenem-sparing regimens, suggests using ceftazidime or piperacillin-tazobactam for treating susceptible infection.
  • Boutry, Céline, et al. (författare)
  • The Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine Confers Long-Term Protection Against Herpes Zoster : Interim Results of an Extension Study of the Pivotal Phase 3 Clinical Trials ZOE-50 and ZOE-70
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 74:8, s. 1459-1467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Efficacy against herpes zoster and immune responses to the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine plateaued at high levels between 5.1 and 7.1 years (mean) post-vaccination, suggesting that its clinical benefit in older adults is sustained for at least 7 years post-vaccination. Background This ongoing follow-up study evaluated the persistence of efficacy and immune responses for 6 additional years in adults vaccinated with the glycoprotein E (gE)-based adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) at age >= 50 years in 2 pivotal efficacy trials (ZOE-50 and ZOE-70). The present interim analysis was performed after >= 2 additional years of follow-up (between 5.1 and 7.1 years [mean] post-vaccination) and includes partial data for year (Y) 8 post-vaccination. Methods Annual assessments were performed for efficacy against herpes zoster (HZ) from Y6 post-vaccination and for anti-gE antibody concentrations and gE-specific CD4[2+] T-cell (expressing >= 2 of 4 assessed activation markers) frequencies from Y5 post-vaccination. Results Of 7413 participants enrolled for the long-term efficacy assessment, 7277 (mean age at vaccination, 67.2 years), 813, and 108 were included in the cohorts evaluating efficacy, humoral immune responses, and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. Efficacy of RZV against HZ through this interim analysis was 84.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.9-89.8) from the start of this follow-up study and 90.9% (95% CI, 88.2-93.2) from vaccination in ZOE-50/70. Annual vaccine efficacy estimates were >84% for each year since vaccination and remained stable through this interim analysis. Anti-gE antibody geometric mean concentrations and median frequencies of gE-specific CD4[2+] T cells reached a plateau at approximately 6-fold above pre-vaccination levels. Conclusions Efficacy against HZ and immune responses to RZV remained high, suggesting that the clinical benefit of RZV in older adults is sustained for at least 7 years post-vaccination.
  • Caby, F, et al. (författare)
  • CD4/CD8 Ratio and the Risk of Kaposi Sarcoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Context of Efficiently Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: A Collaborative Analysis of 20 European Cohort Studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 73:1, s. 50-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundA persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio has been reported to inversely correlate with the risk of non-AIDS defining cancer in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) efficiently treated by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We evaluated the impact of the CD4/CD8 ratio on the risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), still among the most frequent cancers in treated PLWH.MethodsPLWH from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) were included if they achieved virological control (viral load ≤ 500 copies/mL) within 9 months following cART and without previous KS/LNH diagnosis. Cox models were used to identify factors associated with KS or NHL risk, in all participants and those with CD4 ≥ 500/mm3 at virological control. We analyzed the CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4 count and CD8 count as time-dependent variables, using spline transformations.ResultsWe included 56 708 PLWH, enrolled between 2000 and 2014. At virological control, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count, CD8 count, and CD4/CD8 ratio were 414 (296–552)/mm3, 936 (670–1304)/mm3, and 0.43 (0.28–0.65), respectively. Overall, 221 KS and 187 NHL were diagnosed 9 (2–37) and 18 (7–42) months after virological control. Low CD4/CD8 ratios were associated with KS risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02 [95% confidence interval {CI } = 1.23–3.31]) when comparing CD4/CD8 = 0.3 to CD4/CD8 = 1) but not with NHL risk. High CD8 counts were associated with higher NHL risk (HR = 3.14 [95% CI = 1.58–6.22]) when comparing CD8 = 3000/mm3 to CD8 = 1000/mm3). Similar results with increased associations were found in PLWH with CD4 ≥ 500/mm3 at virological control (HR = 3.27 [95% CI = 1.60–6.56] for KS; HR = 5.28 [95% CI = 2.17–12.83] for NHL).ConclusionsLow CD4/CD8 ratios and high CD8 counts despite effective cART were associated with increased KS/NHL risks respectively, especially when CD4 ≥ 500/mm3.
  • Chemaly, RF, et al. (författare)
  • A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Presatovir for the Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Hematopoietic-Cell Transplant Recipients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 71:11, s. 2777-2786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundHematopoietic-cell transplant (HCT) recipients are at risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We evaluated the RSV fusion inhibitor presatovir in a randomized, double-blind, Phase II trial in HCT recipients with RSV upper respiratory tract infections.MethodsPatients were stratified by lymphopenia (&lt;200/µL) and ribavirin use; were randomized, stratified by lymphopenia (&lt;200/μL) and ribavirin use, to receive oral presatovir at 200 mg or a placebo on Days 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17, and were followed through Day 28. The coprimary efficacy endpoints were the time-weighted average change in the nasal RSV viral load between Days 1 and 9 and the proportion of patients developing lower respiratory tract complications (LRTCs) through Day 28.ResultsFrom 23 January 2015 to 16 June 2017, 189 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (96 to presatovir and 93 to the placebo). Presatovir treatment, compared with the placebo treatment, did not significantly affect (prespecified α = 0.01) a time-weighted average decline in the RSV viral load from Day 1 to 9 (treatment difference, −0.33 log10 copies/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] −.64 to −.02 log10 copies/mL; P = .040) or the progression to LRTC (11.2% vs 19.5%, respectively; odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, .22–1.18; P = .11). In a post hoc analysis among patients with lymphopenia, presatovir decreased LRTC development by Day 28 (2/15 [13.3%] vs 9/14 [64.3%], respectively; P = .008), compared with the placebo. Adverse events were similar for patients receiving presatovir and the placebo.ConclusionsPresatovir had a favorable safety profile in adult HCT recipients with RSV but did not achieve the coprimary endpoints. Exploratory analyses suggest an antiviral effect among patients with lymphopenia.Clinical Trials RegistrationNCT02254408; EUDRA-CT#2014-002474-36.
  • Chemaly, RF, et al. (författare)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Cell-Mediated Immunity and CMV Infection After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The REACT Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 71:9, s. 2365-2374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients. CMV cell-mediated immunity (CMV-CMI) as determined by a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) CMV assay may identify patients at risk for clinically significant CMV infection (CS-CMVi).MethodsThe CS-CMVi was defined as CMV viremia and/or disease necessitating antiviral therapy. CMV-CMI was characterized as high when the intermediate-early 1 (IE-1) antigen spot counts (SPCs) were &gt;100 (cutoff 1) or when the IE-1 and phosphoprotein 65 antigen SPCs were both &gt;100 SPCs per 250 000 cells (cutoff 2), and a low CMV-CMI when SPCs were below these thresholds. In this prospective multicenter study, we evaluated CMV-CMI every 2 weeks from the pretransplant period until 6 months posttransplantation in 241 allo-HCT recipients with positive CMV serostatus. The primary endpoint was CS-CMVi occurring within 2 weeks of the last measurement of CMV-CMI.ResultsCS-CMVi occurred in 70 allo-HCT recipients (29%). CMV-CMI was low in patients who experienced CS-CMVi (94%), whereas those who had a high CMV-CMI were less likely to have CS-CMVi (P &lt; .0001). Patients with CS-CMVi had higher all-cause mortality (P = .007), especially those with low CMV-CMI (P = .035). On multivariable analysis, CMV-CMI, sex, race, antithymocyte globulin, and steroid use were independent predictors of CS-CMVi, and the time from transplant to engraftment was the only predictor of mortality.ConclusionsMeasurement of CMV-CMI using a novel ELISPOT assay would be useful clinically to monitor allo-HCT recipients and distinguish between those at risk of developing CS-CMVi and requiring antiviral prophylaxis or therapy and those who are protected.
  • Cresswell, Fiona, V, et al. (författare)
  • High-Dose Oral and Intravenous Rifampicin for the Treatment of Tuberculous Meningitis in Predominantly Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Positive Ugandan Adults : A Phase II Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:5, s. 876-884
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High-dose rifampicin may improve outcomes of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Little safety or pharmacokinetic (PK) data exist on high-dose rifampicin in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection, and no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PK data exist from Africa. We hypothesized that high-dose rifampicin would increase serum and CSF concentrations without excess toxicity. Methods: In this phase II open-label trial, Ugandan adults with suspected TBM were randomized to standard-of-care control (PO-10, rifampicin 10 mg/kg/day), intravenous rifampicin (IV-20, 20 mg/kg/day), or high-dose oral rifampicin (PO-35, 35 mg/kg/day). We performed PK sampling on days 2 and 14. The primary outcomes were total exposure (AUC(0-24)), maximum concentration (C-max), CSF concentration, and grade 3-5 adverse events. Results: We enrolled 61 adults, 92% were living with HIV, median CD4 count was 50 cells/mu L (interquartile range [IQR] 46-56). On day 2, geometric mean plasma AUC(0-24hr) was 42.9.h mg/L with standard-of-care 10 mg/kg dosing, 249.h mg/L for IV-20 and 327.h mg/L for PO-35 (P<.001). In CSF, standard of care achieved undetectable rifampicin concentration in 56% of participants and geometric mean AUC(0-24hr) 0.27 mg/L, compared with 1.74 mg/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.5) for IV-20 and 2.17 mg/L (1.6-2.9) for PO-35 regimens (P<.001). Achieving CSF concentrations above rifampicin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) occurred in 11% (2/18) of standard-of-care, 93% (14/15) of IV-20, and 95% (18/19) of PO-35 participants. Higher serum and CSF levels were sustained at day 14. Adverse events did not differ by dose (P=.34). Conclusions: Current international guidelines result in sub-therapeutic CSF rifampicin concentration for 89% of Ugandan TBM patients. High-dose intravenous and oral rifampicin were safe and respectively resulted in exposures similar to 6- and similar to 8-fold higher than standard of care, and CSF levels above the MIC.
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