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Sökning: WFRF:(Turner Mark A) > (2020-2022)

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1.
  • Surendran, Praveen, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 52:12, s. 1314-1332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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2.
  • Falster, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • AusTraits, a curated plant trait database for the Australian flora
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Portfolio. - 2052-4463. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We introduce the AusTraits database - a compilation of values of plant traits for taxa in the Australian flora (hereafter AusTraits). AusTraits synthesises data on 448 traits across 28,640 taxa from field campaigns, published literature, taxonomic monographs, and individual taxon descriptions. Traits vary in scope from physiological measures of performance (e.g. photosynthetic gas exchange, water-use efficiency) to morphological attributes (e.g. leaf area, seed mass, plant height) which link to aspects of ecological variation. AusTraits contains curated and harmonised individual- and species-level measurements coupled to, where available, contextual information on site properties and experimental conditions. This article provides information on version 3.0.2 of AusTraits which contains data for 997,808 trait-by-taxon combinations. We envision AusTraits as an ongoing collaborative initiative for easily archiving and sharing trait data, which also provides a template for other national or regional initiatives globally to fill persistent gaps in trait knowledge.
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3.
  • Axfors, Cathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I-2=0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I-2=0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been investigated as a potential treatment for Covid-19 in several clinical trials. Here the authors report a meta-analysis of published and unpublished trials, and show that treatment with hydroxychloroquine for patients with Covid-19 was associated with increased mortality, and there was no benefit from chloroquine.
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4.
  • Genereux, Diane P., et al. (författare)
  • A comparative genomics multitool for scientific discovery and conservation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 587:7833, s. 240-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A whole-genome alignment of 240 phylogenetically diverse species of eutherian mammal-including 131 previously uncharacterized species-from the Zoonomia Project provides data that support biological discovery, medical research and conservation. The Zoonomia Project is investigating the genomics of shared and specialized traits in eutherian mammals. Here we provide genome assemblies for 131 species, of which all but 9 are previously uncharacterized, and describe a whole-genome alignment of 240 species of considerable phylogenetic diversity, comprising representatives from more than 80% of mammalian families. We find that regions of reduced genetic diversity are more abundant in species at a high risk of extinction, discern signals of evolutionary selection at high resolution and provide insights from individual reference genomes. By prioritizing phylogenetic diversity and making data available quickly and without restriction, the Zoonomia Project aims to support biological discovery, medical research and the conservation of biodiversity.
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5.
  • Sonderby, Ida E., et al. (författare)
  • Dose response of the 16p11.2 distal copy number variant on intracranial volume and basal ganglia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 25:3, s. 584-602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carriers of large recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) have a higher risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The 16p11.2 distal CNV predisposes carriers to e.g., autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We compared subcortical brain volumes of 12 16p11.2 distal deletion and 12 duplication carriers to 6882 non-carriers from the large-scale brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging collaboration, ENIGMA-CNV. After stringent CNV calling procedures, and standardized FreeSurfer image analysis, we found negative dose-response associations with copy number on intracranial volume and on regional caudate, pallidum and putamen volumes (β = −0.71 to −1.37; P < 0.0005). In an independent sample, consistent results were obtained, with significant effects in the pallidum (β = −0.95, P = 0.0042). The two data sets combined showed significant negative dose-response for the accumbens, caudate, pallidum, putamen and ICV (P = 0.0032, 8.9 × 10−6, 1.7 × 10−9, 3.5 × 10−12 and 1.0 × 10−4, respectively). Full scale IQ was lower in both deletion and duplication carriers compared to non-carriers. This is the first brain MRI study of the impact of the 16p11.2 distal CNV, and we demonstrate a specific effect on subcortical brain structures, suggesting a neuropathological pattern underlying the neurodevelopmental syndromes.
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6.
  • Janko, Matthew R., et al. (författare)
  • In situ bypass and extra-anatomic bypass procedures result in similar survival in patients with secondary aortoenteric fistulas
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vascular Surgery. - : Elsevier BV. - 0741-5214 .- 1097-6809. ; 73:1, s. 210-221.e1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The optimal revascularization modality in secondary aortoenteric fistula (SAEF) remains unclear in the literature. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the revascularization approach associated with the lowest morbidity and mortality using real-world data in patients with SAEF. Methods: A retrospective, multi-institutional study of SAEF from 2002 to 2014 was performed using a standardized database. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, and operative and postoperative variables were recorded. The primary outcome was long-term mortality. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: During the study period, 182 patients at 34 institutions from 11 countries presented with SAEF (median age, 72 years; 79% male). The initial aortic procedures that resulted in SAEF were 138 surgical grafts (76%) and 42 endografts (23%), with 2 unknown; 102 of the SAEFs (56%) underwent complete excision of infected aortic graft material, followed by in situ (in-line) bypass (ISB), including antibiotic-soaked prosthetic graft (53), autogenous femoral vein (neoaortoiliac surgery; 17), cryopreserved allograft (28), and untreated prosthetic grafts (4). There were 80 patients (44%) who underwent extra-anatomic bypass (EAB) with infected graft excision. Overall median Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was 319 days (interquartile range, 20-2410 days). Stratified by EAB vs ISB, there was no significant difference in Kaplan-Meier estimated survival (P = .82). In comparing EAB vs ISB, EAB patients were older (74 vs 70 years; P = .01), had less operative hemorrhage (1200 mL vs 2000 mL; P = .04), were more likely to initiate dialysis within 30 days postoperatively (15% vs 5%; P = .02), and were less likely to experience aorta-related hemorrhage within 30 days postoperatively (3% aortic stump dehiscence vs 11% anastomotic rupture; P = .03). There were otherwise no significant differences in presentation, comorbidities, and intraoperative or postoperative variables. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the duration of antibiotic use (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.98; P = .01) and rifampin use at time of discharge (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.86; P = .03) independently decreased mortality. Conclusions: These data suggest that ISB does not offer a survival advantage compared with EAB and does not decrease the risk of postoperative aorta-related hemorrhage. After repair, <50% of SAEF patients survive 10-months. Each week of antibiotic use decreases mortality by 8%. Further study with risk modeling is imperative for this population. (J Vasc Surg 2021;73:210-21.)
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7.
  • Smits, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Current knowledge, challenges and innovations in developmental pharmacology: A combined conect4children Expert Group and European Society for Developmental, Perinatal and Paediatric Pharmacology White Paper.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: British journal of clinical pharmacology. - 1365-2125.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Developmental pharmacology describes the impact of maturation on drug disposition (pharmacokinetics, PK) and drug effects (pharmacodynamics, PD) throughout the paediatric age range. This paper, written by a multidisciplinary group of experts, summarizes current knowledge, and provides suggestions to pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies and academicians on how to incorporate the latest knowledge regarding developmental pharmacology and innovative techniques into neonatal and paediatric drug development. Biological aspects of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion throughout development are summarized. Although this area made enormous progress during the last two decades, remaining knowledge gaps were identified. Minimal risk and burden designs allow for optimally informative but minimally invasive PK sampling, while concomitant profiling of drug metabolites may provide additional insight in the unique PK behaviour in children. Furthermore, developmental PD needs to be considered during drug development, which is illustrated by disease- and/or target organ-specific examples. Identifying and testing PD targets and effects in special populations, and application of age- and/or population-specific assessment tools are discussed. Drug development plans also need to incorporate innovative techniques such as preclinical models to study therapeutic strategies, and shift from sequential enrolment of subgroups, to more rational designs. To stimulate appropriate research plans, illustrations of specific PK/PD-related as well as drug safety-related challenges during drug development are provided. The suggestions made in this joint paper of the Innovative Medicines Initiative conect4children Expert group on Developmental Pharmacology and the European Society for Developmental, Perinatal and Paediatric Pharmacology, should facilitate all those involved in drug development.
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8.
  • Ward, Robert M., et al. (författare)
  • Development of the PREMature Infant Index (PREMII™), a clinician-reported outcome measure assessing functional status of extremely preterm infants
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1476-7058. ; 35:5, s. 941-950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Comprehensive measures to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions in extremely preterm infants are lacking. Although length of stay is used as an indicator of overall health among preterm infants in clinical studies, it is confounded by nonmedical factors (e.g. parental readiness and availability of home nursing support). Objectives: To develop the PREMature Infant Index (PREMII™), an electronic content-valid clinician-reported outcome measure for assessing functional status of extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks gestational age) serially over time in the neonatal intensive care unit. We report the development stages of the PREMII, including suggestions for scoring. Methods: We developed the PREMII according to US Food and Drug Administration regulatory standards. Development included five stages: (1) literature review, (2) clinical expert interviews, (3) Delphi panel survey, (4) development of items/levels, and (5) cognitive interviews/usability testing. Scoring approaches were explored via an online clinician survey. Results: Key factors reflective of functional status were identified by physicians and nurses during development of the PREMII, as were levels within each factor to assess functional status. The resulting PREMII evaluates eight infant health factors: respiratory support, oxygen administration, apnea, bradycardia, desaturation, thermoregulation, feeding, and weight gain, each scored with three to six gradations. Factor levels are standardized on a 0–100 scale; resultant scores are 0–100. No usability issues were identified. The online clinician survey identified optimal scoring methods to capture functional status at a given time point. Conclusions: Our findings support the content validity and usability of the PREMII as a multifunction outcome measure to assess functional status over time in extremely preterm infants. Psychometric validation is ongoing.
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9.
  • Caron, Bénédicte, et al. (författare)
  • IOIBD Recommendations for Clinical Trials in Ulcerative Proctitis : the PROCTRIAL Consensus
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clinical trials evaluating biologics and small molecules in patients with ulcerative colitis are predominantly excluding ulcerative proctitis. The objective of the PROCTRIAL (Definition and endpoints for ulcerative PROCtitis in clinical TRIALs) initiative was to develop consensus statements for definitions, inclusion criteria, and endpoints for the evaluation of ulcerative proctitis in adults.METHODS: Thirty-five international experts held a consensus meeting to define ulcerative proctitis, and the endpoints to use in clinical trials. Based on a systematic review of the literature, statements were generated, discussed, and approved by the working group participants using a modified Delphi method. Consensus was defined as at least 75% agreement among voters.RESULTS: The group agreed that the diagnosis of ulcerative proctitis should be made by ileocolonoscopy and confirmed by histopathology, with the exclusion of infections, drug-induced causes, radiation, trauma, and Crohn's disease. Ulcerative proctitis was defined as macroscopic extent of lesions limited to 15 cm distance from the anal verge in adults. Primary and secondary endpoints were identified to capture response of ulcerative proctitis to therapy. A combined clinical and endoscopic primary endpoint for the evaluation of ulcerative proctitis disease activity is proposed. Secondary endpoints which should be evaluated include endoscopic remission, histological remission, mucosal healing, histologic endoscopic mucosal improvement, disability, fecal incontinence, urgency, constipation, and health-related quality of life.CONCLUSION: In response to the need for guidance on the design of clinical trials in patients with ulcerative proctitis, the PROCTRIAL consensus provides recommendations on the definition and endpoints for ulcerative proctitis clinical trials.
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10.
  • El Bairi, Khalid, et al. (författare)
  • The tale of TILs in breast cancer: A report from The International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: npj Breast Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2374-4677. ; 7:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in modern oncology has significantly improved survival in several cancer settings. A subgroup of women with breast cancer (BC) has immunogenic infiltration of lymphocytes with expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). These patients may potentially benefit from ICI targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 signaling axis. The use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as predictive and prognostic biomarkers has been under intense examination. Emerging data suggest that TILs are associated with response to both cytotoxic treatments and immunotherapy, particularly for patients with triple-negative BC. In this review from The International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group, we discuss (a) the biological understanding of TILs, (b) their analytical and clinical validity and efforts toward the clinical utility in BC, and (c) the current status of PD-L1 and TIL testing across different continents, including experiences from low-to-middle-income countries, incorporating also the view of a patient advocate. This information will help set the stage for future approaches to optimize the understanding and clinical utilization of TIL analysis in patients with BC.
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